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Nuv ^ ^-^ 

:l J. \'^ 

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Price Five Shillings. 








W. S. W. VAUX, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., 
JOHN EVANS, F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., 




Factum abtit— monumenta m&nent.— Ov. F€ut. 




vol.. XI. If.S. VO, XLI. 

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I. On Coins disoovebbd dubino becent Excavations in- 

THE Island of Cypbus. By R. H. Lang, Esq. . 1 

n. On an Inedited Tetbadbacjhm of Obophebnes II., 
King op Cappadocia. By C. T. Newton, Esq., 
M.A 19 

ni. Eabthen Coin Moulds, pound at Duston, neab 
Nobthampton. By Samuel Sharp, Esq., F.S.A., 
F.G.S 28 

IV. Some Account of the Weight of English and 
NoBTHEBN Coins in tme Tenth and Eleventh 
Centubies, and an attempt at comparison between 
these Weights and the Weight System for Coins 
which apparently belong to the same Period. 
By Herr C. J. Shive. Translated from the Danish 
by John Evans, Esq., F.R.S 42 

Notice op becent Numismatic Publications . . 67 

N.B.— A few sets of the last Seventeen Volumes of the Old 
Series of the Numismatic Ohboniole (Vols. IV. to XX., with 
Index) can be supplied to members of the Society at the price 
of Four Guineas. Members desirous of obtaining them are 
requested to communicate with one of the Seeretaries. 

An Index to the first Ten Volumes of the New Series of the 
Chronicle is issued with the present Number. 

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W. S. W. VAUX, M.A., r.KS., 

JOKN^ EVANS, r.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., 




Factum abiit— monumeata manent,— Ov. Fast. 




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On Coins discovered during Becent Ezcayations in the 

Island of Cyprus. By B. H. Lang, Esq. ... 1 

On an Inedited Tetradrachm of Orophemes II., King of 

Cappadocia. By C. T. Newton, Esq., M.A. ... 19 

Earthen Coin .Moulds found at Duston, near Northampton. 

By Samuel Sharp, Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S 28 

Sur les Monnaies des Antioch6ens frappees hors d'Antioohe. 
Lettre si Mr. Barclay Head, Conservateur- Adjoint du Cabi- 
net des M^daiUesau British Museum. ByM.F.deSaulcy. 69 

Monnaies des Zamarides. Dynastes Juifs de Bathyra. By 

M. F. de Saulcy 157 

On some Coins with the Inscription ** TPIH." By Percy 

Gardner, Esq 162 

On some rare Greek Coins recently acquired by the British 

Museum. By Barclay V. Head, Esq 166 

Account of a Find of Roman Coins at Lutterworth ; with 
some Remarks on the present practice of the Treasury 
with regard to Treasure-trove. By the Bev. Assheton 
Pownall, M.A., F.S.A 169 

Unpublished Boman Imperial Coins. By T. Jones, Esq. . 182 

Treasure- trove in Cyprus, of Gold Staters. By B. H. Lang, 

Esq 229 

Catalogue Baisonn6 de Monnaies Judaiques recueiUies k Jeru- 
salem, en Novembre, 1869. By M. F. de Sauloy . . 235 

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Some Account of the Weight of English and Northern Coins 
in the Tenth and Eleventii Centuries, an4 an attempt at 
comparison between these Weights and the Weight Sys- 
tem for Coins which apparently belong to the same 
Period. By Herr C. J. Schive. Translated from the 
Danish by John Evans, Esq., F.E.S. . . : . 42 

The Silver Coinage of Henry IV., V., and VI. By J. Fred. 

Neck, Esq 93 

Did the Kings between Edward III. and Henry IV. coin 
Money at York on their own Account ? By W. Hylton 
Dyer'LongstaflFe, Esq., F.S.A 193 

On a Hoard of Coins found at Oxford, with some Remarks on 
the Coinage of the first three Edwards. By Arthur John 
Evans, Esq. 264 

Notice of some Unpublished Varieties of Scottish Coins. By 

R. W. Cochran Patrick, Esq., B.A., LL.B., F.S.A., Scot. 283 


Early Armenian Coins (continued from vol. viii., p. 304) By 

EdwardThomas, Esq., H.E.LC.S. .... 202 

Early Dirhem of the Ommeyade Dynasty. By E. T. Rogers, 

A Dinar of Bedr, son of Husnawiyeh. By E. T. Rogers, 

Esq . . 258 


Revue de la Numismatique Beige 153, 288 

Annuaire de la Soci^t6 Fran9aise de la Numismatique et 

d'Archeologie for 1868 . ^ . . . . 154 

Berliner Blatter fur Munz- Siegel-und-Wappenkunde . . 289 

Numismatische Zeitschrift for 1870. ..... 289 

The Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Delhi, illustrated by 

Coins, Inscriptions, &c. By Edward Thomas, F.R.S. . 67 

Die Munzsammlung des Stiffces St. Florian in Ober-Oester- 
reich, in einer Auswahl ihrer wichtigsten Stiicke be- 
schrieben und erk^rt von Friedrich Kenner, nebst einer 

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die Gesdiiclite der Sammlung' betrefifenden Einleitung 
yon Joseph Qaisberger 291 

Le Monete delle Antiche Ciitk di Sicilia descritte e illustrate 
da Antonio Salinas, Professore di Archeologia nell* Uni- 
Tersita di Falenno. 291 

Description G^n^rale des Monnaies Antiques de TEspagne. 

By Aloiss Heiss 292 


Coins found near Boss 155 

Liyerpool Numismatic Society , . .156 

Coins and Medals of Oliver Cromwell 156 

Find of Coins, in Bedfordshire 227 

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Last year, in excavating an ancient temple near Daly, in 
this island, my workmen uncovered two treasures of silver 
coins, concealed under the pavements of different chamhers. 
The first was contained in two little earthenware jars, 
closed with lead at the top, one of which was found in 
pieces, the other was broken by the pickaxe of the work- 
man, and its contents are in admirable preservation. The 
second treasure was found about ten days later. Its coins 
were firmly adhering to one another, and the appearance 
of the whole gave me the idea of their having been origi- 
nally confined in a bag, of which time had left us no 
traces. The condition of the coins seemed at first sight 
hopeless, and they appeared to the workmen who extracted 
them as simply pieces of lead. By dint of no small labour 
I have, however, succeeded in imparting to them a more 
attractive aspect. 

An examination of the contents of the two treasures 
will clearly show that they were deposited at different 
periods ; nor is it diflScult to identify which of the two is 
the earlier. In one of them — the larger — we have coins 

VOL. XI. N.S. B 

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of the most ancient style, having the punch-mark only for 
reverse; while in the other all, with the exception of two 
diminutive pieces, have as perfect reverses as obverses. 
In the former we have six different types of coins, whose 
Cypriote origin is attested by legends in Cypriote cha- 
racters ; and a seventh, which, although bearing no legend, 
would seem also to be Cypriote. It contains, besides, 
three diflferent types of coins with Phoenician legends; 
and seven specimens of the early Athenian tetradrachm. 
In all, I have been able to distinguish forty-eight varieties 
of coins, varying, with four exceptions, from size six to 
eight of Mionnet. A striking difiFerence is observable in 
the general appearance of the coins contained in the small 
jars; but an analysis will easily determine whether this is 
the result of their different preservation, or indicates a 
higher degree of purity in their alloy. With one exception, 
they are all of diminutive sizes; and it is also worthy of 
notice that none of the many varieties of Cypriote coins 
found in the earlier treasure exist in the later. Indeed, 
only one Cypriote type of coin is found in the later 
treasure ; while of the three Phoenician coins contained in 
the earlier, two are found in the later. Prom these facts 
the following conclusions may naturally be drawn : — 

1. That of the two treasures, the one which was origi- 
nally contained in the presumed bag is the earlier 

2. That that treasure represents a large Cypriote cur- 
rency, probably of seven, certainly of six, different king- 
doms, extending in an unbroken series from the time of 
the punch-mark for reverse till such a proficiency in the 
art had been attained as is demonstrated by a well- 
executed and ornamented reverse. 

3. That from some cause or other, when the later 

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treasure was deposited^ the Cypriote coinage of the earlier 
period was no longer in circulation^ while the Pbcenician 
coins of the first period continued to be current, and had 
new varieties added to them in the second. 

4. That from the repetition in the second treasure of 
the Phoenician coins contained in the first, there is pro- 
bably no gap, or period unrepresented, between them. 

To the coinage which has for the reverse a punch-mark, 
as in the earliest coins of Athens, Numismatists, I believe, 
generally give a date anterior to b.c. 600, and as Cyprus 
was at that period in no way behind her neighbours in 
knowledge of the arts, we may safely assume a similar 
date for the Cypriote coinage of that class. It will further 
be readily conceded, on examination of the eight varieties 
of the coin having for obverse a sphinx, that a period of at 
least sixty years is represented in the gradual rise from 
the punch-mark to an elaborate reverse, and in the issue 
of so many different varieties. We may then conclude 
that this first treasure gives us a Cypriote currency, begin- 
ning from the close, or possibly the middle, of the seventh 
century b.c, and extending down through at least sixty 

It was probably during some great political convulsion 
in the island that this deposit of coins was made in the 
ground — a convulsion which we must suppose to have led 
to the withdrawal from circulation in the island of the 
large Cypriote coinage which had previously been current. 
In the history of the island we find that the first convul- 
sion of the kind occurred about b.c. 560, when it was 
subjugated by Amasis, King of Egypt. Till then, 
although rendering a nominal submission to Assyria and 
Babylon, its internal seZf-government remained undis- 
turbed. Under Amasis, however, the change was much 

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more important. Herodotus says, "He was the first 
who conquered Cyprus, and subjected it to the payment 
of tribute,'^ clearly implying that his conquest resulted 
in a complete subjugation. It became, in effect, a pro- 
vince of Egypt, and probably had an Egyptian garrison 
and a united government, administrating its affairs in the 
interests of Amasis. We can, therefore, easily suppose 
that during such a possession of the island by Egypt its 
various little kings lost all or most of their indepen- 
dence ; or, at least, could no longer coin their distinc- 
tive monies. On this supposition we have an explanation 
of the remarkable coincidence, that in the second treasure 
we find none of the Cypriote coins contained in the first. 
One Cypriote type of coin alone exists in the second 
treasure, which is consistent with the assumption that 
during the possession of the island by Amasis, all its 
cities were subjected to one united government. The 
Athenian tetradrachm will serve to confirm or refute the 
date which I have thus ventured to give to the deposit of 
the earliest treasure. The weight of our most perfect 
specimen of that coin is 265 grains, exactly conformable 
to the new standard of the Athenian coinage instituted 
by Solon about b.c. 683. In the article entitled 
*' Nummus," in " Smith's Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities/' we read that ^^in the Solonian 
system the chief coin was the tetradrachm stamped with 
the head of Athena and the owl '' — a description which 
correctly represents the coin we find in our treasure. If 
then, in b.c 583, the art of coining had attained in Greece 
to a perfect reverse, we may confidently contend for a 
similar proficiency at that time in Cyprus. Further, a 
careful examination of the different coins in this earliest 
treasure will, I think, clearly lead to the conclusion that 

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it contains no coin far removed from the date, whatever 
it may be, of its Athenian tetradrachmas. 

The possession of the island by Amasis continued till 
about B.C. 528, when it was wrested from him by Cam- 
byses, and made tributary to Persia. Darius, the son of 
Hystaspes, ascended the Persian throne in b.c. 521, and a 
few years after his accession, developed his admirable 
system of provincial administration. Cyprus was in- 
cluded, along with Phoenicia, in the fifth division of the 
empire. Darius was an extensive coiner of money, and 
apparently also jealous of the coinage of his satraps, as 
Ariandes, Prefect of Egypt, was put to death about b.c. 
510, for having issued in his own name a silver currency 
for his province. Is it probable, therefore, that Darius 
would allow the issue of a currency in Cyprus bearing 
the names of its kings, and without any allusion to the 
supreme authority ? Later on, when the Persian hold of 
her provinces got weaker, such an assumption as that of 
coining was overlooked, and it was then, I conjecture, that 
the Phoenician coins in gold, known to Numismatists, 
were issued. 

The coins in our earliest treasure which bear Phoeni- 
cian legends already exist in European collections. They 
are those of AzbaaP and Baal-Melek; which are attri- 
buted by the Count de Vogu^ to Citium (see ^' Journal 
Asiatique," August, 1867). The fact of our treasure 
being found at Idalium, in Cyprus, certainly seems to 
favour this attribution ; but I cannot free myself of the 
impression that we have, in this class of coins, the cur- 
rency of Tyre — a currency which naturally, largely circu- 
lated in the Phoenician colonies of Cyprus, and generally 
throughout the island. The extensive number and variety 

^ Azbaal was King of Gebal (Gabala). 

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of the coins^ both in^ silver and gold, which have for 
reverse a Hon devouring a stag, seems to me to indicate a 
currency far greater than the little colony of Citium 
could pretend to. This is also the only class of ancient 
coins which can with any likelihood be attributed to 
Phoenicia ; so that, in giving it to Citium, we remain with- 
out any known currency for Tyre, then the chief emporium 
of commerce, and naturally needing most largely a circu- 
lating medium. In assigning to the coins of Azbaal and 
Baal-Melek so early a date as b.c. 560, I am opposed to 
the views of the Duke de Luynes ; but the learned Duke 
himself expressed some doubt upon the subject. In his 
Memoir on the Sarcophagus of Esraunazar he says, 
" Par mi les m^dailles des rois Pheniciens d^epoques incer- 
taines, celles qui portent pour legende Asbaal et Baal- 
Melek ont une 6vidente analogic avec inscription 
d*Esmunazar. En faudrait-il conclure qu^elles remontent 
k une date aussi reculee ? U ne semble pas possible de 
le croire, et les considerations qui se rattachent au style, 
^ la fabrication et aux poids de ces m^dailles, ne permettent 
pas d^admettre une semblable supposition." The testi- 
mony of the evident analogy between these coins and the 
inscription of Esmunazar is, however, much in favour of 
their early date, and in regard to their weight, it will be 
observed that it differs in no important degree from the 
very earliest coins which have no reverse. 

Supposing that this coinage with a lion devouring a 
stag for reverse belongs to Tyre, let us examine her history 
contemporaneously with that of Cyprus during the sixth 

B.C. 585. Tyre fell to Nebuchadnezzar during the reign 
of its king called by Josephus " Ithobaal." 

B.C. 583. Solon was instituting the new standard for 

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the coinage of Greece (art of coining attained to a perfect 
reverse ?). 

B.C. 569. Amasis ascended the throne of Egypt, and a 
few years after reduced Cyprus to subjection. 

B.C. 525. Cambyses took Egypt, having before wrested 
Cyprus from Amasis, say B.C. 528. 

In regard to the rulers of Tyre during these events we 
ascertain from Josephus that 

Ithobaal, King, 


till B.C. 675 

Baal, King, 


„ B.C. 665, and was succeeded 
by a long succes- 
sion of judges. 

Cenabalus, Judge, 


2 months 

Chilbes, Judge, 


10 „ 

Abhera, Judge, 


3 „ till B.o. 668 



till B.C. 557 

Balatorus, Judge, 


„ B.C. 556 

Merbalus, Judge, 


„ B.C. 552 

Hiram, Judge, 


„ B.C. 582 

The first of the two kings in the above list bears the 
same name as the father of Jezebel, wife of Ahab, King 
of Israel, and is called in Hebrew, Ethbaal. I am not 
aware that any Phoenician inscription exists by which we 
are miade positively acquainted with the manner in which 
the name of Ethbaal was written in Phoenician. May 
the '^ z " in the daughter's name not also have entered 
into that of her father, making it Ezbaal instead of 
Ethbaal? This may be a more ingenious than correct 
supposition ; but, if possible, it would give us the name of 
the first of the Phoenician kings whose coins we have in 
our earliest treasure ; and it will be noticed that he was 
nearly contemporaneous with Esmunazar, supposed by 
the Duke de Luynes to have reigned from B.C. 674 to 
572. In the reign of Ethbaal, we are told that the 

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inhabitants of Citium refused to pay their tribute to 
Tyre, whereupon he made an expedition against them, 
and reduced them to submission. 

Succeeding Ethbaal, in the above list, we have Baal, 
who reigned till b.c. 565 — four years after Amasis 
had ascended the throne of Egypt. He may not 
improbably be the king whose coins bear the legend 
Baal-Melek. It will be observed that of him we have a 
second type of coin in the first treasure, having for 
reverse a lion sitting on his haunches, with before him the 
head of a ram. The ram seems to be a type especially 
Cypriote, and I should be disposed to conjecture that this 
last coin was struck by the colony of Citium. At a later 
time we find the two cities, Citium and Idalium, under 
Phoenician rule, and as history does not inform us when 
the union took place, it may possibly have been anterior 
to the capture of the island by Amasis. If so, two co- 
incidences would be explained : — 

1. That a coin bearing the Sphinx for obverse (possibly 
a coin of Idalium) was restamped by Baal-Melek, as is 
found to be the case in coins No. 42 and No. 47. 

2. That this type of coin of Baal-Melek is not found 
in the later treasure, seeing that the Phoenician colony of 
Citium shared the fate of the other kingdoms in the 
island, and became subject to Amasis. 

The early date of this last type of coin, and of the reign 
of Baal-Melek, is attested by the treatment which the 
coins received at the hands of those among whom they 
circulated. A large proportion of them have been pur- 
posely clipped, and, in some cases, to such an extent as 
to reduce them to nearly half their original size. 

*' After Baal," says Josephus, "judges were appointed 
in Tyre ; " so that, after him, there was a long interval. 

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during which the rulers of Tyre neither possessed nor 
assumed the regal dignity. Singularly consistent with 
this, none oi the Phoenician coins in our later treasure, 
except those of Azbaal and Baal-Melek, have legends. 
After Baal-Melek a change seems to have come over the 
Phoenician coinage. The reverse of a lion devouring a 
stag remains the same, but there is no longer, as we have 
remarked, any legend ; and we have for obverse, instead 
of Hercules armed with a bow and club, only the head of 
Hercules covered with a lion's skin. The absence of a 
legend would be the natural result of the abolition of an 
independent government and of the regal dignity. 

Although conscious that in the views precedingly ex- 
pressed I am at variance with the opinions of some of the 
most learned French Numismatists who have made 
Cypriote antiquities their especial study, I have not hesi- 
tated to express freely my impressions, in the hope that 
they may lead to such a discussion as will assist to a 
satisfactory solution of the questions at issue. 

I shall not at present attempt to make any attribution 
of the various Cypriote coins contained in the earlier 
treasure, but confine myself to the remark that their 
number appears to be seven, which was also the number 
of the Cyprian raonarchs to whom Sargon gave audience 
at Babylon in the year B.C. 707, and also the number of 
the Cyprian kings who contributed to the embellishment 
of the palace of Ezarhaddon, at Nineveh, about B.C. 670. 
In the list of the latter we find them described as iEgisthus, 
King of Idalium ; Pythagoras, King of Citium ; Itho- 
dagon. King of Paphos ; Eurylus, King of Soli ; Da- 
mastes. King of Curium j the King of Salamis ; and the 
King of Tamissus. It may also be remarked that the 
Sphinx was a common emblem of Assyria, and its use on 

VOL. XI. N.s. c 

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a Cypriote coinage may reasonably point to the time 
when the island yielded submission to that power. 

From the weights of the coins now catalogued, it will 
be observed that the standard of the Phoenician and 
Cypriote coinage was probably the same, as the highest 
weight of a Cypriote coin is found to be 174 grains. That 
standard can evidently not have been the same as the 
Solonian standard of Athens, but it more nearly approxi- 
mates to the Euboic or old Attic. A specimen of the 
very early coinage of Boeotia {Obv,, Boeotian buckler; 
Rev.y punch-mark) in my collection weighs close upon 
89 grains, exactly the half of the highest weight of our 
Cypriote coins. It is also interesting to remark the rela- 
tive proportions of the different coins in the annexed 
catalogue. They will be found to be as follows : — 

The largest coin weighing 178 grains. 
l-8rd of the same ,, 58 ,, 

l-6th „ „ 28 „ 

l-12th „ „ 15 

l-24th „ „ 7 „ 

l-48th „ „ BJ „ 

This would indicate a duodecimal computation, which is 
confirmatory of a statement in Smithes Dictionary upon 
" Pondera,^' where it is said, '^ The division of the day 
into twelve hours, which Herodotus expressly ascribes to 
the Babylonians, is not only a striking example of this " 
(the duodecimal computation) ^^but a fact peculiarly 
important in connection with the idea that the measure- 
ment of time by water led to the Babylonian system of 
weights,^' which the writer before had said '^ passed from 
Assyria to Phoenicia.^^ We may now safely add that the 
same system passed from Phoenicia to Cyprus. 

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Idalium, Cypbus, 1869. 
Trbasuab o&ioinallt contained in a. Bag. 

! Xo. 























Obv, Sphinx seated to right ; at left side, O ; no legend. 
Rev. Punch-mark. 

Ohv. Sphinx seated to right, before breast, "H- behind 
wing, VI. between wing and head, -|- field 


ornamented with wreaths. 

Obv. Sphinx seated to right ; trace of legend, before &ce 

4^, on centre of wing, X) fi6l<i ornamented. 
Rev, Lotus flower. 

Obv, Sphinx seated to right; legend, "J^'f behind wing, 
between wing and head a dot, thus • field 

Rev. Lotus flower within border. 

Obv, Sphinx seated to right ; legend as No. 4 ; wing 

with plumage ; before face, trace of legend St= 
Rev. Lotus flower within border. 

Obv. Sphinx seated to left ; before face, s^ behind wing, 
Rev. Lotus flower ; to right, "osselet" ; to left, leaf. 




Due de Luj-nes, 
pi. 12, No. 3. 


Two types. , 






Due de Luynes, 
pi. 12, No. 4. 

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Obv. Sphinx seated to left ; no legend ; before breast, >^ 
Rtv. Same as No. 6. 

Obv, Head of lion, mouth wide open. 

Rev, Forepart of bull to right ; at left comer, 4? ^ 

Obv, Defaced, or without form. 

Rev, Forepart of bull to right ; before it 


Obv, Head of lion, mouth wide open. 

Rev. Croix ans^e ; circle with pearls ; to right and left, 

ornamentation resembling tree ; above, on right 

side, ^ below, same side -^ 

Obv, Bull bounding to right, with head turned backward 

(as on coins of Sybaris). 
Rev. Osselet, with, to right, ^a to left, indistinct, ^ 






53 . 

Small size of coin 
Duo deLuynes, 
pi. 6, No. 2, 
which coin has 
legend on obv.; 
below buUf^jS^I 

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Obv. Ram sitting to left; legend above ram, indistinct. 
Rev. Ram's head to right ; in right comer, ^ 

Obv. Defaced, or without form. 

Rev, Ram's head to left ; before it, leaf; below, letters, 

Ohv Ram sitting to left. 

Rev, Ram's head to left, with, in left comer, a device re- 
sembling head of horse harnessed. 
Ohv. Ram to left, within pearled border. 
Rev. Croix ans6e, without ornament. 

Obv. Defaced. 

Rev. Croix ans6e, with triple border ; in comer, trace of 

Obv. Ram sitting to left. 

Rev. Croix ans6e, with pearls, in centre of circle. 

Obv. Ram sitting to left ; traces of legend below ram. 
Rev. Croix ansee, with letter 5fc in pearled circle. 

Obv. Ram to left. 

Rev, Croix ans6e, with pearls, and comers of field orna- 

Obv, Ram sitting to left, with legend ; above, I AA M^ 

below, r "FT -R 

Rev, Croix ansee, comers of field ornamented ; no legend. 
Small size of above. 









Device in left 
comer exactly 
resembles ar- 
chaic repre- 
sentations of 
horses hamoss- 
ed, found in 
the island. 

Resembles Due 
de Luynes, pi. 
1, No. 6, which 
has legend on 

Due de Luynes. 
pi. 1, No. 2. 

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No. Size. 











Obv. Ram and legend as in No. 20. 
Eev. Croix ansee, with letter 3S and in centre of circle, 
^ comers of field ornamented. 

Obv. Ram sitting to right ; over back of ram, T^ above, 

legend, indistinct ; below, ^"^ "-] J"" 
Rev. Croix ansee ; in pearled circle, %. , comers of field 
ornamented ; right side of field J\ left side, -J^ 
Obv. Same as No. 23. 
Hev. Ditto, but letters in field reversed, thus : right, -j^ 

left, J\ 
Plated Coins. — 0^. Ram ; legend, 'JPy' above 
h^FR below. 
Rev. None. 

0^. Animal to left, looking round. 
Rev. None. 
Obv. Bull to left. 

Rev. Head of griffin to left ; in left comer of field an 

Obv. Bull to left. 

Rev. Head of griffin to left; field under head ornamented, 
as well as left comer. 

Obv. Bull to left, with, above bull, (^ 
Rev. Same as No. 28. 










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Obv. Bull to left, with» above "bull, two letters, ^ Q^ 
Rev. Same as No. 28, but comer ornament differs. 

Obv. Bull to left, with " mihir " above ; below, between 

feet, >^ X before bull, croix ans^e, J?. 
Rev. Dove or eagle flying to left. 

Obv. Male figure to left, right arm outstretched ; from 
chest to shoulders protrudes an instrument, thus 
JJ left arm akimbo ; from both arms fall drapery, 
in front of which, on left side, is legend =}= ^ ^ 

Rev. Male head to left, homed, bearded, and mustached, 
within a pearled square (Jupiter Ammon ?) 



Better type of 
pi. 3, No. 7. 


Obv. Female head, with circular ear-rings, to right. 

Rev. Fallas-head to right ; casque without crest. 

Obv. Same as No. 33. 

Rev. Pallas to left. 

Obv. Same as No. 33. 

Rev, Pallas to right, as in No. 33, but larger. 

Obv. Head diademed, very indistinct. 

Rev. Same as No. 35. 


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Obv, Indistinct (probably same as No. 33). 
£ev, Pallas head to right ; casque with crest ; in right 
comer of field, ^ 

Obv, Defaced. 

Sev. Pallas head as in No. 37, better formed, with comer 

Obt\ Hercules, right hand holding bow, left holding 

Hev. Lion, mouth open, sitting on haunches ; on field 

before it, small head of ram ; in right comer, 

legend, ^^5^ 

Same coin, different type. 1 very fine. 

Obv. Hercules, as above. 

^ev. Lion devouring a stag ; above legend "jLf^l^o^L^ 

Obv. Hercules, as above. 

iJw. Lion sitting, as in No. 39 ; before him, ^ in left 

comer, ilf^L^ 

Obv. Hercules, as above. 

Rev. Lion devouring stag ; above legend i, o^z O i/ 







Majority of coins 

This coin is a re- 
stamp of No. 3, 
in tiie same 
way as No. 47. 

JThree different 
types of same 

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Ohv. and Bev, Hercules as above, &o., small type of 
No. 41. 

Obv. and Sev, As in No 41 ; smallest type of No. 41. 
Obv, and JRev. As above ; small tjrpe of No. 43. 
Obv. and J?«;. " Surfirapp6 " ; No. 39 upon No. 3, on 
obverse can be seen "/^ 





Obv. Head of Athena. 

Rev. Owl, with, in front, AG E , tetradrachm ; in oomor, 

twig of olive branch. 

Treasure contained in Two Small Jabs. 

Obv. Hercules clothed with a lion's skin, holding club 
and bow ; underneath bow, croix ans^e "^ 

Hev. Lion devouring stag; above legend ^LrO^Lf 

Obv. and JRev. As above, without croix ans6e ; small size. 

Obv. and2?^r. As above, but legend LfO^zoL, Small 

Obv. and Rev. As above, but legend "jly^lfO^lf 

Obv. and Rev. As above ; no legend. 

Obv. As above. 

Rev. Supposed to represent lion devouring stag. 







Obv. Head of Hercules with lion's skin. 
Rev. Lion devouring stag ; no legend. 

Obv. and Rev. As above ; smaller. 

Obv. and Rev. As above ; smaller. 

VOL. XI. N.S. n 


Finely executed 

Different types. 

Five or six dif- 
ferent types. 

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Obv. Lion's head. 

Itev. Lion devouring stag ; no legend. 

Obv. Lion crouching ; star over hack. 

Itev, Forepart of Hon with fore-paws, in pearled square. 

Obv. and Sev. As ahove, No. 11. 

Obv. Bull walking to left ; ahove (Mihir ?) 

Itev. Eagle erect to left ; in right corner of field a leaf, 

in left a vase. 
Obv. and Sev, As ahove. 
Obv. and JRev. As ahove. 

Obv. Ham's head in high relief. 
JRev. None. 

Coin which I have not heen ahle to make out. 






Small size of 
Due de Luynes, 
pi. 2, No. 9. 

R. H. Lang. 

Labnaca, Cyprus, 
April, 1870. 

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By 0. T. Newton, M.A. 

I BEG to submit to the Numismatic Society the enclosed 
letter from Mr. Clarke, of Sokoi, in Asia Minor, giving an 
account of a remarkable discovery of silver coins, which 
took place in April, 1870, in the Temple of Athene 
Polias at Priene. This temple, after having been par- 
tially explored by the Dilettanti Society in the last 
century/ was completely excavated by Mr. Pullan last 
year under their auspices, when some very interesting 
sculptures and inscriptions, since presented to the 
British Museum, were found in the mass of ruins lying 
on the site. After the excavation had been completed, 
and a selection of marbles made for the British Museum, 
the ruins in situ were left in a state in which, if no 
further disturbance had taken place, they would have 

1 Antiquities of Ionia, London, 1821, Pt. 1, pp. 11-28. 

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been of great interest to all future travellers. The marble 
pavement of the temple, which was nearly perfect, was 
cleared of all the ruins, and upon it yet remained the 
lower courses of the pedestal of a colossal statue, doubt- 
less that of Athene herself, which is mentioned by 
Pausanias as a celebrated work of art.^ In front of this 
statue a semicircular groove in the pavement marked the 
position of the metallic gates which protected the figure 
from near approach. Prom Mr. darkens letter we learn 
that the pavement and the pedestal upon it have been 
torn up and ruthlessly destroyed, and that it was under 
the lowest course of the pedestal that the silver coins 
were found, one of which is engraved in the accompanying 
cut. Six of these coins in all were discovered, three of 
which were actually picked up by Mr. Clarke on the site 
as narrated in his letter ; a fourth was obtained by him 
subsequently from one of the men working on the spot ; 
a fifth fell into the hands of Mr. Forbes, of Sokoi, who 
has been so obliging as to send me an impression ; and a 
sixth was purchased by me at Priene, and has since been 
unfortunately lost. These six coins are all silver tetra- 
drachms, which may be thus described : — 

Obv, — ^Male head to right, beardless, and bound with a 

moving to left, clad in a talaric chiton^ and 
diploidion, holding in right hand a wreath, in 
left palm-branch ; in front of her an owl on an 
altar ; below, the monogram. 

There is no doubt that the Orophernes who struck 

2 Pausan. vii., 5. 'HaOdrj^ Si*at/ koi tw cv "Epv^pats 'Hpa/cActo) 
Kttt ^KOrjyaQ t<3 kv HpiTprrj raw, rovrto fiev tov dyoA/xaros eycKa, 
'HpaicAcup Se K.T.A. 

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these coins is Orophernes II., King of Cappadocia. 
Their discovery illustrates in a remarkable manner 
the scanty particulars which ancient historians have 
recorded respecting this prince. He was one of two 
supposititious sons imposed by Antiochis on her husband 
Ariarathes IV. in default of legitimate issue. She sub- 
sequently, however, gave birth to a real son, who reigned 
after his father's death as Ariarathes V. After the birth 
of this son, the young Orophernes was sent away to be 
bred up in Ionia, in order that he might not set up pre- 
tensions to the throne.® Ariarathes V. succeeded his father, 
B.C. 162, and having offended Demetrius Soter, by refusing 
to marry his sister, was driven from his kingdom by that 
prince, who placed Orophernes on the throne of Cappa- 
docia, B.C. 158. After his expulsion, Ariarathes took 
refuge with the Romans, and was restored by them to his 
kingdom with the assistance of Attains II. B.C. 157.* 

According to Appian,^ the Romans appointed Ariarathes 
and Orophernes as joint kings of Cappadocia. This joint 
sovereignty, however, did not last long, as Polybius, about 
B.C. 154, describes Ariarathes as sole king.^ 

On his accession, Orophernes had deposited 400 talents 
with the people of Priene as a resource in time of need, 
which sum was claimed from them by Ariarathes, after 
being reinstated in his kingdom. The Prienians having 
refused to give up this deposit, were in consequence 
involved in a war with Ariarathes and his ally. Attains, 

3 Diodor. xxxi. (Eclog. iii., p. 517), ed. Bipont. x. p. 24. 

* Diodor. xxxi. (Excetpt. de Virt., p. 588) ; ed. Bipont. 
X. p. 41; Athen. x., p. 440 ; Polyb. xxxii. 23; Zonaras, Annal. 
ix, 24, p. 460, d. 

^ Appian Syr. 47 ; Zonaras, loc. cit. 

6 Polyb. iii. 5 ; Livy, Epit. xlvii. ; Clinton, Fast. Hell, iii., 
p. 484. 

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from which they suffered greatly ; and they ultimately 
had to give back the treasure to Orophernes, without any 
compensation for the loss incurred in its custody J 

It was probably after his dethronement that Orophernes 
conspired with the people of Antioch against his bene- 
factor, Demetrius, and tried to expel him from his king- 
dom. His conspiracy having been detected, he was 
thrown into prison; but his life was spared, because it 
suited the policy of Demetrius to maintain his pretensions 
to the throne of Cappadocia as a standing menace against 

It is evident from the foregoing narrative, that the 
tetradrachras here published must have been struck 
by Orophernes on assuming the title of king, b.c. 158, 
and before any such association of Ariarathes in the 
sovereignty, as seems to have taken place after b.c 157. 
The first act of Ariarathes on being reinstated as sole 
sovereign would naturally have been the suppression of 
the coinage of Orophernes. Hence we may explain the 
fact that up to the present time no coins of this usurper 
have been known to numismatists. 

The discovery of these coins in the principal temple 
of Priene tallies in a most remarkable manner with the 
fact of the deposit of 400 talents in the same city. As 
the three coins picked up by Mr. Clarke were found 
actually under the foundation course of the pedestal, it is 
impossible to resist the conclusion that they, as well as 
the gold ornaments described by Mr. Clarke, were deposited 
under the foundations of the pedestal when the statue 
was set up. It seems probable, therefore, that the dedi- 
cator was no other than Orophernes himself. It appears 

7 Polyb. xxxiii. 12. ® Justin, xxxv. 1, 

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from the passage in Pausanias, already referred to, that 
there was in this temple a celebrated colossal statue of 
Athene Polias, and in the course of Mr. PuUan^s excava- 
tion two marble feet were found, belonging to a statue 
about 12 feet high, and part of a marble hand belong- 
ing to a still more colossal figure, the height of which 
has been estimated at 24 feet — dimensions which seem to 
suit the scale of the pedestal, though ou this question I 
would refrain from pronouncing a positive opinion till 
the results of Mr. PuUan^s researches have been pub- 
lished. As the citizens of Priene suffered such heavy loss 
in the cause of Orophernes, he may have dedicated the 
statue in gratitude for their fidelity in refusing to give 
up the deposit committed to their charge.^ Whether the 
coins and other objects found with them were deposited 
under the pedestal in commemoration of the dedicator 
or as part of a deposit of treasure is a question into 
which I will not enter at present. As unfortunately the 
pedestal had been nearly all removed before Mr. darkens 
arrival, it is impossible now to ascertain whether any 
other coins were found concealed between the upper 
courses. It would appear from Mr. darkens statement 
that those which he saw under the stones of the lowest 
course were lying in small hollows prepared for them in 
the bed of the stones. I would here remark that among 
the inscriptions from the temple at Priene recently pre- 

^ Meier (Pergamenisches Reich) (extract from the Allgemeine 
Encyklop. d. Wissensch. u. Kiinste, p. 69), remarks ** ob sie (the 
Prienians) dadurch zu eiiiem Ersatz, fiir den ihnen angethanen 
Schaden gekommen sind, wird uns ebenso wenig berichtet, als 
ob und welche Belohnung ihnen Orophernes fiir ihre seltene 
Ehrlichkeit ertheilt habe." It seems implied, by the language 
of Polybius, that the Prienians got no material compensation 
for their losses in defending the money entrusted to them. 

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sented to the British Museum by the Dilettanti Society 
is one in which the name of Ariarathes occurs, and which 
may be part of a letter from some king to the people of 
Priene; and on my recent visit to Priene (January, 1871) 
I succeeded, with the aid of Mr. A. S. Murray, in 
deciphering on a nearly illegible marble the words, 
OPO<>EPNHS EN TOI lEPOI THS A, and two lines below the 
inscription evidently had reference to the events narrated 
above. It should be noted that, both on the coins and 
in this inscription, the name is written Orophemes, not 
Olophernes, which latter is the reading preferred in the 
printed texts of the authors cited in this memoir. 

Mr. Clarke, with great liberality, has presented the two 
finest of his four coins to the British Museum and the 
Dilettanti Society respectively. 

The weight of the six tetradrachms is as follows : — 

1. Still in Mr. Clarke's possession .... 257*9 grs. 

2. Purchased by me at Priene, and since lost . 256 

3. Mr. Forbes's coin 255 

4. Presented to Dilettanti Society .... 254*7 

5. In British Museum 253 

6. Acquired by General Fox 249 

The diminished weight of No. 6 is due to its corroded 

All these coins are well preserved, and very fine 
examples of the art of the period. The Victory 
on the reverse has a manifest reference to the epithet, 
NIKH^OPOY, assumed by Orophernes in the legend. 
A pair of bronze wings, which have been gilt, and 
which probably belonged to a small statue of Victory, 
were found in the ruins of the temple. So far as I know, 
neither the type of Victory nor the epithet, NIKH^POY, 

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occur on the coins of any of the other kings of Cappadocia^ 
with whom the usual type on the reverse is Pallas Nike- 
phoros. The head of the king is finely modelled, and 
the portrait one full of character. In general treatment 
these regal coins remind us of the contemporary autono- 
mous tetradrachms of Ionia and jSlolis, and their weight 
is adjusted to the same later Attic standard, as the silver 
money of many cities and kings in Asia Minor of the 
same period. (See " Brandis, Das Munz, Mass-und 
Gewichtswesen in Vorderasien," p. 272.) On the other 
hand, they do not resemble the coins of other Cappadocian 
kings, which are usually drachms of a different fabric 
and of a coarser character of art. As Orophemes was 
bred up in Ionia, and adopted the Ionian manners and 
way of life, he probably imitated their style of coinage — 
possibly these tetradrachms were struck for him in the 
mint of Priene. In that case the owl on the altar on the 
reverse may be the mint-mark of Priene. It appears 
from Mr. darkens letter, that the objects found with the 
coins were two olive leaves in beaten gold, probably 
part of a wreath dedicated to Athene Polias as the 
goddess to whom the olive-tree is sacred.*^ Also a 
portion of a ring containing a garnet, some small frag- 
ments of gold, and a terra-cotta seal, the device on which 
seems to be a figure, possibly that of Herakles. 

" Marshairs Hotel, Cavendish Square, W. 
9th December, 1870. 

" My dear Sir, 

" I have received your note of 7th inst., and willingly 
supply you with the particulars of how I found the 

10 In the list of treasure stored up in the Parthenon (Bocckb, 
C. I., 153), we find detached leaves from gold wreaths — wiraXa — 
entered as a separate item. These were probably from wreaths 
that had been broken up. 

VOL. XI. N.S. E 

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Orophernes coins, olive leaves, ring, and terra-cotta seal. 
They are as under. 

" My wife, niece, and self paid a visit of inspection to 
Priene, just one year since we dined there with Messrs. 
Newton and PuUan. These gentlemen there kindly gave 
me all particulars about the temple, and showed me the 
pedestal where the statue of Minerva was supposed to 
have stood. This consisted of a large base, composed of 
many large stones of about six hundredweight each. It 
was then in proper order. On the occasion of my last 
visit (in April, 1870), I found all these stones disturbed 
from their places, excepting four in the centre of the 
pedestal. This destruction was apparent to me immedi- 
ately on my entry to the Cella ; and while standing in the 
midst of these tumed-up stones, lamenting the mischief 
done, by chance I found at my feet a coin covered with 
dirt. I washed it, and found it to be silver, and read the 
name Orophernes. 

"I then went in search of my wife and niece, who were in 
the treasury, to inform them of my good luck, and again 
returned to the base of Minerva^s pedestal, when the idea 
struck me that something more might be found under the 
four intact stones already referred to, so I employed two 
Greek masons who were working amongst the ruins, 
trimming stones for graveyards. With the aid of three 
crowbars, we moved the first stone, and found under it a 
silver coin similar to the one previously picked up ; under 
the second stone we found another coin similar to the 
previous two. I then called my wife and niece to assist 
me in my discovery. On their coming up, we removed 
the third stone, and found a part of a ring — say a garnet 
set in gold, and some crumbs of gold ; under the fourth 
stone we found a gold olive leaf, a terra-cotta seal, and 

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some crumbs of gold. We searched amongst the rubbish 
for more, but without success, so went to lunch in the 

" During lunch the two Greek masons, with two or three 
other Greeks from Kelebesh (who came to Priene, hearing I 
was there, to pay me a visit), as well as Yuruks from the 
hillside, who, seeing Pranks excited at having found 
something, came down to the spot to join in the kismet. 
All commenced scratching in the most perfect harmony, 
wondering at my good kismet at having found so much 
in so short a time, and their bad kismet at not being able 
to find anything. This was on a Saturday, so on Sunday 
the inhabitants of Kitibesh, having heard of the well-read 
Frank^s discovery, turned out, bound to Priene, in search 
of treasure, two Jews accompanying them with a fair 
supply of money to purchase any bargain that might turn 
up. A grand turning over of stones took place by this 
mob of men, women, and children, but nothing was found. 
However, on the Monday afterwards, the Greek masons 
found amongst the earth of Minerva's pedestal a gold 
olive-leaf, and two coins similar to those found by me. I 
purchased the broken coin (now in your possession), and 
the olive-leaf of the masons. The other coin was sold to 
Mr. John Forbes, making in all five coins. I presented 
one to the British Museum, one to the Dilettanti Society, 
gave one to my wife, and one to my niece. My wife has 
the olive-leaves and seal, and my niece the ring. 
" I remain, dear sir, 

" Yours very truly, 

'' A. O. Clarke. 
*' To General Fox." 

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On the 18th of March, 1869, a short paper by me was 
read before the Numismatic Society, and published in the 
Chronicle for that year ; in which paper were described 
sundry Roman coins (denarii and quinarii, first, second, 
and third brass, and foUes), ranging from Claudius Caesar 
to Honorius, found from time to time in ^^ baring " land 
for the digging of ironstone, upon the estate then of Lady 
Palmerston, now of the Earl Cowper, K.G., at Duston, 
near Northampton. In March of last year, I read before 
the Society of Antiquaries a more lengthy and detailed 
account of other Roman and post-Roman antiquities dis- 
covered at the same place ; which account, with an en- 
graved illustration, has been published in the Archceo^ 
logia, vol. xl.. 

The only coins worthy of notice which have since come 
into my hands are — 

Commodas. Ist. brass. B&v, Rome^seated on arms. 

Victorinus. 8rd. brass. E&v, " Salus Aug." 

Theodora, second wife of Constantius Ohloms. Small 8rd. 
brass. Bev. ^'Pietas Romana." A female figure, standing, 
holding a child. In the exergue " TRP." 

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The paucity in the yield of coins, however, has been 
more than compensated by the discovery of the objects of 
numismatic interest briefly to be described in this paper, 
and which I now have the pleasure of exhibiting to the 
Numismatic Society. 

The place whence these antiquities have been obtained, 
and in which antiquities continue to be discovered, is 
upon the site of a Roman cemetery. An area of more 
than sixteen acres has been excavated in the process of 
obtaining the iron ore ; and throughout at least nine 
acres of this space, the natural surface soil, by ancient 
artificial disturbance, has been more or less mixed up 
with the upper and soft bed of the ferruginous rock 
beneath. This mixed material varies in depth from four 
to six feet, and (as does the mere soil where no such 
disturbance has taken place) constitutes the *' bariug,^^ so 
called by the quarrymen, which has to be dug out and 
harrowed away before the ironstone fit for smelting pur- 
poses can be obtained. 

This " baring,^^ within the area of the ancient cemetery, 
abounds with Roman antiquities ; and evidence has been 
disclosed of many burials (perhaps to be numbered by 
hundreds) of bodies disposed of by both modes — by 
burning, and by burying entire. 

Among the more curious of the remains thus discovered, 
were a series of wells (already exceeding twenty in 
number) sunk through the ironstone rock down to the 
surface of the upper lias clay — ^to a depth, that is, of from 
thirty to thirty-five feet. These wells have a very small 
diameter, and having been roughly and thickly walled on 
the inside, were rendered too narrow to allow of a man^s 
descending to clear or to cleanse them. Thus, when a well 
became choked or foul, it was the practice to dig another 

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well near, and the former well was converted into a 
receptacle for all kinds of refuse — bones of the horse, ox, 
pig, and dog, fragments of earthen vessels, and other 
waste matters, having been found therein. 

In one of the wells, opened and cleared away by the 
quarrymen last November, were discovered, in one group, 
at about ten feefc from the bottom, these earthen coin 
moulds and the associated objects. 

The first intimation that I received of the circumstance 
was that '^ about a pint of coin moulds '' had been found ; 
and this turned out to be no great exaggeration. With a 
few exceptions, however, the moulds are in fragments; 
but I have been able to ascertain pretty accurately, I 
think, the emperors whose " image and superscription " 
they bear, the types of the reverses, and the size of the 
coins in the manufacture of which they had been used. 

The emperors are: — Diocletianus, Maximianus Hercules, 
Constantius Chlorus, and Galerius Maximianus. 

The reverses are of only two and very common types — 
"GENIO POPVLI ROMAN V^ the genius standing, 
with the modius on his head, a patera in his right hand, 
and a cornucopise on his left arm ; and '^ MONETA S 
AVGG ET CAESS NN,'' Moneta standing, holding scales 
in her right hand and a cornucopiae on her left arm.i 

The kind of coin of which these were moulds is the follis. 

The exergual letters indicate one mint only, that of 

I need not tell Numismatists that earthen moulds 
for the casting of Roman money have been well known 
for many years. Mr. Akerman, in Plate 14 of his 
" Descriptive Catalogue of Roman Coins,'' has figured ten 

1 See Plate I., figs. 2 and 8. 

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of such moulds^ and in his ^' Coins of the Romans relating 
to Britain/* he has devoted 34 pages (69 to 103) to their 

Gathering my information from Mr. Akerman's volumes, 
it appears that many finds of such moulds have occurred 
both in this country and in France. As early as 1697 
coin moulds were discovered at Lingwell Gate, near 
Wakefield, and again at the same place in the years 1706, 
1820, and 1830. Papers upon these finds, by the late Rev. 
J.B. Reade, P.R.S., are in the Numismatic Journal, vol. ii., 
and in the Numismatic Chronicle, vol. i. In the latter 
paper is an interesting account how that, by the micro- 
scopic detection of fossil infusoria of the genus Navicula, 
both in the material of the moulds and in the sand of the 
field in which they had been found, he had succeeded in 
demonstrating the fact that the moulds had been fabri- 
cated upon that very spot, and of the material there 

In GougVs " Camden's Britannia,'* it is stated that in 
the beginning of the last century coin moulds were found 
at Edington, in Somersetshire ; and again in the be- 
ginning of the present century, at the same place, to the 
number of '' several hundreds." 

In the Archteologia, vol. xxiv. p. 349, is an account 
of coin moulds, discovered between Leeds and Wakefield, 
at Thorpe-on-the-Hill. Moulds have also been found at 
Castor, in Northamptonshire, — ^the Durobrivce of Anto- 
ninus, — and are described and figured by Mr. Artis in his 
well-known work upon the Roman antiquities there dis- 
covered; and in small quantities at Ryton, Salop, de- 
scribed in the " Philosophical Transactions,'' vol. xliv. 
p. 557. 

All these moulds were for coins of the denarius size. 

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and respectively of Septiraius Severus, Julia Domna^ 
Caracalla^ Geta, Macrinus, Alexander Severus,Maxiniinus^ 
Maximus, Flantilla^ Julia Faula^ and Julia Mamsea. 

I have had in my possession for nearly thirty years a 
mould of the same size^ bearing a usual head and legend 
of Caracalla^ one of a group found near Lincoln. 

Lastly, Mr. Akerman states that there are in the 
British Museum several moulds bearing impressions from 
coins of very common types of the Constantine family, 
but of which the place of discovery is unknown. 

Of coin moulds discovered in great numbers in France, 
those turned up from time to time at Lyons appear to 
have been the most numerous, but represent coins only of 
Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, and Caracalla; while 
others found at Fourvieres, near Lyons, were of coins of 
Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, Geta, Julia 
Soemias, Julia Maesa, and Alexander Severus. 

The most interesting French find was that of 1830, at 
Damery, in the Department of the Mame, a town built 
on the ruins of Bibe, an ancient military station. Here 
were discovered several vases full of coins ; one contained 
at least 2,000 of base silver, more than 1,500 of which 
were of Fostumus, and the remainder of the series from 
Fhilip the Elder down to that emperor. Another vase 
contained a silver coin of "Antoninus'* (Caracalla?), five 
of the small brass of Treves with the types of " VRBS 
ROM A 'V and " CONSTANTINOFOLIS,*' 100 small 
brass of various mints of Constans and Constantius, and 
about 3,900 small brass '^of the fourth size,'' all in perfect 
preservation, and all also of Constans and Constantius, 
chiefly with the exergual letters of the Treves, but some 
with those of the Lyons mint. 

Associated with these coins were found ^^ iron instru- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


menta suitable for the making of money ;" but with them 
also were several groups '' of moulds of baked earth, still 
containing the pieces which had been cast in them/' 
Some of these bore the head of Caracalla, some that of 
the elder Philip ; but the majority that of Postumus. 

The perfect moulds represented only about one-tenth of 
the moulds found in dispersed fragments, and it has been 
suggested that in these had been cast the 2,000 base 
silver money of Postumus and the other emperors. 

M. Hiver, whose able dissertation upon the find at 
Damery is given at length by Mr. Akerman, concludes 
with all reason that here was a manufactory of money, in 
which, during the joint reign of Constans and Constantius, 
not only were the quantities of small brass coins of those 
emperors there found legitimately produced in the usual 
way, but that there also was cast, by imperial authority 
and for imperial use, the spurious money of former reigns 
discovered at the same spot. 

It has been suggested that the use of earthen coin 
moulds first originated with forgers, although ultimately 
they came to be used by the official money ers themselves 
for the reproduction in base metal of earlier money. 
Thus Mr. Beade, in his second paper, considered it as 
almost certain that the coin moulds found at Lingwell 
Gate were the work of forgers, whilst those found at Bib^ 
were used by the Triumviri Monetales, " for the purpose 
of filling the exhausted coffers of the State with the 
debased coinage of the earlier Caesars." 

The several papers cited by Mr. Akerman give minute 
descriptions of the supposed processes of manufacturing 
the moulds and of casting the coins. Between circular 
tablets of fine soft clay were placed coins, which, upon 
pressure being applied, produced upon the tablet above 

VOL. XI. N.S. F 

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aad below each coin an impressiou of its obverse and 
reverse respectively, the combined impressions equalling 
in depth the thickness of the coin itself. It is evident 
from the moulds themselves that the tablets, while under- 
going this process, were enclosed within a collar or tube. 
A notch was cut through the rim of each mould to the 
edge of the impression,^ and they were then hardened by 
fire. The tablets thus prepared were arranged in triple 
piles, with the notches exactly over each other, and 
turned towards the centre, thus forming a downward 
channel with lateral openings, through which the fused 
metal might flow into the moulds. They were then 
enclosed in an outer covering of clay, shaped at the top 
into a funnel-like mouth, communicating with the down- 
ward channel, and the whole was again baked. 

After the casting, the outer shell was broken up, and 
the coins extracted ; such of the moulds as were unbroken 
being available for further use. 

Mr. Akerman's engraving shows the moulds arranged 
in a triple pile. A double pile, found at Lingwell Gate, is 
also figured, as are a crucible found at the same place, 
and a piece of metal, which is a perfect casting of the 
funnel-like mouth and downward channel. 

It is worthy of note that with the moulds at Duston 
were found fragments of an earthen vessel, which, from 
the partial vitreous glazing of the outer surface by expo- 
sure to great heat, from the indications on the inner 
surface of its having contained fused metal, and from 
films of metal having been found with the pieces, I think 
we may fairly conclude was a crucible; a cone-shaped 
piece of metal, a casting apparently of the funnel mouth,8 
and a piece of baked clay, which from its shape and 

a See Plate I., fig. 1, a. ^ See Plate I., fig. 6. 

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colouring is probably a fragment of the mouth itself/ were 
also included in the find. 

The surface of the moulds, by contact with the fused 
metal, was blackened or stained of a dull lead colour. 
A mould which, having been impressed only on one 
face, was evidently at the top or bottom of a pile, 
exhibits no such discolouration. It bears a large-sized 
head of Constantius Chlorus, is beautifully sharp and 
perfect, and must have been impressed from an unworn 
coin.^ The newness of the coins from which the moulds 
have been formed is observable throughout. I find also 
that many moulds have been impressed from the same 
coin, or from coins struck from the same dies. 

It does not appear that the casting was always perfect. 
One mould exhibits partial discolouration, a glazed edging 
to the stained portion having been produced by the 
vapour of the heated metal. Two small pieces of metal, 
of irregular flattened form, of the thickness of a coin, and 
bearing part of the designs of obverse and reverse, are 
evidence of the partial cooling of the fused metal, so as to 
render it incapable of flowing freely into the moulds.® 

In the following lists I have given the results of a 
careful examination of the moulds and fragments. It is 
a curious fact that, although I have endeavoured to fit 
together fragments, even in the cases of top and bottom 
moulds and of types of which few fragments occur, and in 
which consequently corresponding fragments might easily 
befound,Ihave only succeeded in matching two small pieces, 
and these probably were parts of one fragment broken 
since discovery. It is evident that these fragments con- 
stitute a part only of the whole number of moulds ; and 

4 See Plate I., fig. 5. ^ See Plate I., fig. 1. 

« See Plate I., figs. 7 and 8. 

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it would appear as if they had been designedly divided, 
one portion having been hidden away in the well in which 
they were found (which well had already been converted 
into a rubbish hole), whilst the remainder were otherwise 

I think, therefore, that geuerally each fragment repre- 
sents a whole mouldy and I have attached the numbers to 
the various types of obverses and reverses, in accordance 
with that impression. It is not improbable, however, 
that these numbers are somewhat in excess, as it is likely 
that in some instances two or more fragments are 
portions of the same mould, although I have not succeeded 
in bringing them together. 

Obverses upon Whole Moulds and Fragments. 

Diocletianus : — 


Maximianus Hercules : — 



Oonstantius Chlorus : — 


Galerius Maximianus : — 




Total number of obverses 



Reverses upon Whole Moulds and Fragments, 

GENIO POPVLI KOMANI. The genius standing, with the 
modius on his head, a patera in his right hand, and a cor- 
. nucopise on his left arm.^ 

' See Plate I., fig. 3. 8 gee Plate I-, fig. 1. 

»- See Plate I., fig. 2. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1. No letters or otg'eot in the field, sc exergaal letters 7 

2. # in the field, exergae broken away 9 

8. „ PT in the exergue 14 

4. „ PT« , 5 

6. „ PTR , 2 

6. „ TR , 1 

7. „ 8T 16 

8. „ ST« „ 15 

9« »> ^T ff 1 

10. S F in the field, TR in the exergue 4 

11. „ ITR „ 2 

12. „ IITR „ 11 

13. ,, exergue broken away 6 

14. Fragments showing neither field nor exergue . . 79 

MONETA S AVGG ET OAESS NN. Moneta standing, 
holding scales in her right hand, and a cornucopiaB on her 

1. S F in the field, ITR in the exergue 8 

2. ,, the exergue broken away ... 8 
8. Fragments showing neither field nor exergue . . 4 

Total of the GENIO type ... 171 
Total of the MONETA type . . U 

The following is a descriptive list of the few more 
perfect moulds and fragments. It must be remembered^ 
although I have described the obverse and reverse pre- 
sented on each tablet^ that these are necessarily not those 
of one coin : the upper side of each tablet would corre- 
spond with the under side of the coin above it, and the 
under side of each tablet with the upper side of the coiu 
below it. 

Moulds and Fragments more perfect than the bulk of those found, 


. POPYLI ROMANI. The genius standing as before 
described ; # in the field, PTR in the exergue. 

10 See Plate I., fig. 4. 

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2. Obv. — Same as last ; apparently impressed from the same 
coin. Bev. — GENIO, &o., as last ; # in the field, 
STA in the exergue. 

Maximiantjs Hebgules. 

8. Obv.— IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Rather small 
•head. Eev.— GENIO, &c. ; S F in the field, IITR 
in exergue. 

4. Ohv. — Same legend; rather larger head. Rev. — GENIO, 
&c. ; # in the field, TB in the exergue. 

6. Ohv.—S&me as last. E^v.— MONETA S AVGG ET 
GAESS NN. Moneta standing as before described; 
S F in the field, ITB in the exergue. 

6. Ofcv.— MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Same head as last." 

Bev. — Same as No. 2. 

7. Obv. — ^The same. Bev. as No. 1, the exergue broken away. 


8. 06v.— CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES. Bather large head. 

No reverse. Bottom mould of pile. Quite perfect 
and unstained.^^ 

9. 06i;.— Same legend and head, /^v.— MONETA, as No. 6. 

10. 06v.— The same. Bev. — The same. 

[The last three obverses have apparently been impressed from 
the same coin.] 

11. 06v.— Same as the last. E^t;.— GENIO, &c., as No. 2. 

12. Obv. — Same legend ; rather smaller head. Bev. — GENIO, 

&c. ; S F in field, TB in exergue. 

18. Oftv.-^Same legend and head, i^ev".— GENIO, &c. ; # in 
the field, PTA in the exergue. 

Galebius Maximianus. 

14. Ofev.— MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C. Bather small head, 
j^i;.— GENIO, &c. ; # in the field, ST in exergue. 

n See Plate I., fig. 8. la See Plate I., fig. 1. 

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15. Obv. — Same legend and head. Bev. — MONETA, &c., as 

No. 5. 

16. Obv, and Rev, same as last. 

Bottom Mould, 

17. Rev, only. — GENIO, &c. ; nothing in the field, no exergaal 


Moulds and Fragments of Moulds having an Impression on One 
Side only, and therefore the Top or Bottom Moulds of the PiUs, 

Obvei'ses. — ^Diocletianus, 2 ; Maximianus Hercules, 12 ; Con- 
stantins Chlorus, 3 ; Galerius Maximianus, 1 ; Undeterminable, 
8 ; total, 21. 

Reverses,— GEmO, &c. only, 12. 

Total of obverses and reverses, 33. 

Upon the under or plain face of several of these moulds 
the impression of the grain or roughly-planed surface of 
wood is perceptible. 

It is a significant fact with regard to these coin moulds^ 
that they were intended for casting the money of 
emperors, and a kind of money — the folliSy for the 
production of which, as far as I can ascertain, moulds 
have not previously been found. 

The question arises as to who were the persons who 
made and used these moulds, and what was the character 
of the money which they produced ? I do not think that 
we can entertain the supposition that they were the work 
of official fabricators of spurious money, as is supposed to 
have been the case with regard to the moulds found at 
Damery, in France, already referred to. There the moulds 
were for casting denarii of reigns long passed, and in a 
very debased metal. The Duston moulds, on the contrary, 

13 See Plate I., fig. 2. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


were impressed from current coins probably of living 
emperors, and the coins were cast in a metal of the same 
intrinsic value as that of the money in circulation. 
Moreover, the coins from which the moulds were taken 
were new and sharp, and those reproduced would there- 
fore have all the appearance of newness, a peculiarity 
which makers of spurious money would surely endeavour 
to avoid. For the same reasons, I should be indisposed to 
consider that these moulds were used by private forgers, 
notwithstanding they were employed for manufacturing 
at Duston money of the distant foreign mint of Treves, 
and were apparently broken up and hidden away as 
described. I should rather conclude that at that place 
money was produced under the authority of the imperial 
government, by the use of the readiest means at hand, for 
the remedying of a deficiency in the circulation which 
might temporarily have occurred in that locality and at 
that time; and I think that all the circumstances dis- 
closed with regard to these moulds tend to such a 

Cast coins have occasionally been found in this country, 
commonly associated with coins struck from dies. They 
are often of various sizes, of a succession of reigns spread- 
ing over a wide space of time, and are generally considered 
to be ancient forgeries. In vol. x. N.S. p. 195 of the Numis- 
matic Chronicle is an interesting account by John Evans, 
Esq., F.R.S., &c., of a hoard of Roman coins found in 
the spring of 1870 on Pitstone Common, near Tring, 
curiously enough, within a few hundred yards of a spot 
bearing the significant name of Moneybury Hill. These 
coins were 116 in number, ranging from Claudius to 
Tetricus inclusive, and consisting of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
brass. Of these, 28 (all of the 2nd brass size) had been 

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casfc^ '•' all probably about the same time/' although the 
moulds ranged " from Vespasian to Otacilia Severa, or 
over a period of 180 years.'' Some of them had been 
moulded from well-preserved, and others from much-worn 
coins. Mr. Evans pronounces these coins to be ancient 
forgeries, and, I think, truly. The coins cast in the 
Duston moulds may possibly have been also ancient for- 
geries, but the characteristics of the Pitstone find of cast 
coins (the number of reigns and their range in time, the 
varying condition of the original models, and the associa- 
tion with a mixed group of genuine coins) are so different 
from those which pertain to the Duston moulds, that the 
line of reasoning which would apply to the former would 
not, I think, bear upon the latter. 

Lastly, as to the date of their manufacture. I have 
already suggested that the sharpness of the impressions 
indicated that the coins from which they were taken were 
of con4:emporaneous reigns. Of the four emperors whose 
money was thus fabricated, who were living at the same 
time, and associated together in the empire, Galerius 
Maxiraianus was the junior. He was made Csesar a.d. 
1-92, and Augustus a.d. 305 : Constantius died a.d. 306. 
Tliese dates mark the limits of the joint reign of the four 
emperors ; and it is likely, therefore, that the moulds 
were made between a.d. 292 and a.d. 306, probably 
towards the close of that period, or perhaps a little later. 

Samuel Sharp. 

VOL. XI. N.S. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 








Translated from the Danish, by John Evans, F.R.S. 

Preliminary and Negxssary Particulars of Weights. 
One ounce, Cologne-weight = 451-38 Troy grains i = 29-231 French 

grammes t= 512 Norse ses. 
One mark, Cologne-weight = 3611*04 Troy grains = 233-85489 « French 

grammes = 4096 Norse sbb. 

From these data the following results are obtained : — 








1 Troy grain 





1 None 868. 





1 lb. Troy weight 





















1 French gramme 






1 oz. Tower weight 


450 = 

480 = 




1 lb. Tower weight 


5400 - 

5760 = 






3600 = 

3840 = 




1 grain 







1 gramme 








1 penny Tower weight = 

22*6 = 

34-0 = 






1 Ruding, vol. I., p. 7. See also Luxdorph, vol. ix. of Procs. 
Copenhagen Soc, p. 618; or p. 6 of the separate copies. 

2 From information supplied by Professor Holmboe. 

» Hawkins, p. 69. He says that Alfred's later coins, weigh- 
ing 24 grains, are of good silver ; the earlier are, on the con- 
trary, of inferior metal, and lighter in weight. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I. — Weight of English Coins. 



Oro68 weight Average 





1 of each. 



Of «, Egbert (802—837) Rud- 

1 , 

ing gives 

b, JEthelwnlf (837—868) „ 











c, ^thelbort (860—866) „ 






rf, JEthelred I. (866—871) „ 






e, Alfred (8 71— 901), later and 

earlier types 






Ditto, later, and in good pre- 

servation, Hawkinss . . . . 





/, Edward the Elder (901— 

926) Ending 






ffy -fflthelstan (926—941) End- 








Ditto Hawkins 

A, Edmund (941—946) „ 





1, Eadred (946—956) Ending 
*, Eadwig(966-969) „ 











/, Eadgar (969—976) Ending 

gives 22, Hildebrand* 21 






«, -Ethelred II. (978—1016) 

Ending gives 16, Hilde- 

brand 329, Holmboe 33,<' 







«, Knnt the Great (1016— 
1035). In the Eoy. Danish, 

Norwegian University, 

Stockholm and Bergen 

Museum Cabinets, all of 


the oldest types and 







The same king, of the later 

standard, and of the types 

E. G. H. I. E. of Hildebrand, 

all in good preservation . . 
0, Harold Harefoot, Knut's 







son (1036—1040). In the 
Eoyal Swedish Coin Cabi- 




net .. .. ' 


1659-93 ! 




p, Hardeknut (1040—1042). 


At Stockholm, Copenhagen, 

and Christiania 


771-38 1 




q, Edward the Confessor 



2126-4 j 




Of the coins which may be 



considered to belong to the 
latter part of his reign 



363-64 1 




^ Hildebrand, Anglosachsiska Mynt i Svenska Kongl. Myntka- 
binettet. Stockholm, 1846. 

^ Holmboe, Mynter fra Middelalderen fundne ved Egersund. 
Christiania, 1836. 

^ Schive. Account of coins found in Haaland Parish in 1866. 
Proos. Scientific Society of Christiania for 1869. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2. — Weight of Danish Coins. 

The above-mentioned coins are all of silver, 14 to 15 
lods fine, until the time of Magnus the Good, whose coins 
are 13 to 15 lods, and Sven Estrithsson^s 12 to 14 lods fine. 
Hardeknut's, Magnus the Good's, and Sven Estrithsson's 
East Danish coins, on an average, approximate to the -^^j^ 
of the English Tower mark; the West Danish to the 
irhi of the half Troy mark. 


Gross weight 





in Troy 






of each. 



a, Sven Tjugeskegg (986— 

1014), two coins, the one 

at Stockholm the other at 


St. Peteraburg — both of 
type C. of Hildebrand, to- 


gether weighing 






The weight nearly corre- 

sponds with ^thelred's type 
D. of Hildebrand, but two 


pieces are not alone sufficient 

to give any safe result. 

b, Knut the Great (1014— 

1035). Of the earlier coins 
of this king there are in 

Denmark, Sweden, and 







These coins, like those of 

^thelred II., are struck of the 

weight of the Tower penny. 

The same king. Of his 

later standard 






These also seem struck in 

accordance with Knut's later 

English standard. 

c, Hardeknut (1035—1042). 

From Eastern Denmark . . 





17-645 i 

„ Western „ 






d, Magnus the Good (1042— 

1047). From Eastern Den- 







From Western Denmark 






e, Sven Estrithsson (1047— 

1076). From Eastern Den- 

mark « 






From Western Denmark . . 






This number is too small 

to give a probable result. 

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3. — Weight op Swedish Coins. 




Gross weight 
in Troy 

of each. 



a, Olaf Scotkonung (995— 
1021). In the Museums in 
Sweden and Denmark are 

to be found 

This king has not, like 

other contemporary northern 
kings, borrowed ^thelred's 
penny of -sis of the Tower 
pound; but his coins, on an 
average, nearly answer to 
the 96th part of the mark 
of Gotland, and are nearly 
twice as heavy as the later 
English coins of Knut, of 
Harold Harefoot, and Harde- 

b, Anund Jacob (1021—1050) 
Average about the same as 

the English coins of Harold 
Harefoot and Hardeknut. 
Until the middle of the 
twelfth century there is, after 
the death of Anund Jacob, no 
record of the weight of Swed- 
ish coins. 






4. — Weight of Norwegian Coins. 



Gross weight 
in Troy 

of each. 



«, Olaf Tryggvesson. At an 
earlier period (in 1770) a 
single coin of this king was 
known, the size and type of 
which corresponded with 
-SJthelred II., type 0. HUde- 
brand. It is now lost. 
*, Erik Jarl (1000— 1015) ., 
e, Haakon Eriksson Jarl 







The average weight of 
these coins corresponds mo^t 
closely with that of the con- 
temporary coins of Olaf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Weight op Norwegian Coins — continued. 


Qrofls weight Avera^ 




in Troy weight 
Grains. of each. 



rf,01af tiieHoly (1016 -1030). 

Of this king there are coins, 

in part doubtful 


87-94 21-987 



Besides these there is an 

undoubted coin on a square 

pieceof metal weighing 47,016 

grains Troy, probably struck 
as a piec« of two pennies. 

The foregoing coins, in classes 

3 and 4, are all 14 to 15 

lods fine. 

e, Of Magnus the Good (1036 

— 1047) there are no 

coins slxnck in Norway ; 


Harold Haarderaade, two 

pieces struck in Denmark, 


apparently of the West 


Danish standard and 14 lods 

fine, weigh on an average . . 




/, Of Harold Haaderaade as 

sole monarch (1047—1066) 

Coins of good ailver. These 

are 14 lods fine. 






Coins of base silver . . . . 


13-488 701-358 



These are from 10 to 6 lods 

fine, but mostly 8 lods. 

The Coinage-weight in England and the North. 
1. The English Coinage-weight. 

The profit to be gained by a royalty on coinage was 
sought to be retained for themselves by the princes of the 
Middle Ages. It arose^ in part, on account of uncoined 
silver being much cheaper than coined ; and in part 
because the coins, though at first this was not the case, 
were eventually of less weight than they should have 
been; so that a pound of pennies, which for a great 
length of time were in fact the only coins of the Middle 
Ages, soon became less than a pound in weight. Already, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


from the middle of the tenth century, this may be 
traced in many countries;^ but the result of this was that 
those, who had no business to do so, encroached on the 
princes' right, and sought to share it with them, which 
they in their turn tried to prevent by severe and in part 
barbarous laws.® In England, however, they kept much 
longer to the greater and lesser normal weights, which were 
much more faithfully adhered to than in other countries ;® 
but notwithstanding, the coins were, on the whole, a little 
less in weight than they should have been. This, how- 
ever, could hardly have been observed at first in daily 
business, or in small payments ; while, on the contrary, 
when the question concerned large sums, which were 
always weighed, it appears, judging from many Northern 
finds of coins, that the short weight was made good 
with uncoined silver, or with broken ornaments, rings, 
bars, &c. 

It is altogether improbable that any prince struck coins 

"* Baron von Koehne Uber die im Russischen Reiche gefan- 
denen Abendlandischen Miinzen des x., xi., and xii., Jahrhun- 
dert*s, p. 6. 

» Suhm, Danmarks Historie, III., pp. 847 — 848. -ffithelred 
n.'s Law for Englishmen and the Danes in England ; and 
iEthelstan's ordinance concerning coins. Hildebrand*s Ang. 
Sax. Coins, p. Ixxxviii. 

8 In England they went more honestly to work than else- 
where, and the coins kept their proper weight, except, perhaps, 
a period of about forty years under Knut the Great, Harold 
Harefoot, Hardeknut, and the greater part of the reign of 
Edward the Confessor. As an example, may be adduced the 
6,127 pennies found at Tealby, in Lincolnshire, in 1807, which 
were probably deposited in the ground after the middle of the 
twelfUti century, and weighed 19 lb. 6 oz. 6 dwts. Troy. This 
gives an average of 21*931 grs. Troy, = 1*420 French 
grammes, = 24*876 sbs. And as the normal penny was 22*5 
grs., = 1*457 grs. = 25*52 sbs; the difference, which may 
in part be due to the coins having lain so long in the earth, 
is only 0*569 grs. = 0*037 grammes, = 0*644 sbs. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


heavier on an average than the normal weighty for by that 
means a part of the profit would have been lost^ which the 
right of coinage gave to the prince, and which he sometimes 
handed over to others, in return for a fixed payment ; but 
the instruments which were used in coining were imper- 
fect, and there was also some difference in the striking of 
each separate piece, some being either heavier or lighter 
than the standard, as is the case with the smaller sorts of 
coins even to the present day, and this may occasion 
erroneous results from the weighing of ancient coins. 

This may also arise from the fact that, with the good 
uninjured pieces, there were others current which were 
clipped ; and this practice, according to Ruding,^® went to 
such lengths in the reign of the English king Eadwig 
(955 — 959), that the penny was scarcely equal to the half- 
penny in weight. The circumstance also that coins found 
in the earth have suffered by oxidization, may contribute 
to their weight being less than it should be. 

As the division into 240 pennies to the libra, or pound, 
was the same among the Anglo-Saxons in the tenth cen- 
tury as among the Franks under Charlemagne,^^ it appears 
not unlikely that at that earlier period this same pound 
was accepted for the purposes of coinage. In the mean- 
titne it is generally believed that from the earliest period 
the weight used by the Anglo-Saxons for their coinage 
was the so-called Tower pound, which is found to have 
contained 5,400 Troy grains ^^ (pq^al 349-70989 French 

10 Ruding, vol. I., p. 130. 

11 Nordstrom, Bidrag till Penning- vasendets Historia i Sverige 
intill K. Gustav. 1"*®* Tid. pag 244. Histoire de la Legislation 
des anciens Germains, par Garabed Davoud Oghlou. Berlin, 
1845, tome II., p. 288. 

12 Ruding, vol. I., p. 7. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


grammes = 6125-21600425 Norwegian aes) ; but the later 
coins of King Alfred, as well as those of his successors, 
Edward the Elder, ^thelstan, and Edmund, contain more 
than the ^^ of the Tower pound, which is the normal 
weight for the Tower penny = 22'5* Troy grains (= 1,457 
grammes = 25-52173335 ses). The coins of the English 
kings after Edmund weigh somewhat less than this penny. 
That use was made in England of a great pound as well as 
of the Tower pound is shown by a charter granted by 
^thelred II. to the monastery at Ely, in which it is 
related that the abbot bought certain property of the king 
for nine pounds of gold after the Norman great weight 
(presumably the common Frankish weight), and also be- 
cause, as already observed, it is improbable that the before- 
mentioned kings, from Alfred to Edmund (871 — 946),* 
should have struck pennies above the normal weight ; so 
that it would appear, as far as these kings are concerned, 
that there was another and greater penny than that of the 
Tower. The diminution below this, which seems to have 
taken place under Eadred, Eadwig, andEadgar (946 — 975), 
may be well ascribed to deficiency of money, to a desire 
for greater profit from the coinage, or most probably to 
the before-mentioned causes. It may, however, be 
accepted that the English standard, or normal weight, is, 
after the middle or towards the end of the tenth century, 
based on the Tower pound ; for this may, it appears, be 
deduced from jEthelred's laws on the relation between the 
Danish Ore and that pound. But inasmuch as certain of 
that king^s coins are heavier than the -^hr of the Tower 
pound, it is in the highest degree probable that the coinage 
of the great sums which, under him, were paid to the Danes, 
may have taken place in such great haste, that they 
were never so accurate as to the weight or number of the 

VOL. XI. N.S. H 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


single pennies as to the weight in pounds of the whole 
great sum^ which each time had to be prepared. It is also 
reasonable to suppose that the covetous Vikings chose the 
heaviest coins ; where^ as with small amounts^ it was a 
question^ not of weight, but of tale. All this is corro- 
borated by the fact that a certain kind of iEthelred^s coins 
(type D. of Hildebrand), which could not have been struck 
earlier than some years after a.d. 1000, are the heaviest; 
and it was doubtless principally of this sort that the 
48,000 lbs. 13 of gold, or 384,000 lbs. of silver, consisted, 
which had to be paid to Thorkell the Tall in 1010. 
The coins of type D. weigh, on an average, 25*30 Troy 
grains= 1-64 grammes =28*7 ses ; or 1*3 grain more than 
the 240th part of the French lb. (see below) ; while the 
coins which are of type E., and were probably struck 
between 1010 and 1014, only contain 21*158 grains = 1-37 
grammes = 24*0 sds, or 1-34 grain under the Tower penny. 
In the later coinage under ^Ethelred, or from 1014 to 1016, 
the weight of the coin was still less, as was clearly shown 
by a northern find in 1866. 

According to Ruding, the pennies of Edward the Elder, 
and, according to Hawkins, the later pennies of Alfred, 
Eadmund, and ^thelstan contain more than 22*5 grains, 
and even as much as 23*8 grains on an average. If these 
pennies were struck in relation to a normal weight, they 
would be about the 240th part of the present Troy 
pound = 5760 grains, which was received from Prance,^* 

" P- A. Munch. Det Norske Folks Historie, 1-2, p. 471. 

1* Von Koehne (p. 7) days that the French Carlovingian and 
the English pound were originally alike ; bat they, like other 
weights, have been reduced in the coarse of time, and become 
rather lighter than formerly ; and this leads to the conclusion 
that the older weights may likewise be the heaviest. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


and is still used in the English coinage. The same may 
have been the case under these kings^ and Alfred may have 
been the first who adopted it as the normal weight for his 
later coinage. One two hundred and fortieth part of the 
French or Troy pound, or 1 dwt., contains 24 grains = 
1,554 French grammes = 27-22318224 ses ; and the later 
coins of Alfred — those of Edward the Elder and Edmund 
— are, on an average, 23*942 grains = 1*550 grammes = 
27'158 aes. The somewhat less average weight of the 
coins of the kings after Eadmund^s time was, if indeed 
these kings retained the French pound, probably not at first 
of great importance, so that the dificrence was not imme- 
diately observed, but might eventually lead to the establish- 
ment of a proportion ^^5 to the previously used normal 
weight ; so that the lighter Tower pound, which perhaps 
was older and earlier used in England than the French 
pound, was again adopted as the coining weight even before 
the time of iEthelred II. ^^ 

In Anglo-Saxon documents it is stated that the Danish 
mark was, in the tenth century, the same as 100 English 
pennies.^^ If each of these equalled the 240th of the 
French pound, the mark would be = 2400 grains = 155*426 
grammes = 2722*3 aes. And as this contained 8 ore, 1 ore 
would equal 300 grains = 19*428 grammes = 340*3 ses. 
But in ^ithelred^s " Instituta Lundoniae/'^® it is said that 

IS Nordstrom, p. 212. 

^® It is not impossible that the reduction to the Tower pound 
first took place when the great contributions to the Norsemen 
began in the year 991. 

17 Ending, vol. L, p. 112. 

1^ Davoud Oghlou, ii., p. 291. This document is the safest 
guide to probable results. Nordstrom says, p. 248, by an error 
as it seems, that 1 ore = 15 pennies, but it cannot, after the 
Tower pound, which contained 15 ore and 240 pennies^ have 

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a pound (libra) was 15 ore; and as in that king^s time we 
may reckon by the Tower pound of 5400 grains, so an ore 
of a 15th part of this, or 16 English pennies, is equal to 
360 grains =23-314 grammes = 408*3477336 aes; and 
8 ore = 1 Danish mark = 2880 grains = 186*512 grammes 
= 3266*7818688 aes, which does not answer to the first 
result for the mark. The discrepancy between 100 pennies 
in the mark = 2400 grains Troy, and its second value of 
2880 grains, after the *' Instituta Lundoniae" and the 
Tower pound, corresponds, in the meantime, with the old 
Northern mode of reckoning, according to which the 
hundred was often represented by the great or long 
hundred of 120 pennies; for 120 x 24^» = 2880 grains = 
186-512 grammes =3266*7818688 ses, and i of which, 
or 1 ore = 360 grains = 23*314 grammes = 408*3477336 
aes as before. In like manner, 2880 grains X 2 = 5760 
grains = 37302388 grammes = 6533*5637 aes— i.e., the 
Danish mark was in the first half of the tenth century the 
half of the English, which at that time was the same as 
the French pound. ^^ 

been otherwise than 16 pennies. Ruding also, vol. I., p. 115 makes 
15 pennies = 1 ore, according to Bircherod ; this statement, 
however, does not refer to the period under consideration, but to 
the Danish coin system of the sixteenth century. See Holberg's 
Danmarks og Norges geistlige og verdslige Stat, p. 603 and A. 
Berntsen Danmarks og Norges frugtbare Herlighed 4, 1, 556. 

^® That there is ground for receiving this mode of reckoning 
by the great or long hundred of 120 to the 100, is proved by 
many Northern documents of an early date, and is besides 
corroborated by the marriage contract between King Eric II., 
Magnusson (1280—1299), and Margaret of Scotland, in 1281 
(P. A. Munch, Det Norske Folks Historic, iv. 2, 25), where 
it is expressly said that the dowry shall be paid in sterling 
new and current coins, of which there shall be reckoned five 
score to the 100 mark. Had there not also been occasionally six 
score to the 100, such a stipulation would have been needless. 

2® Von Koehne (p. 7) cites the mark weight as having been 
originally the half of the pound. 

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In the treaty between Edward the Elder and the 
Danish Guthrum, in the year 907, 3 half-marks and 30 
shillings seem to be the same thing.^^ If this interpre- 
tation be correct, it would appear from the following 
computation that the mark had the same value as has 
just been assigned to the Danish mark. In the Saxon 
provinces in England they reckoned 5 pennies to the 
shilling, so that there were 48 shillings to the pound. In 
Mercia there were 4 pennies to the shilling, or 60 shillings 
to the pound. In Kent, where pennies were not in use, 
there were 12J shillings, each of 250 sceattas, to the 
pound. In Northumberland, it appears they did not 
reckon by shillings, but by thrymsas, which were there 
current. At the same time, 80 thrymsas went to the 
pound, or 3 pennies to the thrymsa. That 8 half-marks 
= 12 ore, was the same as 30 shillings, is alleged by 
Davoud Oghlou from the treaty of peace between Edward 
and Guthrum (chapters 3 and 7), and he reckons what a 
half-mark amounted to in Saxon shillings. But those 30 
shillings may, as it appears, have been Mercian, for the 
treaty took place with the Danes in East Anglia and 
Northumberland, which lay near Mercia, and was con- 
cluded in Mercia itself. ^^ This took place at a time when 
in England the French pound was employed as the coin 
weighty and if Mercian shillings of 4 pennies are also meant, 
then 30 shillings = i pound = 2880 grains ( = 186-512 
grammes=3266-7818688aes), 1 shilling=96 grains -^6-217 
grammes = 108 892728964 8bs),1 mark = i of a pound, or 
2 half-marks = f x 2880 grains Troy ( = 1 x 186-512 

21 Davoud Oghlou, ii. p. 290, Suhm, Danmarks Historie, II. 
p. 477. 

22 Suhm, vol. II., 475, 477. Yettingaford, which is also 
written Thitingaford, Ichyngaford, now perhaps Ickford in 
Backinghamshire, which district lay in Mercia. 

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grammes = f x 326678 18688 aes)= 1920 grains (= 124-34 
grammes=2177'854 ses), and 1 ore = i mark = 240 grains 
(= 16-54 grammes = 272-2318 ses). But as Ruding ob- 
serves, vol. II., p. 115, that the ore in weight was i more 
than the ore in coin, the weight ore would be = 360 grains 
= 23*314 grammes= 408*3477 ses, and the treaty or con- 
vention was concluded in accordance with what was then 
reckoned for a mark among the Danes, but which was not a 
mark in weight. Besides the ^o of the weight mark thus 
discovered ( //o ), or 12 grains ( = 0*777 grammes = 13*6 
aes), agrees fairly well with the weight of the pennies struck 
in Western Denmark, principally under Hardeknut, but 
also at a later date, when it is likewise considered that 
the coins have lain many centuries in the earth. By taking 
the Saxon shilling at 5 pennies in the above account, the 
results cannot be made to agree. 

At the time of the Norman invasion of England, 
and even earlier in the eleventh century, or under iEthel- 
red, the Tower pound seems to have been the normal 
weight for coinage, for the pennies of the later years 
of the reign of Edward the Confessor approximate 
closely to the 240th part of the Tower pound, the 
latest weighing on an average 21*39 grains = 1*385 
grammes = 24*26 aes, that is, something less than the 
weight of the Tower penny. At the time of the invasion, 
and also probably before, as well as shortly after, the ore 
was again 16 pennies in weight ^^ =^ 16 x 22*6 = 360 
grains =- 23*314 grammes = 408*3477336 res. In the same 
manner 20 ore = 2 marks silver English ;^* so that 10 
ore = 1 mark = 3600 grains (= 233*14 grammes) = 
4083*477336 aes = * 5400 grains = f of the Tower pound. 

23 Liixdorph, pp. 637, 638 ; Nordstrom, p. 248. 
21 Liixdorph, pp. 637, 638. 

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Consequently^ there was already in use at that time the 
later so-called sterling mark after the Tower weight. In 
the same manner^ in France, it was, between a.d. 1060 and 
1108, ordained that f of the libra weight,^^ or the poids 
de marc, should be applied for the weighing of the gold 
and silver. At that time, also, 15 ore were still reckoned 
to the pound in England,2« which is right, for 15 x 360 
= 5400 grains, or the Tower pound. But already in 
Domesday Book, or in the register of the royal domains 
under William the Conqueror, an ore is rated at 20 
pennies.27 This is also right, for while the Anglo-Saxon 
or Tower pound was retained under the new rule, the 
Norman method of dividing the same into 12 ounces of 
20 pennies was adopted. In reckoning money, the pound 
was divided into 20 solidi of 12 denarii, the mark being 
then i of a pound, that is, 8 ounces or ore = 160 pennies, 
or 13 solidi (shillings) and 4 pence = 3600 grains ; and 
each ore = 20 x 22-5 = 450 grains = 21-142 grammes 
= 510-434667 aes.^^ From this it follows that at the com- 
mencement, after the Conquest, they reckoned in England 
by two sorts of ore — namely, by the lesser or older of 16 
pennies, and by the newer and greater of 20 pennies, as is 
also observed in Sumner^s Glossarium.^ 

2S Nordstrom, p. 265. 

2« Luxdorph, p. 687, 638. 

27 Nordstrom, p. 248. Ruding, vol. I. p. 112, also observes 
that the mark was divided into 160 pennies after the Conquest, 
but it is probable that it had already at an earlier period been 
used in England as two-thirds of the pound. 

28 Davoud Oghlou, vol. II. p. 291, agrees with this, as he 
observes that, according to the laws of Edward the Confessor 
(Cap. 12) and William the Conqueror's ** Lois et Coutumes," 
three marks = to 405. according to the Norman reckoning, 
for ^ xff fi^^ = 270 grains = aV of the Tower pound = 1 shilling 
and 1 ore or ounce = ^}4^ = 450 grains. 

^ Luxdorph, Ibid. 

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From \iFhat has been already stated, we arrive at the 
following results : — That the English weight for coinage 
may be accepted as having been at the beginning and 
later on in the tenth century the French pound. Still 
later on, towards its close, the Tower pound may have 
been adopted. Secondly, that the Danish mark-weight 
mentioned in English documents, or 8 Danish ore, con- 
tained about 2880 grains Troy, and that on its introduc- 
tion from Denmark in the same century, or earlier, it was 
fixed at or taken for the half of the French pound then 
in use in England. Thirdly, that the ore weight had, 
in the tenth and a great part of the eleventh century, 
an invariable value in England, but was eventually, 
after the Norman Conquest, enhanced to the Jth of the 
Tower mark, or the 12th of the Tower pound. Davoud 
Oghlou (in his 2nd part, p. 290) makes the following 
observations as to ore and marks : — " In the English laws 
there are frequent questions about these denominations 
which belong to the Danish currency ; but it is diflScult 
accurately to determine their value. In the meantime, 
8 ore made a mark.'^ The results arrived at in the fore- 
going account, either experimentally or by calculation, 
seem to be reasonable, but they first acquire great certainty 
from the data of jEthelred^s time, on the presumption that 
the Tower pound has not undergone any particular altera- 
tion. Davoud Oghlou remarks farther,^^ that it appears 
as if the Danish mark also had 12 ore. In the treaty 
between Edward and Guthrum it is stated, as already 
observed, that three half-marks, or 12 ore = 30 shillings. 
If now, as Ruding says, the ore of account was two-thirds 

^ Page 291. See also Rosenringe's Grundrids, 876; and 
Thorpe's edition of the English Laws — Note on KiDg Ina's 
fourteenth law. 

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of the ore of weight, and the mark of account two-thirds 
of the weight mark^ then 12 ore = 3 half-marks of the 
former, or 8 ore of the latter ; and thus the reckoning of 
12 ore to the mark would be perfectly right. 

Knut the Great, jEthelred's successor in England, struck 
coins, both in that country and in Denmark, at a heavier 
standard in the earlier years of his reign, and at a lighter 
in his later years. His earlier English pennies, presumably 
struck between 1016 — 1020, are, so far as they have been 
weighed, found to be, on an average, 22*468 grains = 
25-486 868, and the Danish, 22*470 grains = 25*50 ses. Both 
sorts may therefore be taken as having been struck of the 
weight of the penny of the Tower pound, which was, as 
already shown, 22*5 grains = 25*6217335 ses. But pro- 
bably soon after the last named of those years he departed 
from his earlier standard, for on comparing the average 
weights given by Hildebrand^^ for Knut's own later Eng- 
lish and Danish pennies with those of Harold Harefoot, the 
English coins of Hardeknut and the older coins of Edward 
the Confessor, we arrive on the whole at the conclusion 
that all these kings coined according to a standard which 
was three-quarters of the Tower pound = 4050 grains = 
262*28 French grammes = 4593*912 ses ; the 240th of this 
is 16*875 grains== 1*093 French grammes= 19*14 aes for the 
penny. True it is, that 924 pieces of Knut's pennies only 
weigh 15*566 grains = 1*008 grammes =17*657 aes on an 
average, so that it may be presumed that the English 
mark, of which the 240th equals 15 grains = 0*97 grammes 
= 17*014 868, was taken as the basis of the coinage ; but as 
750 of this number belong, with few exceptions, to the Eger- 
sund find of the year 1836, and have suflfered much through 
lying in the earth, and as the remaining 174 pennies 

81 Hildebrand, pp. 145, 149, 222, 223, 248, 249, 272, 276. 

VOL. XI. N.S. I 

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partly of the same types as those, and partly of Knut's 
latest types, but all good, had, on an average, a higher 
weight, which nearly answered to the average weight of 
the coins of Harold Harefoot, Hardeknut, and the oldest 
of Edward the Confessor, it seems safest to rely on the 
average of these 174 pieces as arrived at from Hilde- 
brand^s data.^^ Knut's son and successor in England, 
Harold Harefoot, struck coins apparently of the same 
standard as his father^s later coins; 100 are found to 
weigh on an average 16*6 grains = 1*075 grammes = 
18*83 aes. The English coins of Harold's successor, 
Hardeknut, give on an average of 44 pieces, 17*14 grains 
= 1*11 grammes = 19*44 aes, while 127 of the earliest 
pennies of Edward the Confessor give 16*741 grains = 
1'084 grammes = 18*99 aes. The average weight of his 
later coins was, as already observed, 21*39 grains = 1*385 
grammes = 24*26 aes, or not far from the value of the 
Tower penny. 

2. The Danish Coinage-weight. 

It has already been stated in an earlier page, that the 
two coins which are known of Sven Tjugeskegg are struck 
like jEthelred's type C in Hildebrand, and that their 
average weight, 24*455 grains, about corresponds with that 
of jEthelred's type D. It has also been remarked that the 
Danish coins of the earlier years of the reign of Knut the 
Great are struck of the same weight as those of his 
English predecessors, so that an average of 23 pieces 
gives 22*48 grains =1*456 grammes = 25'50 8es, or very 
nearly the ai© of the Tower pound. These coins appear 

52 Hildebrand, p. 149 ; the types E, G, H, I, K. 

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to have been struck before his return to England from 
Denmark in 1020. After that time, both in Denmark and 
England^ a lighter standard was adopted^ and it has been 
found that 7 pieces of his later coinage weigh on an 
average about the same as those struck in England^ or 
17-068 grains = 1105 grammes = 19*36 aes. 

Hardeknut's Danish coins weigh less than his father's, 
or only 15*555 grains = 1*007 grammes = 17*645 aes, on an 
average, which is arrived at from 56 pieces struck at 
Lund, in Scania. Seventeen other pieces, struck in Western 
Denmark, do not, on an average, weigh more than 11*468 
grains = 0*743 grammes = 13*008 aes. Hence it would appear 
that the normal or mark weight corresponded with that 
which has already been pointed out for the Danish mark 
employed at an earlier period in England of 2880 grains, 
for the ^^ of this is 12 grains. The average of Harde- 
knut^s heavier coins approaches, on the contrary, the ^iv 
of the Tower mark. There is nothing singular in another 
mark weight having been in use in Western from that in 
Eastern Denmark. Something of the same kind has 
taken place elsewhere in different other countries nearly 
down to our own times. 

The average of the coins of Magnus the Good, so far as 
they were struck in Eastern Denmark, approaches that of 
the coins of Hardeknut, for they contain 15*36 grains = 
0*995 grammes =17*427 89s. Those which belong to 
Western Denmark are found to weigh 11*04 grains=0*7l5 
grammes= 12*52 aes. 

The average weight of the pennies of Sven Estrithsson 
is 15*12 grains = 0*979 grammes=17'15 aes — that is to say, 
those from Eastern Denmark. Those of the Western 
portion of the country contain 12*07 grains = 782 
grammes = 13*69 aes. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


It appears that under the two last-named kin^ the 
normal weight for the coinage was about the same as 
under Hardeknut ; but the weight of the pennies, parti- 
cularly those struck in Eastern Denmark^ as well as their 
purity^ began to diminish, and under the succeeding 
Danish kings this was carried to a still greater extent. 

3. The Swedish Coinage Weight. 

Whilst the pennies of the Danish and Norwegian kings 
contemporary with iEthelred II., like his own, about corre- 
spond with the weight of the Tower penny, the coins of the 
Swedish Olaf Scotkonung diflFer from them, as they contain, 
on an average 32*97 grains = 2*135 grammes = 37*140 ses. 
They seem, therefore, struck on another standard, or such 
as would be about one-half heavier than the Tower pound, 
provided that in like manner 240 of these pennies were 
struck from the heavier pound. In Sweden, however, 
they reckoned already at an early date, not as in Norway 
and Denmark, 240, but only 192 pennies to the mark, and 
were this the Stockholm mark, and of the same weight as 
at a later period (in the fourteenth century) — 3221*25 
grains = 208*6 grammes = 3563*8666 ses— then its 192nd 
part would be 16*777 grains = 1*086 grammes =1903 bbs. 
The -double of this would be 33*554 grains = 2*172 
grammes = 38*06 aes, or nearly the average weight of 
fifty pieces of Olaf Scotkonung's coinage; but as the 
weight of individual pieces varies between 22*8 grains = 
1*480 grammes = 25*92 ses and 50*85 grains = 3*254 
grammes = 56*99 sbs, it is not impossible that their weight 
was judged of by the eye alone, and without any fixed 
standard. The coins of Olaf Scotkonung are also larger 
in diameter than those of iEthelred II. They are for the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


most part struck like that king's type C^ but others like 
his type D, in Hildebrand. 

Olaf 's son and successor^ Anund Jacobs like Knut the 
Great in the later years of his reign^ and following his 
example^ issued pennies which only weigh about half those 
of Olaf. The pieces which are extant of Anund Jacob 
thus weigh only 16'46 grains = 1-065 grammes = 18*66 
ses on an average^ which is much the same as the weight 
of Knut's later coins and those of his immediate English 
successors. The types of Anund Jacob's coins are like 
iEithelred's types A and D. 

At a later date in Sweden there appear to have been 
numerous kinds of weight. Thus there are mentioned: 
pondus Suecanum^ pondus regni nostri^ pondus legale 
regis nostri^ pondus Gotenense sive GotlandisB^ pondus 
Stockholmense^ pondus Lydosiense^ and pondus de 
Scaris.^ The Gottland or Wisby mark held, according to 
Eruse, in his " Necrolivonica/' 207*16 grammes = 3,198*8 
Troy grains = 3,628*4 aes. The Skara mark contained 
214*747 grammes = 8,316 grains =8,761*33 sbs.s* 

4. The Norwegian Coinage Weight. 

Of Olaf Tryggvesson, the first who struck coins in 
Norway, there existed in the last century in Sweden a 
penny, now lost, the size of which, to judge from drawings, 
was like that of the common coins of iBthelred, Hilde- 
brand's type C. The weight may also be considered to have 

^ Nordstrom, p. 218, with Joh. de Serene and B. de Ortolis 
Regnskaber over Indtaegter til Pavestolen in 1827 and 1828. 
According to these accounts, the Stockholm 4uid Upsala weights 
were alike. 

** Schive Norges Mynter i Middelalderen, with introduction 
by Holmboe, p. Ixxiii. Lit. K. 

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been about the same as that of an English penny of that 
king ; for Olaf had on his Viking expedition an excellent 
opportunity for such an imitation, and besides, his moneyer 
was an Englishman. Both the coins, which may with 
probability be assigned to Erik Haakonsson Jarl, and of 
which the one weighs 2V67 grains = 1-397 grammes = 
24*47 8B8, may likewise be considered to have been struck 
after ^thelred^s standard, or at ^Jxr of the Tower pound. 
The pennies, on the contrary, which may be ascribed to 
Erik's son, Haakon Jarl the Younger, differ both in size 
and weight from the English, but closely resemble those 
of Olaf Scotkonung in both respects ;^^ for an average of 
six pieces gives 33*22 grains = 2'151 grammes = 37*68 aes, 
and it may be considered that they were struck by a 
Swedish moneyer in Norway or in Sweden on Haakon^s 

The average of six pennies which may be assigned to 
Olaf the Holy is 21*987 grains =1-424 grammes = 24*94 
ees, or nearly ^hf of the Tower pound. It is true that the 
weight of the most certain of these pennies, the reverse of 
which is like iEthelred's type D, is only 19*07 grains = 
12*35 grammes = 21*63 aesj but then such a deviation 
from the Tower penny occurs frequently in the coins of 
the English kings, and may be ascribed to the imperfec- 
tion of the preparation of the blanks. The pennies of 
Olaf the Holy are like -^thelred's type D, as has already 
been remarked, and besides like A and E of Enut the 
Great. A few are in imitation of iEthelred^s type G. 
From Olaf 's death, in 1030, and until the reign in common 

^ They are also principally found in Sweden. See Norges 
Mynter, pp. 12 and 13. 

^ These coins — both Olaf Tryggvesson's and Erik Jarl's — 
are all of iEthelred's type C. 

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of his son, Magnus the Good, and the uncle of the latter, 
Harold Haarderaade, in 1046, there was no Norwegian 
coinage. The few pieces of the two together which have 
been discovered have been already cited, and their weight 
described. Their type is diflFerent from the English. As 
sole monarch from 1047, Harold Haarderaade at first 
struck good coins, like his predecessors ; but this was 
soon changed, and his pennies coined of bad alloy, as has 
been already shown where their weight is stated. The 
average of the coins that are known, good and bad, 60 
pieces, is found to be 13'431 grains = 0*869 grammes = 
15*235 aes. Harold^s pennies are, therefore, as a whole, 
heavier than the West Danish, and lighter than the East 
Danish and contemporary English coins, from which also 
they differ in type. Their weight corresponds nearest to 
Trii7 part of what is discovered to be the value of the 
Norwegian weight mark in the Middle Ages, and con- 
cerning which we have the following data : — 

1. Two of the'so-called payment rings (Betalings ringe) 
of gold found in Norway in the year 1860, and on 
each of which there are stamped at the one end three 
small circles, which in all probability betokened the value 
of 3 ore, which also agrees with other and foreign weights. 
Of these 

Grains. Grammes. ^s. 

the one ring weighed . , .. = 1251-874= 81*086= 1420 

so that the ore is = 417*274 = 27*022 = 473*333 

and one mark 87 = 3338*328 = 416*131 = 3786*6666 

the other ring weighed .. = 1247*47 = 80*78 = 1*416 

so that the ore is = 416*823= 26*93 = 471*6666 

And the mark = 3326*584 = 216*430 = 3773*3333 

2. According to the Papal collector 
Huguitios' reckoning, delivered 
to the Court in 1286, a Norse 

mark 88 r= 3333*333 = 21o-867 = 3780*9975 

37 Forhandlinger i Videnskabs Selskabet i Christiania, Aar, 
1864, pp. 103 — 106. These rings are supposed to have been 
deposited in the earth in the last century of heathendom. 

^ Introduction to Norges Mynter i Middelalderen, p. 72. 

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GraixLB. GranmieB. ^s. 

3. AccordiDg to the account of the 

collectors, Johannes de Serone 
and Bernard de Ortolis, ren- 
dered to the Papal chair in 1327- 
28 the same mark M = 3334-946 = 216*961 = 3782*8266 

4. According to the Ny Danske 

Magasin, 6th vol., p. 329, an old 

Norse mark = 14 f Cologne lod, or = 3328-927 = 216-672 = 3776-0000 

Together = 16662-118 = 1079*001 = 18899*8241 

Average = 3332-424 = 215*80 = 3780« 

1 ore = 416*553 = 26*976 = 472*5 

1 ortug = J ore = 138-851 = 8-992 = 157*5 

1 penny = ^o ortng . . . . = 13*885 = 0-8992= 15-7o 

To the last of the above-mentioned values, or that of 
the penny, the coins of Harold Haarderaade very nearly 
correspond, and he may have adopted the Norwegian 
weight mark for purposes of coining. The weights assigned 
for the mark and ore are corroborated by some weights 
found in Ringerige in Norway/^ which, however, by com- 
parison with the foregoing results, seem to have lost by 
lying in the earth so much, that the ore is 3*964 grains, 
and the mark 31*708 grains less than these results, 
being 412*589 grains = 26*718 grammes = 468 ses, and 
3300*716 grains = 213*745 grammes = 3744 aes, respec- 

Of all the denominations of weight, the ounce, which 
may have been introduced among us earlier than Chris- 
tianity, and here in the North was called the ore, is 
that which has been most widely disseminated among 
different nations.^ On this was founded the higher 

^ Introduction to Norges Mynter i Middelalderen, p. 72. 

^ With perfect accuracy 8779-96488181 aes., so that the 
mark is so near to the divisible number 8780 that I have 
adopted it for this purpose. 

*i See Nordisk Tidsskrift for Oldkyndighed, vol. i., p. 401, 
and Holmboe Das Alteste Miinzwesen Norwegens, in Kohnes 
Zeitschrift fiir Miinz. Siegel und Wappenkunde, vi. Jahrgang. 
Berlin, 1846. 

^ Holmboe, On the Origin of the Scandinavian Weight System 

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denomination of the mark, which was 8 ore, while in 
Southern and Western Europe 12 ore were called a pound. 
The ore, or ounce, was somewhat different ; not only in 
different countries, but also in provinces belonging to one 
and the same country, they might be unlike, and this may 
likewise partially have been the case in Norway. Still the 
correspondence between the above given data is in the 
highest degree remarkable. As the oldest (No. 1) gives, 
on an average of the two rings, 416'557 grains = 26975 
grammes = 472*5 89S for the ore. Another instance, perhaps 
as old, but less, in consequence of the weights having lain 
so many centuries in the earth, 412*589 grains = 26*718 
grammes = 468 aes. The latest (No. 4) gives 416116 
grains = 26*948 grammes =472 aes ; and the two (Nos. 2 
and 3) which, so far as age goes, stand between the 
earliest and the latest, show so trifling an amount more 
for the ore than these, being respectively 416*66 and 
416*868 grains, that the difference may be regarded as a 
vanishing quantity. It seems impossible that the corre- 
spondence between so many indications can have been 
accidental]; but it may rather be accepted that the ore 
has, if not universally, yet still in many parts of the 
country, remained almost absolutely unaltered through 
many centuries.** Another remarkable circumstance in 
connection with the old Norwegian ore thus discovered is 
its striking correspondence with the Byzantine or Grseco- 
Roman ounce, which, according to Sabatier, contained** 

in the Middle Ages ; in Christiania Videnskabs Selskabets For- 
handlinger for the year 1861, p. 105. 

^ An analogous example is cited by Ruding, vol. I. p. 102. 
According to him, th^ Cologne ounce of the present day is of 
the same weigl^t as a standard stamped at Strasburg in the 
year 1238. Holmboe, 1. c, p. 8 (note). 

** Revue Numismatique, 1869, p. 20. 

VOL. XI. N.S. K 

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27 grammes = 416-917 grains = 472*9 ees. The Graeco- 
Boman pound of 12 ounces would thus contain 324 grammes 
= 5003 grains = 5674*86 aes, and 8 ounces = 216 grammes 
= 3335-336 grains -= 378324 sbs. These values of the 
pound and ounce are deduced by Sabatier from four 
Byzantine weights of the early Middle Ages, preserved in 
the Museums of London*^ and Paris. 

There is, therefore, ground to believe that commercial 
or other relations at an earlier period than the reception 
of Christianity in the North led to the introduction 
of the Byzantine ounce into our country, and it is, more- 
over, probable that Harold Haarderaade also brought 
with him from Greece the previously known weight for 
the ore, that he used it in dividing his treasures with 
Magnus the Good, and established it as a legal standard 
for a long period, during which it may have undergone 
small local changes, but has still been preserved in such 
a manner, in various parts of the country, that it has been 
possible for its right value to be again ascertained. 


^ Holmbo©, in the Yidenskabs-Selskabets Forhandlinger for 
1864. The author of the present paper has had occasion to 
ascertain the weight of thirty-four Byzantine gold solidi, of which 
six should go to the ounce. On an average each weighed 67'218 
grains Troy = 4* 358 grammes = 76*248 bbs. As the ^ ounce 
contained 69*486 grains = 4*5 grammes = 78*88 ees, each 
solidus appears to be 2*268 grains lighter than it should be, 
which is probable enough, as many of them have lost by wear, 
or perhaps they were struck a little under weight. 

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" The Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Dehli, illustrated by 
Coins, Inscriptions," &c. By Edward Thomas, F.R.S. 
Triibner and Co., 8vo. 1871. 

The handsome volume before us is the completion for one 
great branch of Oriental Numismatics of a course of research 
commenced a quarter of a century ago by its author, and is one 
of the most important volumes for the illustration of a brilliant 
portion of Indian history which has ever been published. As 
such, it will assuredly be hailed by many to whom the mere 
study of the coinage of Eastern nations has little interest, afford- 
ing as it does a sound historical basis for many dates and 
events about which there has hitherto been wanting sure and 
satisfactory evidence. The period of time treated of is, for the 
Pathan Saltans of Dehli, about 860 years, from a.d. 1193 to 
A.D. 1554, and for the minor djmasty of the rulers or kings of 
Bengal, something less that 150 years, viz., from a.d. 1203 to 
A.D. 1850. For the history of the Second Dynasty, Mr. 
Thomas's work is invaluable, resting as it does in a great 
degree on the decipherment of a vast and recent trouvaille at 
Eooch Bahar of some 18,000 pieces of money, which has enabled 
him to bring together a body of numismatic evidence which was 
not available for any previous writer. We may, indeed, say 
that for an exhaustive account of the Bengal currency, we are 
wholly indebted to Mr. Thomas, the notices of it in Marsden 
and elsewhere being very scanty, and not seldom inaccurate. 
Mr. Thomas's work is embellished by the reproduction of 
engravings from Mr. Fergusson's ** Handbook of Architecture," 
of many celebrated Indian structures, most, if not all of them, 
referring to monarchs whose coins are described, and by a large 
number of woodcuts of the coins themselves, which, in clear- 
ness of outline and beauty of execution, leave nothing to be 
desired. We think no drawings of Oriental coins comparable with 
these except the plates in Marsden's ** Numismata Orientalia," 
which are still of unsurpassed excellence. Mr. Thomas has 
also been fortunate in being able to examine at his leisure 
several extensive collections of Indian coins, in private as well 
as in public hands, and thus, to have had materials for the 
prosecution of his researches such as it is safe to say no other 
Oriental scholar, not even Major- General Cunningham, has had 
at his disposal. We need hardly add that his work has been 
admirably accomplished ; we could have expected no less from 
the accomplished editor of ** James Prinsep's Essays " — a work 
which, apart from the interest eveiy true scholar must have in 

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the record of anything that James Prinsep thought or wrote, 
derives almost its whole practical value from the numerous 
essays by Mr. Thomas himself, which he has incorporated into 
different parts of those two most useful volumes. We rejoice, 
therefore, that Mr. Thomas has found time to recast his original 
memoir of 1847, and we trust that its appreciation by the public 
may be such as to induce him, in a subsequent volume, to bring 
together his other essays and papers on Eastern Numismatics, 
which are at present chiefly known only to students of the 
Transactions of the Asiatic and of other Societies. There is a 
good deal now to be added to each of these memoirs, and, 
though collectors of Oriental coins may in England be few in 
number, the interest in all that concerns the antiquities of 
the East, ' daily increases as the natives of India itself are 
becoming more alive to the value of European researches 
into the early and medisBval history of their own country. As 
we have said, the chief subject of Mr. Thomas's book is ex- 
pressed in its title. Readers, however, would be greatly 
mistaken if they were to suppose its contents were . restricted 
to a description, however full, of the actual coins of the sixty 
or more princes to whose history it is devoted. Inter alia, 
students will find in it the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlak, a 
very careful and elaborate treatise on the metrical and monetary 
systems of the Dehli sovereigns, a subject which has been 
repeatedly treated of by other writers, but nowhere, so far as 
we know, with so much care and accuracy. It would be well, 
if some of our English advocates of a purely decimal system 
would study the ancient metrical arrangements of a people who 
have, in other ways, no little native ability for mathematical 
studies. Mr. Thomas has also added descriptions of the coins 
from two or three minor mints, such as those of Jaunpur, 
Gujurat, Malwah, and of the Bahmani rulers of the Deccan, 
which have, with one or two exceptions, been scarcely noticed 
before in numismatic works. Nor is this all. The curious in 
such things will find abundance of matters other than such as 
might have been expected in a history of coins, as, for instance, 
a very clear account of Indian revenues at five different periods, 
prices of corn at three other periods, details of the State 
revenues under several of the more eminent rulers — as 
Muhammad bin Tughlak, Akbar, and Aurangzeb — an account 
from the autobiography of Timur of the state of India when he 
invaded it, with many curious extracts from the statements of 
early European voyagers or travellers to different parts of India. 
In ^By we commend Mr. Thomas's work to all students of 
Eastern history as replete with accurate details on a great 
variety of subjects beyond those which are purely numismatic. 

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Lettbb X Mr. Babclat Hbad, Consbryatbvr-adjoint dv Gabinbt 
DE8 Mjsdaillbs, au Bbitish Museum. 

MoN CHER Monsieur Head, 

Permettez-moi de vons oflfrir la primeur d'une 
nouvelle attribution de quelques monnaies antiques de la 
Terre-Sainte. J'ai d'autant plus de confiance dans la 
valeur de cette attribution que vous avez bien voulu la 
croire juste. Je la mets done avec] une entidre confiance 
sous Yotre patronage, qui sera, je n'en doute pas, une 
excellente recommandation aupr^s des savants Nmnis- 
matistes de TAngleterre. 

Veuillez agreer I'expression de ma bien-sincdre amiti^, 

F. DE Saulcy. 

Chiblehubst, 13 Juin, 1871. 

Tons les Numismatistes connaissent de longue date la 
serie des monnaies frapp^es par Jes gens d'Antioche, mais 
hors d'Antioche ; elles sent assez extraordinaires quant k 
leurs legendes et Ton est assez pen d'accord sur leur 
origine. L'existence de ces monnaies presente done un 
veritable probleme dont la solution est encore k trouyer, 

VOL. XI. N.S. L 

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et que je vais essayer d'aborder k mon tour, sans me flatter 
pourtant de faire naitre dans tous les esprits la conviction 
qui s'est empar^e du mien. Commen9on8 par bien definir 
le groupe des monuments numismatiques dont il va etre 
question. Ce sont des pieces de cuivre dont les plus 
anciennes font leur apparition sous le rSgne et avec 
TeflGlgie du roi Seleucide Antiochus IV., sumomm^ Dieu 
Epiphane ; plus tard elles se retrouvent encore sous 
Antiochus VIII., Grypus, dont elles pr^sentent TeflGlgie 
accolee «t celle de sa mere Clfeopatre. 

Ces monnaies ont ^te frapp^es dans trois localites dis- 
tinctes 4 en juger par leur l^gendes — 


Au revers de presque toutes ces pieces, quelque soit le 
lieu de leur emission, on voit le Jupiter Olympien debout, 
^levant de la main droite une couronne et de la gauche 
retenant la chlamyde dont il est revStu ; le haut du corps 
est nu ; quelquefois, comme sur les pieces de Callirhoe, le 
Jupiter porte I'aigle sur la maiu droite, et s'appuie de la 
gauche sur une haste. 

Sur les monnaies des Antioch^ens de Ptol^mais frapp^es 
pour Antiochus Grypus et sa m^re, le revers pr^sente une 
corne d'abondance remplie de fruits. Souvent des mono- 
grammes dont il serait siiperflu de chercher k trouver le 
sens, se trouvent inscrits dans le champ du revers. 

Cette description sommaire nous su£B[t quant k present, 
et nous pouvons proceder k la recherche de I'origine de 
ces monnaies, sauf k en donner plus tard le catalogue le 
plus complet possible. 

Commen9ons done par interroger I'histoire en ce qui 

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touche Antiochus IV., le Dieu Epiphane, puisque c'est 
incontestablement sous son rSgne que ces curieuses mon- 
naies ont fait leur premiere apparition. 

Les deux livres des Macchabees nous sent ici d'un 
grand secours. Voici ce que nous y lisons : 


V. 12. In diebas illis exierunt in Israel filii iniqui, et suase- 
runt multis dicentes. ** Eamus et disponamus testamentum 
cum gentibus qu8B circa nos sunt, quia ex quo recessimus ab eis 
invenerunt multa mala." 

13. Et bonus visus est sermo in oculis eorum. 

14. Et destinaverunt aliqui de populo, et abierunt ad regem: 
et dedit illis potestatem ut facerent justitiam gentium. 

15. Et sedificaverunt gymnasium in Ierosol3rmis secundum 
leges nationum. 

16. Et fecerunt sibi prseputia et recesserunt a testamento 
sancto, et juncti sunt nationibus, et venundati sunt ut facerent 


7. Sed post Seleuci vitse excessum, cum suscepisset regnum 
Antiochus qui Nobilis appellabatur, ambiebat Jason frater Oms& 
summum sacerdotium ; 

8. adito rege promittens ei argenti talenta trecenta sexaginta, 
et ex reditibuR aliis talenta octoginta. 

9. Super hsec promittebat et alia centum quinquaginta, si 
potestati ejus concederetur gymnasium et ephebiam sibi con- 
stituere, et eos qui in lerosolymis erant Antiochenos scribere. 

10. Quod cum rex annuisset et obtinuisset principatum, 
statim ad gentilem ritum contribules suos transferre coepit. 

11. Et amotis his quae humanitatis causa JudsBis a regibus 
fuerant constituta, et per Johannem patrem Eupolemi, qui apud 
Eomanos de amicitia et societate functus est legatione legit im a, 
civium jura destituens, prava instituta sanciebat. 

12. Etenim ausus est sub ipsa arce gymnasium constituere, 
et optimos quosque epheborum in lupanaribus ponere. 

13. Erat autem hoc non initium sed incrementum quoddam 
et profectus gentilis et alienigenae conversationis propter impii 
et non sacerdotis Jasonis nefarium et inauditum scelus, 

14. ita ut sacerdotes jam non circa altaris officia dediti essent, 
sed contempto templo, et sacrificiis neglectis festinarent participes 
fieri palaestra), et preebitionis ejus injustae, ec in exercitiis disci. 

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15. Et patrios quidern honores nihil habentes, grsBcas glorias 
optimas arbitrabantur : 

* 16. qnarnm gratia pericnlosa eos contemtio habebat, et eornm 
instituta semalabantnr ac per omnia his consimiles esse cupie- 
bant, qnos hostes et peremptores habuerani. 


1. Sed non post multum temporis, misit rex senem qnemdam 
Antiochennm qui compelleret Judseos nt se transferrent a patriis 
et Dei legibus 

2. contaminare etiam qnod in lerosolymis erat templum, et 
cognominare Jovis Olympii et in Garizim, pro-ut erant hi qui 
locnm inhabitabant, Jovis Hospitalis. 


8. Decretum autem exiit in proximas gentium civitates, 
suggerentibus Ptolemsais, ut pari modo et ipsi adversus Judseos 
agerent, ut sacrificarent. 

9. Eos autem qui noUent transire ad instituta gentilium, 
interficerent, &c. 

Passons maintenant k rhistoire profane, c'est k dire 
aux Merits de Flavius Josephe. 

NoMS lisons au livre xii. des Antiquit^s Judaiques 
(iii. 1) que d6jk pour les Juifs le Roi S^leucus Nicator 
s'etait montr^ fort bienveillant et qu'il leur avait accord^ 
droit de cite. Voici la traduction litt^rale de ce passage 
important : " Les Juifs ont &t^ g^n^reusement traites par 
les rois d' Asie, en recompense de leur services militaires ; 
en effet, Seleucus Nicator avait honore les Juifs du droit 
de cite dans les villes qu*il fondait en Asie et dans la 
Basse Syrie, aussi bien que dans Antioche, m^tropole 
de ses ^tats. A tons les Juifs qui r^sidaient dans ces 
villes il avait accord^ des droits ^gaux k ceux des Mac^- 
doniens et des Grecs, et ces droits, ajoute Josephe, ils les 
ont conserves intacts jusqu'd notre ^poque." ^ 

(Xn. V. 1 a 6.) — " Vers I'epoque ou Antiochus Epiphane 
monta sur le trone (176 avant J.C, 137 des Seleucides), 

^ C'est en 291 avant J.C. (22 de I'ere des Seleucides) que 

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Onias mourut (le vrai est qu'il fut destitue), laissant un fils en 
bas age et du meme nom que lui. Le roi de Syrie confera 
alors la grande pretrise a Jesus, frere du pontife defunt. Jesus 
avait change son nom contre celui de Jason. II ne resta pas 
longtemps revetu du Pontificat, qu'Antiochus lui enleva pour le 
transmettre a son jeune frere, qui s'appelait aussi Onias, mais 
qui avait adopte le nom grec Menelas. La discorde et Tenvie 
etaient hereditaires dans cette famille sacerdotale. Menelas, 
malgre I'appui de nombreux adherents, ne se sentit pas de force a 
tenir tete a son frere, le precedent grand pretre, que la majorite 
de la nation soutenait. II quitta done Jerusalem et se rendit 
avec ses amis aupres d'Antiochus. Us lui declarerent que leur 
intention formelle etait de deserter le culte de leurs ayeux et 
d*adopter celui des Grecs. II va sans dire que toute protection 
leur fut promise, et a partir de ce moment, le culte judaique 
fut ouvertement abandonne par un grand nombre de Juifs, le 
grand pretre Menelas leur donnant I'exemple de I'apostasie." 

Enrannee 145 de I'ere des Seleucides (166 avant J.O.), 
le 25 du mois h^braique de Ckasleu (ApellaBus des Mac^- 
doniens), ApoUonius, general d'Antiochus Epiphanes, en- 
vahit Jerusalem aflfectant les intentions les plus bienveil- 
lantes. A peine entr^ dans la Place il jeta le masque. 
Comme il n'6tait venu que pour piller les tresors du 
temple ; il fit mettre k mort tons ceux. qui firent mine de 
s'opposer k I'ex^cution de ses desseins iniques. Les 

le droit de cite fut accorde par Seleucus Nicator a un grand 
nombre de Juifs, tant a Antioche que dans les nombreuses villes 
qu'il venait de fonder. 

Simon le Juste, fils d'Onias I., etait alors grand pretre et 
reparait le temple de Jerusalem. Eleazar son frere lui succeda 
dans le Pontificat en 288 avant J.C. (25 des Seleucides), le fils 
du grand pretre defunt, nomme Onias, etant encore trop jeune 
pour remplacer son pere. Eleazar mourut en 256 avant J.C. 
(58 des Seleucides), et eut pour successeur Manasses, fils de 
Jaddous. Onias II. devint grand pretre en 246 avant J.C. (67 
des Seleucides V et eut pour successeur, en 236 avant J.C. (77 
des Seleucides), son fils Simon III. Onias III. lui succeda vers 
208 (105 des Seleucides). Jesus son frere, surnomme Jason, 
lui succeda en 175 avant J.C. (138 des Seleucides) ; il fut sup- 
plante a son tour par son frere Menelas en 172 avant J.C. (141 
des Seleucides). 

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sacrifices quotidiens furent supprimes ; le viUe fut mise k 
sac et incendiee ; beaucoup d'habitans furent egorges et 
dix mille captifs environ furent enlev^s. La citadelle 
d' Akra fut batie, et confifee k la garde d'une garnison Mace- 
donienne renforcee de tous les r^n^gats qui voulurent s'y 
installer. Tin autel fut construit sur Tautei des holocaustes, 
et on y sacrifia des pores. Enfin le culte de Jehovah fut 
aboli et remplac6, par ordre souverain, par celui des dieux 
qu^Antiochus adorait. Ce fut cette persecution furibonde 
qui fit eclore I'insurrection des Macchabees. 

A ce m^rae moment les Samaritains reclamerent 
d'Antiochus Epipbane le droit de substituer le Zeus 
Hellenius au dieu innome qu'ils avaient adore jusque la 
dans le temple du mont Garizim. 

On le voit, si les deux livres des Macchabees ne nous 
foumissaient pas des renseignements plus precis que ceux 
que nous trouvous dans les ecrits de Josephe, nous serious 
fort embarrasses pour etablir que ce fut Jason qui, lorsqu'il 
fut parvenu a supplanter son frere Onias dans le Ponti- 
ficat obtenu a prix d'or, fut autorise par Antiochus Epi- 
pbane k " Antiochenos scribere '' tous ceux des babitans 
de Jerusalem qui embrasseraient k son exemple le culte 
des Grecs et adopteraient les moeurs grecques. 

Men^las, apres avoir supplante a son tour son frere 
Jason, n'eut rien de plus presse que de voler les vases 
sacr^s du temple pour les vendre a son profit et Tyr, ou 
pour en fatre cadeau a Andronic, regent qu' Antiochus en 
partant pour la haute Asie avait laiss^ a la tete de T^tat. 

Le grand prStre d^possede, Onias, crut le moment 
favorable pour revendiquer ses droits, et denon9a au roi 
le m^fait scandaleux de Menelas. Celui-ci accourut d 
Antioche, et, grace h des largesses, r^ussit a persuader au 

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regent de le debarrasser d'Onias son fr^re par un assas- 
sinat (II. Maccliab^es iv. 35). Quod cum certissime 
cognovisset^ Onias arguebat eum^ ipse in loco tecto se 
continens Antiochse^ secus Daphnen. 

Dapbn^ ^tait en effet un asile declare inviolable.^ An- 
dronic en fit sortir Onias, apres s'^tre engag^ sous la foi 
du sennent k le traitor en ami, et le fit ^gorger. A son 
retour k Antioche le roi, indign^ de cet acte abominable, 
fit mettre k mort Andronic au point meme oii Onias avait 
ete massacr^ (ceci se passa en 171 avant J. C, 142 des 

Nous sommes dds maintenant en possession des faits 
suivants : — 

1®. Les Juifs apostats avaient regu le droit de cit^ 
dans Antioche et prenaient le titre d'Antioch^ens, 

2°. Le Dieu qu'ils adoptdrent etait Jupiter Olympien. 

3°. Lors de la promulgation du d^cret par lequel 
Antiochus Epiphane pretendit abolir en Jud^e le culte 
judaique, ce fut h Tinstigation des habitans de Ptol^mai's ; 
et par ceux-ci il faut certainement entendre les Juifs 
r^n^gats fix^s k Ptol^mais, car il n'y a pas de plus ardents 
pers6cuteurs de leurs anciens cor6ligionnaires que les 

Que Yoyons-nous sur les monnaies qui font le sujet de 
cette notice ? des Antiocli6ens ^tabKs EN nxOAEMAIAI, 
nPOS AA<I>NHI, et EHI KAAAIPOHT, qui adorent Jupiter 
Olympien, dont-ils ont soin de placer Teffigie au revers de 
celle du roi Antiochus Epiphane. DSs lors pourquoi 
h^siterions-nous h reconnaitre dans ces pretendus Antio- 

3 Ce fut Seleucus Nicator qui consacra le bois sacre de 
Daphn6 a ApoUon et a Diane, en Tan 800 avant J.C. (an 18 de 
I'ere des Seleucides). 

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cheens, les Juifs r^negats qui apr^s I'apostasie de Jason 
allSrent s'etablir hors de Jerusalem, pour n'avoir plus 
de contact joumalier avec ceux dont ils avaient deserte 
les moeurs et le culteP Pour ma part, aprds y avoir 
mftrement refleclii, je crois que les faits que je viens de 
rappeler nous foumissent la seule solution satisfaisante 
du probldme historique que pr6sentait I'existence de ces 
etranges monnaies. 

Avant de proc6der k la description de celles qui me 
sent connues, il ne parattra sans doute pas hors de propos 
de faire connaitre les explications qui ont 6t6 proposees 

Le savant Eckhel (Doct. Num. Vet. tom. iii. p. 305, et 
suivantes) a resume, avec son talent et son erudition, 
ordinaires, les opinions de ses devanciers. Pour lui les 
monnaies des Antiocheens IIPOS AA<^NHI ne peuvent 
laisser de doute; le fameux sanctuaire de Daphne, si 
voisin d'Antioche, est ici indique, et il en resulte qu'ime 
corporation de marchands d'Antioche s'^taient ^tablis en 
ce point et avaient 6mis une monnaie k eux, pour les 
besoins de leur commerce. Vaillant admet qu'une An- 
tiocbe, inconnue parmi les ^crivains de Tantiquit^, a dA 
exister prSs de Ptolemai's, et que c'est k cette ville ima- 
ginaire que reviennent de droit les monnaies des Antio- 
cb6ens EN IITOAEMaIAI. Restent enfin les monnaies des 
Antiocbeens EHI KAAAIPOHI. A leur sujet Eckhel con- 
state que la plupart des Numismatistes y ont vu des mon- 
naies d'Edesse, parce que Pline (1. v. § 21) cite — 
" Edessam, quae quondam Antiocbia dicebatur, Callirhoen 
a fonte nominatgm;" et qu'Etienne de Byzance parait 
mentionner la mSme ville, lorsqu'en faisant P^numeration 
des diverses Antiocbes k lui connues, il cite — oyBorj ^ ivl rfjg 
KaXkipporj^ Xifivrj^. D'autres cependant, ajoute Eckhel, ont 

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pens6 k une Antioche situee peut-etre sur le fleuve Cal- 
lirhoe qui arrose Damas. II y a ici evidemment un 
lapsus calami^ car le fleuve de Damas s'appelait Chry- 
sorrhoas et non Callirhoe. 

Est venu alors Pellerin, qui n'a pu admettre que des 
monnaies semblables de forme, de fabrique et de types, et 
qui portaient presque toujours Teffigie d'Antiochus IV., 
pussent ne pas appartenir k la mSme contree. Pour 
lui les monnaies certaines d'Edesse n'avaient jamais porte 
le nom d' Antioche. Qui done, ajoute-t-il, a jamais cite 
une ville d' Antioche placee pres de Ptolemai's P Pellerin 
conclut de tout cela que ces monnaies ont ete frappees par 
des Antiocheens formant, dans I'int^r^t de leur commerce, 
des corporations etablies d, Daphne, & Ptolemais et k 
Callirhoe; que quant k cette demi^re il ne faut pas y 
voir Edesse, raais bien les celebres eaux thermales situees 
de I'autre c6t6 du Jourdain, auxquelles Herode sur la fin 
de sa vie vint demander un soulagement qu'il n'en obtint 
pas. L'affluence des baigneurs devait en effet rendre 
cette localite tr^s favorable au commerce.^ Eckhel declare 
pencher pour Tavis de Pellerin ; et d'abord, k propos de 
Ptolemais, il fait observer que la formule EN HTOAe M AIAT, 
qui signifie nettement, dans Ptolemais ; ne saurait s'ap- 
pliquer k une ville voisine de Ptolemais, puisque ce sent 
les propositions npOS, EIII, Ano, qui servent k carac- 
teriser le voisinage, tandis que la proposition EN, indique 
une situation k PintOrieur mSme de la locality men- 

^ Voyez Pellerin. Recueil, torn ii., pour les Antiocheens 
etablis a Daphne, p. 187 et 188 ; pour ceux de Ptolemais, p. 284 
et 285 ; enfin, pour ceux de Callirhoe, p. 25 a 258. 

^ Pellerin, t. ii., da Becueil, p. 284, s'exprime ainsi. Le P. 
Hardouin les avait d'abord attribuees a des negociants d'Antioche 

VOL. XT. N.S. M 

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La presence presque constante de I'effigie d'Antio- 
clius IV. sur ces curieuses monnaies suggere k la sagacite 
d'Eckhel Thypoth^se suivante, qui est juste de tout 
point : — 

"In his numis saepe proponitur caput Antiochi IV. 
diadematum radiatum, quo forte regnante peregrinis his 
Antiochenis jura quaedam fuere constituta." 

Certes Eckhel a ^t^ bien pres de trouver la solution qui 
a raon avis est la veritable — n'a-t-il fait que I'entrevoir, ou 
n'a-t-il pas os^ la proposer P C'est ce que nous ne pour- 
rons jamais savoir. 

Je ne mentionnerai plus que le passage suivant, em- 
prunte k Pellerin (Recueil, torn. ii. p. 136). On comprend 
aisement que des compagnies de negociants qui avaient 
obtenu des rois de Syrie le privilege de former des 
etablissements en differentes villes de leur royaume, ont 
pu faire fabriquer des monnaies, soit pour leur payer des 
tributs, soit pour leur propre commerce. Mais on ne 
voit pas pourquoi ni k quelle fin il en aurait ^te frappe une 
aussi grande quantite en differents temps par des habitans 
de Ptolemais, pour avoir obtenu le droit de citoyens 

J'avoue queje ne suis nullement touch^ de la justesse 
de ce raisonnement, et que le P. Hardouin, dont Tavis a 
ete partage par Liebe et par le P. Froelicb, me semble 
avoir ^t^ beaucoup plus pi es de la v^rite. 

Je puis maiiitenant proceJer a Tenumeration des mon- 
naies qui ferment le groupe numismatique dont je viensde 

etablis a Ptolemais, et Spanheim, ainsi que Beger, ont adhere a 
cet avis. Depuis, il a juge qu'il fallait plutot les referer a des 
habitans de Ptolemais, qui avaient obtenu le droit de citoyens a 
Antioche, ce qui leur avait fait prendre le nom d'Antiocheens. 

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Ohv. — Tete royale, jeune, radiee. 

/i^i'.— ANTIOXEON TON HPOS AA<^NHI. Dans le 
champ a gauche un trepied snrmontant les deux 
lettres A A. Jupiter Olympien regardant a 
gauche, le haut du corps nu ; de la main droite 
levee il tient une couronne, et de la gauche 
il rassemble ses vetements. M, 16 mill. Pellerin, 
Recueil, t. ii., PI. Ixxvi., No. 16., p. 187. 

Pellerin fait observer que les lettres AA sent rera- 
placees sur d'autres exemplaires par les lettres AB, ou 
par des monogrammes, et que par consequent le groupe 
A A ne peut contenir une date. . Si nous en jugeons par la 
figure publiee par Pellerin, il semble que cette monnaie 
appartiendrait plut6t a Antiochus V. Eupator, qu'a Antio- 
chus IV. Epiphane. Mais il ne mo parait pas possible de 
decider une pareille question sans avoir vu la piece en 

Le P. Froehlich attribue la memo monnaie k Antio- 
chus IV. (p. 51, No. 20, PL vii., No. 20). Celle qu'il a fait 
graver ne porte pas de lettres dans le champ. II se con- 
tente pour le module de faire suivre sa description de 
rindication M, 3. 

Le No. 21 de memo recueil difFere du precedent en ce 
qu'il porte dans le champ des lettres AI, et un mono- 
gramme mal determine. 

Sous le No. 22 sent group^s d'autres exemplaires offrant 
les uns dans le champ les lettres FA, BA, et un autre un 
trepied ; d'autres, des monogrammes differents ainsi repre- 
sent^s sous le No. 22, de la PI. vii. ft Pf >P K M Ai?. 
Froelich a neglige d'ailleurs de nous dire si ces signes 
sont isoles ou repartis par groupes. 

Le meme auteur attribue a Antiochus VIII. une piece 
du meme module Ai. 3, oflrant Tcffigie radiee d'Antio- 

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chus IV. Epiphane qu'il est impossible de ne pas recon- 
naltre, et le meme type du revers avec les deux mono- 
grammes & 6t -^ places k droite et sL gauche dans le 
champ (p. 93, No. 9, PL xiii.. No. 9). II lit & tort dans la 
legende le mot AA<^XHN, au lieu de AA<^NHI. 

Je possede un exemplaire de cette monnaie, sans lettres 
ni monogramme places dans le champ, et qui offire indu- 
bitablement Feffigie d'Antiochus IV. Son diamStre est 
de 21 millimetres. C'est bien le No. 20 de la PI. vii. de 

line second exemplaire de ma collection, du diametre 
de 20 sur 18 millimetres, porte h gauche dans le champ un 
monogramme pen visible, dans lequel neanmoins je crois 
reconnaitre la forme C^. L'effigie est toujours celle 
d'Antiochus IV. Enfin im troisieme exemplaire a TeflBigie 
d'Antiochus IV., et du diametre de 17 millimetres, pr^sente 
a gauche dans le champ le monogramme [^ place au des- 
sus d'une esp^ce de cippe arrondi au sommet, et qui 
pourrait Stre pris, soit pour nn casque, soit pour I'omphalos, 
siSge sur lequel Apollon est toujours represente assis, sur 
les tetradrachmes des premiers rois Seleucides. 

Eckhel (Doct., tom. iii., p. 305) cite lesmonnaies d^crites 
par Pellerin et par Froelich, en mentionnant le Cabinet 
de Vienne comme contenant des specimens de ces mon- 

Mionnet, dans son Supplement (tom. viii., p. 29), decrit 
sous le No. 166 une variete des monnaies a Teffigie d'Antio- 
chus IV, frapp^e par les Antiocheens etablis pres de 
Daphne, et elle diflSre des precedentes par le presence d'un 
monogramme form6 des lettres TA. Son module est 
-33. 5. Ne serait-il pas possible que ce monogramme 
soi-disant nouveau ne fut que le monogramme [JS^ de]k 
decrit, et que le mediocre etat de la piece aurait empSche 

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de reconnaitre P Ce serait i verifier au cabinet des 
medailles 06 la pi^ce doit se trouver. 

A la page 149 du meme torn, viii., Mionnet, apres avoir 
renvoye aux monnaies grecques de bronze frapp^es pour 
Antiocbus IV. Epipbane, a Dapbne, et decrites dans son 
volume V. p. 215 et suivantes, dit ceci : " On y rencontre 
quelquefois la date AMP, de TSre des Seleucides/' 

AMP c'est 144, c'est k dire Tannee qui a immediate- 
ment suivi la profanation du Temple de Jerusalem. II y 
aurait 1^, ce me semble, un singulier indice de plus de la 
baine que lea Juifs renegats nourrissaient centre leurs 
anciens coreligionnaires. 

Sous le No. 131 (meme page) Mionnet emprunte a 
Sestini la description d'une monnaie analogue, du module 
M. 5, sans lettre ni monogramme dans le cbamp du 
revers. La legende y serait aussi abr^gee, ANTIOXEON 
TON nPOS AA<^N (Musee de Hedervar. iii. p. 52, No. 226. 
C. M. H., No. 5926). J'avoue n'avoir pas une grande 
confiance dans Texactitude de cette description, par la 
raison seule qu'elle est emprunt^e k Sestini. 

Sous le No. 132, je lis : " Autre, ANTIOXEaN TON 
nPOS AA<>NHI meme type ; dans le cbamp, d'un c6t^, 
PA, de Tautre A — M. 4," d'apr^s Sestini, Mus. He- 
derv. iii., p. 52, No. 227. Enfin, sous le No. 133 on 
trouve : " Autre avec PA et le monogramme (Y|. — -^. 4. 
Sestini Lc. No. 228.— C. M. H. No. 5927." 

Je terminerai cette enumeration par celle des varietes 
que je trouve mentionn^es dans le catalogue RolHn et 
Feuardent (1864) sous les Nos. suivants : — 

7090. Types habituels ; dans le cbamp PA et ANB. — M. 6. 

7091. Dans le cbamp. IIAn en monogramme. — M. 5. 

7092. Dans le cbamp. EA et un trepied. — M. 8. 
7092bis. Autre. Sans lettre ni symbole. 2 exemplaires. — 

M. 8. 

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De tout ce qui precede nous pouvons hardiment conclure 
que les varietes de ces monnaies sent extremement multi- 

Voyons raaintenant s'il n'est pas possible de trouver une 
autre attribution tout aussi vraisemblable pour la Daphne 
dont il est question dans la legende. 

Et d'abord le sanctuaire place k une lieue environ 
d'Antiocbe, n'etait pour ainsi dire qu'un faubourg de cette 
ville magnifique et rien ne justifierait I'emploi de la for- 
mule ANTI0XE12N nPOS AA^NHI pour designer les An- 
tiocbeens eux-memes, habitans d'un quartier particulier de 
leur ville ; nous connaissons des centaines de pieces frapp^es 
a Antioche qui ne prend jamais que son titre de metropole. 
Par quelle singuliere circon stance, d'ailleurs inexplicable, 
cette population aurait-elle imaging de se distinguer de 
celles de toutes les autres Antioches, par la particularite 
qu'elle etait pr^s de Daphne ? C'est bien evidemment a 
des citoyens d' Antioche etablis hors de la metropole 
qu'appartient la legende en question. Les Juifs apostats 
qui avaiant regu d'Antiochus IV. le droit de cite et le 
nom d'Antiocheens, avaient-ils ete se grouper dans le 
voisinage de Tasyle de Daphn^, par precaution pour 
I'avenir? C'est fort possible. Reraarquons toutefois 
qu'il a existe dans la Judee meme une Daphne dont j'ai 
jadis revoque Texistence en doute, suivant en cela le 
jugement presque toujours infaillible de Reland. Mais 
comme I'emplacement de cette Daphne a ete determine avec 
une entiere certitude par Robinson, je suis oblige au- 
jourd'hui de reconnaltre que cette ville a exists, et que le 
texte de Josephe, oii cette ville est mentionne, doit-6tre 
respecte. II n'y a plus d'apparence de raison pour y 
changer en AANHS le mot AA<^NH2. 

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Voici le texte (B. J. IV. ii. 1) dans lequel il est question 
du lac Samakhonite qui s'etendait en marais : — 

fiexpi Aa^v»ys x^^^^ • • • ''"Tyas €XpVTOi at rpiffxyvaoL tov fiiKpov 
KoXovfjievov ^looddvrjv xnro to t^s XP"^^^!^ ^ooq veov Trpoairefnrova-i 
TO) fieyoXto, 

Robinson, apres avoir explore le Tell-el-kadhi, — em- 
placement presque probable de Dan et du Temple du Veau 
d'Or — eut I'idee de visiter le pays situe au sud de ce Tell. 
Voici comment il s'exprime au sujet de cette course. 
(Tom. iii., p. 393. Ed. de Londres, 1856.) 

** Mounting at 12.85, and descending along the south side of 
Tell-el-Kady, we were surprised to find ourselves again upon a 
limestone formation, and also upon firm dry ground, instead of 
a marsh. At 1 o'clock we came to a low mound of rubbish, 
with cut stones, evidently the remains of a former town, now 
covered thickly with thistles. It is called Diflheh, and probably 
marks the site of an ancient Daphne, mentioned byJosephus as 
Dear the source of the lower Jordan, and the Temple of the 
Golden Calf. Here are three or four old orange trees, several 
stumps of palm trees, and also pomegranates and fig trees, 
looking verv old. The tract for some distance south is called 
Ar Diffneh," &c. 

L' existence de cette Daphne une fois bien etablie, je ne 
voispas trop pourquoi Ton n'admettrait pas queles monnaies 
des Antiocheens IIPOS AA4>NHI, ont pu etre frappees 
dans cette locality qui etait beaucoup plus rapprochee de 
la mere patrie, par les Juifs renegats qui avaient quitte 
Jerusalem. Je me demande en effet si les veritables 
habitans d*Antioche auraient toltTe facilement ^ leur 
porte I'autonomie de gens prenant leur nom, tout en 
faisant tout ce qu'il fallait pour bien tracer une ligne de 
demarcation entre eux et leurs opulents voisins. Tout 
bien considere, je propose cette nouvelle attribution avec 
une certaine confiance. 

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Le P. Froelich (P. 51, No. 24) cite d'apr^s Vaillant 
sans en donner la figure, la pi^ce suivante : 

Obv. — Tete d'Antiochus FV., radiee. 

Olympien debout, elevant nne couronne de la 
main droite et ramassant son vetement de la 
main gauche. M, 2. on 3. 

C'est tr^8-probablement la meme monnale qu'il decrit 
plus loin au r^gne d'Antioclius VIII. d'apr^s Beger, et 
sous le No. 11 de la page 93 ; il lui attribue le module 
JE. 3, et n'en donne pas la figure. C'est encore la 
mSme monnaie qui est citee dans le catalogue BoUin et 
Feuardent sous le No. 7093.—^. 6. 

Pellerin n'en fait pas figurer non plus dans la PI. Ixxxiv. 
(Eecueil, torn, ii.) 

Eckhel (torn, iii., p. 305) cite cette m^me noionnaie 
d^crite par Beger (Th. Br., torn, iii., p. 25), avec le module 
-^. 3, comme se trouvant au cabinet de Yienne, avec le 
module M. 2. 

Mionnet (Suppl., tom. viii., p. 30, No. 159) decrit la 
meme piece, du module jM, 6, offrant dans le champ k 
gauche un astre, et a droite les lettres MY. Cette piece 
est tiree de Combe (Yet. pop. et Reg. num., p. 205, No. 21, 
tab. xii., No. 3.) 

Je possede un exemplaire de cette monnaie provenant 
de Nazareth et oflrant les types suivantes : — 

Obv, — Tete radiee d'Antiochus IV. 

Rev, — Le Jupiter Olympien du type ordinaire. ANTIO- 
XEON TON EN DTOAEMAIA : dans le champ 
a gauche le monogramme ^ ; a droite M. (H 
serait possible que cette lettre M indubitable fit 
partie d'un monogramme altere.) M. 24 mill. 

Les monnaies que nous aliens maintenant passer en 

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revue n'appartiennent plus au r^gne d'Antiochus IV., ou 

du raoins elles n'offrent plus I'eflBigie de ce prince. 

Obv. — Tete de femme tourrelee, toumee a droite. 

Rev.—ANTlOXEin^ TON EN nTOAEMAIAI. Victoire 
debout, tenant de la main droite une haste 
bifurquee a sa partie superieure, et dans laquelle 
Eckhel voit une palme, a gauche dans le champ le 
monogramme f^. M. 2. Pellerin (t. ii., p. 284, 
Pi. Ixxxiv., &g, 3). Eckhel (D. N. V., t. iii., 
p. 305). 

On remarque Panalogie qui existe entre ce mono- 
gramme ^ et celui de la pi^ce precedente ^ qui appar- 
tient certaineraent au r^gne d' Antiochus IV. Cela pourrait 
nous conduire h penser que ces deux monnaies de types 
distincts, ont ete cependant emises el des epoques trds 
rapprochees, sin on k la meme. 

Ohv. — Tete de femme tourelee, toumee a droite. 

2?^\— ANTIOXE.— EN. IITOA. (En legende circulaire)— 
Jupiter Olympien debout, regardant a gauche : 
de la main droite il tient une patere et s'appuie 
de la main gauche sur une haste. Dans le champ, 
en haut, a gauche L.©. (I'an IX.) ; une contre- 
marque indeterminee est dans un cercle imprime 
sur la partie inferieure de I'image de Jupiter. Sur 
cette contremarque empiete un Z qui fait partie 
du type primitif. M. 2. Pellerin, 1. c, PI. 
Ixxxiv., fig. 4). Eckhel (1. c, p. 305). 

Obv, — Tete de Jupiter toumee a droite. 

ASYA. Femme demi-nue, debout, regardant a 
gauche ; de la main droite elle tient deux flam- 
beaux, et de la gauche s'appuie sur une haste. 
M. 2. Pellerin (I.e. &g. 5). Eckhel (1. c. p. 

Obv. — Tete lauree d'Apollon tournee a droite. 

i?^r.— ANTIOXEfiN— EN DTOAEMA. Fno lyre. Au 
dessoua en deux li^nes A^ — K.A. (ASYAOY 
KAl AYTONOMOY)^ M, 3. Pellerin (1. c. tig. 
6). Eckhel (i.e. p. 305). 

VOL. XI. N.S. N 

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Mionnet (SuppL, torn, viii., p. 150) enumere ainsi qu'il 

suit les pieces de cette classe, d^crites dans son ouvrage : — 

" Voyez dans la description (torn, v., p. 216) les medailles 

autonomes grecques, en bronze, quelquefois avec ces 

epoques : © — © M ; eelles qui ont ete frappees pour Antio- 

chus IV. sans 6poque, et pour Antiochus VIII. et Cl^o- 

patre, tantot sans ^poque ou avec cette 6poque, ©HP." 

II d^crit ensuite la piece suivante : — 

184. Obv. — Tete imberbe, diademe. 

Rev.—AKTIO .... HTOAEMA .... Come d'abon- 
dance. M, 3. Combe., Yet. pop. et Beg. Num., 
p. 222, No. 2, PI. xii., No. 19. 

La double date, et © *i, rapportee par Mionnet, me parait, 
je Tavoue, difficile a admettre ; si Tune des deux est bonne, 
Tautre ne pent plus guere Tetre — il semble bien impos- 
sible en effet que la m^me type ait ete employe ainsi d, 
90 ans de distance. 

L'an © pourrait k la rigueur 6tre pris pour Tan 9 de 
Tautonomie accordee aux Antiocbeens de Ptolemais. Si 
cette autonomie leur a ete accordee k la demande du grand 
prStre Jason vers Tan 174 avant J.C. (139 des Seleucides), 
Tan IX coinciderait avec I'an 165 avant J.C. (143 des 
Seleucides), annee dans laquelle Judas Maccabee purifia le 
Temple, et restaura le culte judaique k Jerusalem ; cette 
memo annee 6tant celle de la mort d'Antiochus IV. ce 
dernier fait rendrait tres bien compte du cbangement de 
type adopte par les Antiocbeens de Ptolemais. Quant k 
la date 99 (©H), en la comptant de la mSme ^re elle nous 
amenerait k Tan 76 avant J.C. (238 des Seleucides), annee 
dans laquelle Antiocbus X., Eusebe, mari de Cleop&tre 
Sel6ne, mourut en Commagene. Rien done ne pent 
nous rendre un compte satisfaisant de cette date, k laquelle, 
je le repete, je ne crois gu^re. 

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Antiochus VIII. ET Cleopatre, sa mere. 

Nous avons vu tout k Theure, que Mionnet (torn, v., 
p. 216) cite des monnaiea de cette espece, tantot sans 
epoque, tantot avec I'epoque ©nP (189). 

Le P. Froelich (p. 93) decrit les pieces suivantes: — 
No. 5. Obv, — Tetes accolees de Cleopatre et d'Antiochus. 

d'abondance, de laquelle sort une grappe de 
raisin, dans le champ AN. ^.8 (PI. xiii., No. 6). 

No. 6. Obv. — Meme legende que sur le precedente, mais avec 
le date ©IIP (189). Les types du droit et du 
revers de cette piece ne sent pas decrits par 
le P. Hardouin, a qui Froelich a emprunte la 
piece en question. -^.8, 

Nous resterions dans une grande incertitude sur Fex- 
istence de cette piece, grace au vague absolu de la descrip- 
tion qui precede, si nous n'avions Tindication donnee par 
Mionnet, qui certainement n'aurait pas parle d'une mon- 
naie des Antiocheens de Ptolemais frappee pour Antio- 
chus VIII. et Cleopatre, avec la date ©IIP, s'il ne Tavait 
connue que par la mention ecourtee de Froelich et de 
Hardouin. L'an ©IIP, 189 des Seleucides, convient par- 
faitement d'ailleurs au r^gne d'Antiochus VIII., Grypus, 
puisque c'est dans Tannee precedente que sa m^re Cleo- 
pS,tre lui a donne la couronne apr^s avoir fait mettre 
a mort son fils aine, Seleucus V. 

Mionnet dans son Supplement (tom. viii. p. 160) decrit 
la piece suivante de cette serie : — 

135. Obv, — ^Tetes accolees d'Antiochus VIII. et de Cleopatre, 
diademees et surmontees du lotus. 

d'abondance ; dans le champ a droite, le mono- 
gramme >X^. ^' 4. D'apres Sestini. Mus. 
Hederv. iii., p. 52, No. 229, C. M. H., No. 5929). 

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Je possMe un tres bel exemplaire de la monnaie d' Antio- 
chus VIII. et de sa mSre Oleop&tre ; en voici la descrip- 
tion : — 

Obv. — Tetes accolees d'Antiochus et de Cleopatre, toumees 
a droite ; celle d'Antiochus est lanree. 

liei;.--ANTIOXEON TON EN nXOAEMAl (sic). Come 
d'abondance, de laqaelle pend nne grappe de 
raisin ; dans le champ a gauche le monogramme 
1^. M, 16 mill. 

Eckhel, de son c6te, mentionne les deux pieces suivantes : 
Obv, — ^Deux tetes laurees accouplees. 

A5YA0Y. Come d'abondance ; dans le champ 
L. IP (110). M. 8. (Doct. Num. Vet., t. iii. 
p. 806),. d'apres Liebe (Goth. Num., p. 160). 

La date IP, qui nous reporte au r^gne d'Antiochus III., 
avertit tout d'abord que la pi^ce a 6te tres mal lue. Nous 
n'en tiendrons done pas compte : — 

Obv, — Meme type au droit. 

AYTON, Come d'abondance ; dans le champ 
AI. ou AN. et la date 0nP, qui cependant 
manque sur d'autres exemplaires. M.d, Cabinet 
de Yienne et Pellerin (Rois, p. 102, PI. xii.). 

La figure publiee par Pellerin justifie pleinement et le 
P. Froelich et Mionnet, qui avaient parfaitement le droit 
de mentionner la monnaie avec la date ®np. 

Enfin, dans le catalogue Eollin et Feuardent (No. 7094), 
je trouve inscrit un exemplaire de cette monnaie, sans 
lettre ni symbole dans le champ. 


Les monnaies des Antiocheens de Callirhoe sontconnues 
de tout le monde. 

L. P. Froelich (p. 51) decrit deux varietes de cette 
monnaie, M, III. No. 25, d'aprds Vaillant : — 

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06*;.— Tete d'Antiochiis IV. radiee. ANTIOXEON TON 
nPOS KAaAIPOHN. Jupiter deboat, tenant 
de la main droite une couronne ou une patere ; 
et de la gauche une haste (PL vii., No. 25). 
M. 3, No. 26. Sur un exemplaire etudie en nature 
et decrit egalement dans le Musee Theupoli. 

Obv. — Meme tete d'Antiochus IV., radiee. 

debout, tenant sur la main droite un aigle, et 
s'appuyant de la gauche sur une haste. 

De ces deux descriptions qui sout toutes deux defec- 
tueuses, la derni^re est la moins mauvaise. Quant k la 
legende, elle contient toujours le mot KAAAIPOHI au datif, 
tout autre legon est done k rejeter. Parmi les monnaies 
d'Antiochus VIII. (p. 93) le P. Froelich reproduit encore 
la description suivante — d'apres Beger : — 

06i;.— Tete radiee du roi. M. 8, No. 10 (PI. xiii., No. 10). 

Z^t;.— ANTI0XE12N TON nP. KAAAlPOHN. Jupiter 
debout, portant un aigle sur la main droite et 
s'appuyant de la gauche sur la haste ; dans le 
champ le monogramme ^, au dessus d'tm I. 

Cette description, on le voit, n'est pas meilleure que les 
deux premieres ; la pi^ce d'ailleurs appartient k Anti- 
ochus IV. 

Pellerin (torn, ii., pp. 250 k 253) avait dejk corrige les 
mauvaises legons que je viens de reprodnire d'aprds 

Voici ce qu'il en dit : — " Au reste les medailles que 
Vaillant avait vues etaient apparemraent mal conservees, 
y ayant lu HPOS KAAAIPOHN. II y a sur celles-ci et 
sur toutes celles que Ton connait, EQI, au lieu de TIPOS, 
et un iota a la fin du mot KAAAIPOHI, comme il y en a un 

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a la fin du mot AA^NHI ; ce qui est encore une conformite 
qui fait connattre que les unes et les autres sent du meme 
pays" (p. 253). 

La figure que donne Pellerin (PI. Ixxxv., No. 27) nous 
ofire une tSte radiee extr^mement jeune et qui convien- 
drait mieux k Antioehus V., Eupator, qu'a son pSre Antio- 
chus IV., Epiphane. Au re vers, le Jupiter Olympien 
porte un aigle sur la main droite, et s'appuie de la gauche 
sur une haste ; d gauche dans le champ sont placees les 
lettres CCD. — jE. 20 mill. Je ferai remarquer en passant 
qu'il semble singulier que les deux formes O et 00 de 
Tomega paraissent en meme temps, cela me donne a 
penser que la pi^ce a et6 mal lue. 

Eckhel (D. N. V., tom. iii., p. 306) decrit exactement 
la monnaie en question d'apres le Musee de Vienne et 
d'apres Pellerin ; il ne parle pas de lettres, ni de mono- 
grammes places dans le champ. 

Mionnet (Suppl. tom viii., p. 30) decrit sous le No. 157 
une piece de module M. 5 ofirant exactement les memos 
types et en plus dans le champ le monogramme ^. 

A la page 148 du meme tom. viii. du Supplement, 
Mionnet renvoie au tom. v. de la description generale 
page 215, ou sont decrites les monnaies de cette s^rie 
frapp^es par Antioehus IV., Epiphane, Puis, sous le 
No. 130, il reproduit la deficription d'une piece du Mus^e 
Hedervar publiee par Sestini (tom. iii., p. 52, No. 230 ; 
C. M. H. No. 5930). Ce sont toujours les memos types ; 
mais il n'est pas question de lettres, ni de monogramme 
places dans le champ du revers ; le module indiqu6 est 

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Dans le catalogue Rollin et Feuardent sont inscrites 
les varietes suivantes : — 

7087. Types accoutumes ; dans le champ 2H en mono- 
gramme. M. 5. Deux exemplaires. 

7088. Memes types ; 2 dans le champ. M. 4. 

7089. Memes tjrpes. Dans le champ AN en monogramme. 
M. 3. Deux exemplaires. 

Ce No. 7089 est sans doute le No. 157 de Mionnet d^crit 

Voici pour terminer la description de I'exemplaire que 
je poss6de : — 

Obv, — Tete jeune radiee, tout a fait semblable a celle 
d'Antiochus V., Eupator. 

Olympien, demi-nu, tourne a gauche, portant un 
aigle sur la main droite, et de la gauche s'appuyant 
sur la haste ; dans le champ a gauche le mono- 
gramme AN. (Serait-ce encore le No. 167 de 
Mionnet, 7089 du Catalogue RoUin et Feuar- 
dent ?) M. 19 sur 16 mill. 

II ne me reste plus qu'a citer ici pour memoire une 
piece qui pourrait fort bien rentrer dans le groupe interes- 
sant queje viens d'^tudier. EUe est ainsi d^crite pur 
Mionnet (SuppL, torn viii., p. 30). 

158. Obv. — Antiochia ad Mygdoniam, postea Nisibis Mesopota- 
miaB. Tete radiee d'Antiochus IV., a droite ; 
derriere, BX. 

/^^v.— ANTIOXEQN TON n MYrAONIA. Victoire 
marchant a gauche, tenant une couronne de la 
main droite et une palme de la gauche ; a droite 
MC^, a gauche AP ; a I'exergue . . O (ut videtur) 
cabinet de M. Millingen. M, 4. 

II pent se faire, ainsi que je Tai dit tout k I'heure, que 
I'origine de cette rare monnaie soit encore la memo que 
ceUes des pieces de Daphne, de Ptolemais, et de Callirhoe ; 
mais je me garderais bien de I'affirmer. 

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Ifisibi de la Mesopotomie ^tait une ville situ^e sur le 
Tigre, et portait chez les Grecs le nom d'Antiochia Myg- 
donia, d'apr^s le t^moignage de Th^odoret. (Hist., 1. i. 
c. 7). La legende de la monnaie en question pent done 
parfaitement ne pas concerner des Juifs 6tabHs a Nisibi, et 
ayant re9u les droits de cii6 et le nom d'Antiocheens. 

Quoiqu'il en soit, je n'ai pas cm pouvoir me dispenser 
de mentionner la piece en question, k la suite de toutes 
celles que j'avais k ^tudier, precis^meut parce qu'elle avait 
ete frappee comme elles, a I'effigie d'Aiitiochus IV., Epi- 

F. DE Saulcy. 

Paris, 12 Novembrc, 1870. 

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[Read before the Numismatic Society, March 17, 1871.] 

My collection of coins being now suflSciently complete to 
illustrate clearly my views respecting the classification of 
the entire silver coinage of Henry IV., V., and VI., I 
will communicate to this Society the conclusions at which 
I have arrived. The foundation-stone to the following 
arrangement was laid by my paper, " On the London and 
Calais Groats of Henry IV., V., and VI.'' i That paper 
showed roughly the arrangement of the groats without 
entering into details, and the arguments then used will, 
with one or two exceptions, not be recapitulated here. 
This paper, on the other hand, will enter into all neces- 
sary details ; the coins which dovetail into and follow each 
other with remarkable regularity will be traced in the 
order in which they were issued from the mint; a marked 
and easily recognised distinction will be made between 
the coinages of each king ; the arguments used will be 
founded ou facts — theory will be eschewed ; and the re- 
sults arrived at, if contested, can be supported by further 

In a series of coins extending over a period of sixty 
years, a few rare intermediate types will necessarily super- 

1 Num. Chron., n.s., vol. viii., p. 168. 

VOL. XI. N.s. O 

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vene about whose position some doubt may naturally be 
felt. These pieces, which draw a line between two coin- 
ages, shall be kept separate. Under any circumstances, 
even were I convinced to whose reign they rightly be- 
longed, I would still detach them from the main body and 
press them into my service, in order clearly to define 
where one coinage commences, where another ends. 
Particularly in these reigns do the intermediate or tran- 
sitional pieces force the other varieties into a position from 
whence they cannot extricate themselves ; the substantial 
assistance they likewise afford in certain parts of my 
argument will be seen from time to time as I proceed. 

As a specimen of their value I will give an instance. A 
half-groat will be noticed amongst the coins to be de- 
scribed as belonging to Henry IV. or Henry V. (PI. III. 
No. II). The reverse of this coin was struck from a die 
originally used by Henry IV., the Boman N being in 
Loudon, and no mark appearing after POSVI. The ob- 
verse, however, was certainly not struck with one of Henry 
IV. 's dies ; but with one intended for and first used by 
Henry V., the broken annulet ^ — a mark used exclusively 
by this king — being at one side of the crown. This coin, 
which exhibits the peculiarities of the coinages of two 
reigns, must have been one of the very first issued by 
Henry V., a reverse die, belonging to his father, having 
hastily been joined to the new obverse in order to com- 

2 This distinctive mark might at first sight be taken for 
the usual annulet — has apparently been taken for it. The 
break, or open space, varies in its position. The origin of the 
broken annulet, and its adoption by Henry V.,will be shown in 
the pages to follow. In all probability " broken annulet " is 
the wrong term to apply to the mark. For want of a better I 
use it, as did Mr. Longstaffe. 

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plete a coin for immediate circulation.^ Such makeshifts 
were not unusual with the coinages of the middle ages. 
We have numerous instances in the reign of Edward IV., 
some of whose coins with Bristol, Coventry, and York 
obverses have London reverses ; a groat with a Bristol 
obverse has a Coventry reverse, and very probably York 
aud Coventry reverses were attached to London obverses, 
as the usual letter on tlie king^s breast is sometimes 
wanting. The most interesting coinage of the English 
series, the coinage of Charles I., also affords proof that 
similar practices were, at a pinch, very frequently re- 
sorted to. 

In order further to corroborate the evidence supplied 
by the interesting half-groat in question, and to establish 
conclusively its position in this most obscure period of the 
English coinage, I beg now to call attention to the coin 
succeeding it in my list (PL III. No. 12). Here is another 
half-groat whose obverse is from the same die as the one 
just described; but a fresh reverse is now introduced. 
This reverse, which reads TtDIVTORGC, and is without a 
mint-mark, is of a transitional character — an extremely 
rare instance of Henry V.^s early money, on which the 
usual quatrefoil after POSVI is wanting, A quatrefoil 
after POSVI may be said to be identified with the early 
groats and half-groats of Henry V. It is a fact worthy 
of notice that, during the reign of this king a distinctive 
mark was placed after POSVI — first the quatrefoil, 
then the annulet. Aud it will be seen from the list I 
give of Henry VI.^s coins, that he also followed his 
father's example during the early part of his reign. This 

3 For a drawing and description of ancient coining irons, see 
Num. Chron., vol. vii., p. 18. 

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monarchy however, after a time, adopted distinctions of far 
greater significance, and, although a mark after POSVI 
was continued irregularly for years afterwards, no par- 
ticular importance can be attached to its position there. 

In a paper ''On some Unpublished Silver Coins of 
Edward IV.,^' * I gave it as my opinion that, so far as 
pennies, halfpennies, and farthings are concerned, the 
character of the letter N in London is of no importance 
as an arranger, and that little or no assistance can be 
expected from it in regulating systematically the small 
coins of the Henries. This opinion will be verified ^ in 
the pages to follow, my collection of small money having 
lately been considerably augmented by a supply from the 
Highbury find, which find fell into my hands in a round- 
about manner, after the authorities at the British Museum 
had selected such specimens as were required for the 
national collection. Not one Calais coin, not one coin of 
Henry YI. did I find amongst some hundreds which I 
carefully examined. The bulk of the coins belonged to 
an early issue of Henry V. There were, however, many 
curious and rare pieces struck in the reigns of Richard II. 

* Num. Chron., n.s., vol. x., p. 40. 

* A knowledge of the coinage of Edward III. and Bichard II. 
does not lead us to expect that Henry lY. would make a point 
of using the Roman N on his small money — rather the opposite 
is the case. My cabinet contains 11 pennies and 11 halfpennies 
of Edward III. — 4 pennies, and every one of the halfpennies, 
have the old English U in London. I have 4 pennies and 18 
half-pennies of Richard II. — 1 penny and 12 hal^ennies have 
the old English R. As not two of these coins are from the 
same die, and were collected, either for rarity of type or beauty 
of preservation, it may be assumed that a halfpenny of Edward 
III. or Richard H., with the Roman N in London, is a curiosity. 
Mr. Longstaffe has a very rare half-groat of Edward III., which 
deserves mention. It has the old English R in London, and 
the tresBuro surrounding the king's bust has only seven arches. 

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and Henry IV. I observed also a few coins of Edward 
III., and one or two of those which are alleged to have 
been issued by Edward I. 

The Highbury find, which consisted almost entirely of 
halfpennies and pennies, was concealed in Henry V/s 
reign, during the period the broken annulet and quatrefoil 
were used as distinguishing marks, and before the in- 
troduction of the common annulet money. The hoard of 
groats discovered at Stamford in October, 1866, was 
buried not earlier than the latter part of the year 1464, 
when a reduction took place in the weight of the coinage. 
From what I have seen of the Stamford coins, I should 
say that the date of their deposit was very soon after 
1464. I take this view because the light money of 
Edward IV. is represented by only a few specimens. This 
opinion, however, must be taken with some allowance, as 
only part of the coins have come under my notice.® 

^ Mr. Justin Simpson, of Stamford, appears to have been 
the first Numismatist who examined the coins. He states that 
they were discovered on the morning of the 22nd of October, 
1866, by a labourer, named Christian, whilst employed in 
making a drain in the rear of the east end of St. George's 
Church, Stamford. The number of coins collected by the 
authorities for the Crown amounted to 2,940, but the number 
originally found exceeded 3,000, and weighed 24 lbs. 8 oz. 
The entire find, I believe, consisted of groats. Amongst them 
Mr. Simpson noticed a few of Edward III., struck at London 
and York, much worn and clipped, and two, rather poor, of 
Richard H., but not one of Henry IV. — many Calais of Henry 
v., but comparatively few of London — a very large quantity 
of Henry YI.'s Calais money, also some of his London money, 
and fine specimens of Edward IV.'s heavy coinage. Mr. Simpson 
noticed only one specimen of the light coinage of Edward IV., 
but two have lately passed through my hands. Both have the 
letter E in the legend shaped like B ; one has a mascle after 
(irVITTTS. These coins confirm the opinion I offered in my 
last paper. The urn in which the coins wore found was formed 

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In connection with the classification of the coinages of 
Henry IV., V., and VI., the Stamford and Highbury finds 
are of very great importance. Both finds tend in every 
way to strengthen my views as to the arrangement of the 
entire series. Pennies of York and pennies of Durham 
were intermingled with Highbury coins, thereby confirm- 
ing the opinion I had previously expressed that Henry V. 
did coin money at York. Indeed^ the false position the 
York money holds is one of two causes, to which may in 
great measure be traced the obscurity, until recently 
surrounding the coinages of Henry V. and VI. The first 
of these causes is the anomalous position the Calais 
money holds. Our great authority, the late Mr. Hawkins, 
makes no allusion whatever to this mint in his " Silver Coins 
of England,'' nevertheless there can be no doubt but that 
the principal object of the establishment of the Calais mint ^ 

of the ordinary coarse brown or red clay, and was about eight 
inches in height. It was broken into small fragments by the 
pickaxe of the workman. 

^ After the town of Calais was surrendered to Edward IH., 
on the 8rd of August, 1847, it was thought expedient to es- 
tablish an English colony there, as ** the king meant to people 
the town only with Englishmen, for the better and more sure 
defence of the same.'' He also established a mint, and com- 
manded that the white money to be made there should be such 
as was coined in England." — Ruding, vol. i., 224, and vol. ii., 

" Calais was so identified with the kingdom of England that 
Henry V.'s residence there was no exception to the rule." — 
(See ** Henry of Monmouth," by J. Endell Tyler, B.D., vol i. 

In John Brumeirs sale catalogue will be found this remark : 
** Calais was maintained by our sovereigns 210 years, but at an 
expense equal to one-fifth of the revenue of the whole kingdom ; 
it is little known that this town sent two members to the 
English House of Commons." Calais was retaken from the 
English in 1558. 

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was to supply money for circulation in this country ; and 
it therefore follows that the coins must be included with 
the English series^ which they closely resemble, not with 
the Anglo-Gallic series, from which they entirely differ. 
Otherwise, how is it to be accounted for that coins struck 
at Calais are common in comparison with those issued 
from the English mints ? How is it, when a hoard is 
discovered in this country, known from the condition of 
the coins to have been concealed while the Calais mint was 
in operation, that the quantity of Calais money found 
should always greatly predominate over the English ? ^ 
How is it, if the coins were not intended for general 
currency in England, that the type, the marks, the weight 
and purity of metal ® of the London and Calais money are 
alike ? ^^ Why should the Calais money only differ from 
the rest of the Anglo- Gallic series ? Why should numis- 
matic records, in alluding to the English mints, make a 
point of including that of Calais ? Why were both coin-, 
ages issued under the same authority ? ^^ And how can 

8 From the very imperfect mint accounts of the quantity of 
bullion coined in the early part of Henry VI.'s reign, we might 
almost expect to find the proportion of Calais money much 
greater than it is. 

® Item : '* That as the money of gold and silver (of Henry 
Y.) that shall be made in the Tower of London and Calais, or 
elsewhere within the realm of England, by royal authority, 
shall be made of as good alloy and just weight as it is at 
present made in the Tower of London." — Ruding, vol. i., 265. 

^^Item : ** That the king's mint be coined and made at Calais 
in the manner that it is made and governed at the Tower of 
London." — Ruding, vol. i., 266. 

" Early in the reign of Henry V.,Lodowick orLowys John, 
was appointed master and worker of the mints of London and 
Calais. Bartholomew Goldbeter occupied the same position 
from the 9th Henry V. till the 1— 11th Henry VI. In 1431, 
the oflS^ce was granted to William Russe. — Ruding, vol. i., 83 
and 256 ; and vol. ii. 195. 

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the questions I now ask be satisfactorily answered by those 
who take the opposite view of the question ? 

Ducarel and Hawkins include the Calais money with 
the Anglo-Gallic series ; and quite out of place the coins 
look in the position assigned them. General Ainslie, on 
the contrary^ makes no allusion to the Calais mint in his 
work on the same subject. The truth is^ there can be 
little doubt but that bullion was sent to Calais on purpose 
to be coined into money for the use of this country. This 
statement may appear strange; but it is nevertheless a 
fact that even in Edward IV.^s time, it was the intention 
of the king again to work the Calais mint^ and it was pro- 
posed, says Buding, '^that plate and bullion should be 
carried into the mint, there to be coined^ and when coined 
should be brought into England within three months.^^ 
It is supposed, however, that this intention was never 
carried into execution, as no Calais coins of Edward IV. 
are known, so that probably the mint was not worked 
after the reign of Henry VI. 

I now come to the second, perhaps the principal cause 
of the diflSculty attending the appropriation of the money 
of Henry IV., V., and VI. I allude to the York mint. 
Documentary evidence makes no allusion to a mint having 
been established in that city, either in Henry IV.'s or in 
Henry V.'s time, and up to the date of the publication of 
Hawkins's " Silver Coins ** it seems to have been taken for 
granted that of the three Henries, Henry VI. alone struck 
money at York. This wholesale appropriation of the York 
money to one king was due to the very elastic interpreta^ 
tion placed on a certain record, whereby we are informed 
that "in the first year of Henry VI., Goldbeter was 
authorised to coin money at York and Bristol, iu addition 
to London and Calais, which alone were particularized in 

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the indenture of the ninth of Henry V.^* <€ Therefore/' 
says Ruding, " it should seem that the coins of Henry 
struck at Bristol and York do not belong to either the 
IVth. or Vtli of that name.'' Now Ruding arrives at 
this opinion, although he more than once warns his 
readers to beware of the "imperfect/' ''the necessarily 
incomplete " state of much of the documentary evidence 
he produces. No exception seems to have been taken to 
the rule here laid down by Ruding, until Hawkins pub- 
lished a York penny (No. 337), which from its ''weight 
and workmanship" compelled him "to modify this 
opinion in regard to Henry IV." With the exception 
of this solitary coin, Hawkins follows, without remark, in 
the footsteps of his predecessors, and ascribes every other 
coin struck at York to Henry VI. Nevertheless, by the 
production of the penny of Henry IV., the arbitrary con- 
clusion arrived at that, of the three Henries, Henry VI. 
alone coined money at York, was considerably weakened, 
and it seems strange to me that, after the falseness of 
the theory was exposed when applied to the coinage of 
Henry IV., faith in its trustworthiness, when applied to 
money of Henry V., should still remain unshaken. The 
theory being proved wrong in one instance, could scarcely 
be expected with certainty to hold good in the other. 
And looking at all surrounding circumstances in a prac- 
tical manner, it must be admitted that numismatic writers 
have evidently erred in judgment when they argued that, 
because authority was given by one king to coin money 
at York, it necessarily followed no coins were struck in 
that city by his two predecessors. Besides, it must be 
remembered that the indenture in question refers merely 

^2 Ruding, vol. ii., 269. 

VOL. XI. N.S. P 

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to the ninth year of Henry V. Wliy, I ask, should it be 
taken for granted that indentures of earlier dates never 
existed ? Such indentures might have existed, the pro- 
bability is they did exists but are now missing or destroyed, 
as seems to have been the fate — cases shall presently be 
instanced — of not a few records having reference to this 
period of the English coinage. And, moreover, we must 
not altogether lose sight of the fact that, under the 
indenture in question authority was given to coin money 
at Bristol as well as at York, yet not a single Bristol coin 
weighing at the rate of 15 grs. to the penny can be pro- 
duced in evidence to show that the authority given was 
ever acted upon ; neither can I point to a York coin that 
I conceive to have been struck at a very early period of 
Henry VI/s reign, unless, as Mr. Longstaffe suggests, 
the son used the father's dies. Is it therefore to be 
wondered at, that those who deny to Henry V. a certain 
portion of the York money, find themselves unable, after 
carefully examining the coins, to give him any money at 
all? Coins can never be made subservient to documentary 
evidence, and at the proper time I will bring them forward 
as the only sure witnesses on numismatic subjects, to 
establish first of all the fact that Henry IV. used various 
dies at York, both before and after his thirteenth year, 
and it is manifest, therefore, that the coin engraved by 
Hawkins cannot be looked upon in the light of an extra- 
ordinary, much less an exceptional piece. And, finally, 
it will be noticed on reference to my list of Henry V.^s 
coins, that I assign to this king various pieces struck at 
York, and some pennies amongst the hoard discovered at 
Highbury, marked with the broken annulet, justify me in 
stating that he worked that mint soon after he succeeded 
to the throne. 

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As for numismatic records having reference to the 
operations of the mints during the reigns of Henry IV. 
and v., the more I study them, the less disposed I feel 
to regard their authority with any degree of confidence ; 
indeed, when unsupported by coins, it is as well to treat 
those incomplete statements as something requiring further 
confirmation. Assist us they may, guide us they cannot. 
My object, let it be understood, is not to deny the 
authenticity of such evidence so far as it goes, nor do I 
wish to detract from its just value as an authority ; but 
I must say that so obviously incomplete is its testimony 
in many cases that, at any rate, no negative argument can 
be founded on it with safety. 

As the position I shall maintain in respect to the classi- 
fication of the York coins of the three Henries, difibrs 
materially from that taken up by Ruding, Hawkins, and 
others, it is requisite in the first instance that I should 
completely destroy the Value of the evidence on which 
alone their arguments are grounded. Ruding grounds 
his argument simply on the hypothesis that because 
authority was given in Henry VI.^s time to coin at York, 
it naturally followed no like authority was given during 
the reigns of his two predecessors. He assumes that 
because the needful evidence is not forthcoming, it never 
existed. He argues on the assumption that numismatic 
records of the period are complete. Hawkins, after having 
considerably damaged Ruding's position by the publica- 
tion of the York penny of Henry IV., nevertheless follows 
him in his argument so far as the coins of Henry V. are 
concerned. The reasoning adopted by Ruding and 
Hawkins looks well enough at first sight — some surface 
arguments do look well enough at first sight — but will 
not bear closer inspection. Passing over the imperfect 

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state of the documentary evidence of the period, little 
heed seems to have been taken by Numismatists of the 
important fact that York, after London, was one of the 
most, if not the most, prolific mint in this country, and 
that coins were struck there without intermission from 
the time of Henry III. (I might, admitting part of the 
short-cross money to have been coined by Richard I. and 
John, say from the time of William the Conqueror) to 
that of Richard II. ; and, again, if we except Edward V., 
without intermission from the reign of Henry VI. down 
to that of Edward VI., leaving the mint idle during only 
the reigns of Henry IV. and V., or, according to Hawkins, 
during the reign of Henry V. alone. Coins now show 
clearly enough the incompleteness of documentary evidence. 
They prove beyond question that the York mint was at 
work during the reigns of Henry III., Edward L, Edward 
II., Edward III., and Richard II., although numismatic 
records are almost silent on the subject. It will not, 
however, be disputed that the coins in themselves are 
suflScient proof, without the extraneous aid of documentary 
evidence. Records relating to the York mint again fail 
us for some time after the period of Henry VI. ; but, in 
spite of this vacuum, it is well known that coins were 
struck in that city by Edward IV., Richard III., and 
Henry VII. Thus we have coins actually struck at York 
by Henry III., Edward I., II., and III., by Richard II., 
Edward IV., Richard III., and Henry VII., although — 
if I except Edward I. and III. — I look in vain for the 
authority sanctioning their issue. If therefore Henry IV. 
and V. did coin money at York, there is nothing to sur- 
prise us if records are not now extant to substantiate the 
fact. The value of documentary evidence in all that 
relates to the proceedings of the York mint being thus 

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rendered nugatory, the coins claim to speak for them- 
selves without further let or hinderance. 

Mr. Longstaffe's classification^^ of the London and 
Calais groats will be found in all respects to agree with 
mine. Even as to the position of the York groat (Haw- 
kins^ No. 336) he so far modifies his previous opinion as 
to admit that if coined by Henry VI., one of his father's 
dies was probably used. 

In order to make my list of the silver coins issued 
during the reigns of the Henries fairly complete, I will 
include with my own many published varieties. When no 
remark follows a description of a coin, the coin may be 
assumed to be in my cabinet ; when a coin is already 
published and also in my cabinet, the fact I will en- 
deavour to state ; when I rely entirely for my information 
on other writers, my authority will be quoted. 

Henry IV. 

Henry IV., sumamed of Bolingbroke, the first king of 
the house of Lancaster, ascended the throne on the 30th 
September, 1399. During a reign of thirteen years, five 
months, and twenty-one days, he issued two distinct 
coinages. Up to his thirteenth year his coins weighed at 
the rate of 18 grs. to the penny ; afterwards the proportion 
was reduced to 15 grs. As both issues bear a very 
striking resemblance to the money of his predecessors 
Edward III. and Richard II., and as Henry V., on his 
ascension to the throne, adopted an entirely new model 
for his coinage, no difficulty can well be experienced in 

^*^ Num. Chron., n.s., vol. ix. 

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distinguishing the coins of the fourth from those of the 
fifth Henry. Indeed their coins diflfer as much in type 
as do those issued by Edward III. and Edward IV. With 
so marked a difference to guide us, it would almost seem 
superfluous to enter further into details by pointing out 
lesser peculiarities, were it not necessary that a careful 
investigation, in the first place of Henry IV. 's money, is 
essential in order to arrive at a simple and, in my firm 
opinion, the only possible solution of the entire question. 

The mint-mark on the coins of Henry IV. is a cross 
patee. His other marks are few, the slipped trefoil being 
the most conspicuous. On the groats of his second coin- 
age this mark constantly occurs, both after POSVI. and 
on the king's breast. Sometimes, though rarely, it is 
also to be found after the legend on the obverse. I have 
a groat on which the slipped trefoil is seen at all three 
places. Henry IV. likewise in a few rare instances used 
the annulet and the mullet. Not one of these marks is 
mentioned amongst the badges^^ assigned to him in works 
on heraldry. But, in reality, this can in no way astonish 
us, as the same may be said with equal truth of the 
coinages of Edward III. and Richard II., in whose reigns 
heraldic devices had arrived at a high pitch of ornamental 
excellence, and on whose coins we look in vain for dis- 
tinctive marks we might naturally expect to find. The 
great seal of Henry IV., being simply altered from one 
used by Richard II., affords no assistance. 

Mr. Evans, who has lately visited Canterbury, tells me 

1* The badges of Henry IV, are the monogram SS, a crescent, 
a fox*B tail, a stock or stamp of a tree, an ermine or gennet, a 
crowned eagle, a crowned panther, an ostrich feather, an eagle 
displayed, a columbine flower, the Lancastrian red rose, and 
the white swan of the De Bohuns. 

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that he sees notliing of numismatic importance about the 
ornamentation of Henry IV/s tomb. 

Heavy London Groat? 
" So exceedingly rare as to be almost unique.'^ Thus I 
wrote when I last alluded to this coin. Although en- 
graved by Snelling, Ruding, and Withy, and Ryall, 
although referred to by Hawkins, the existence of a 
genuine specimen is very uncertain. Ruding, Sup. 1, 40 
is stated to have belonged to Willet, whose sale catalogue 
is dated 15th March, 1827. Here is the description given 
of the heavy groat and half-groat : — 

" Henry IV., heavy groat, with Roman N, weight 66 
grains (see Snelling, PI. 11, No. 25), very fine and ex- 
tremely rare.^^ 

^' Henry IV., heavy half-groat, with Roman N, weight 
33 grains, unique and unpublished.'^ 

It so happens I have one of Willet's catalogues marked 
by the late Mr. Till. Against the groat he writes — " a 
false coin.'^ What further convinces me the coin was 
false is that Mr. Sotheby failed in obtaining a bid for it 
separately, and then bracketing it with the half-groat, 
sold the two lots for two guineas. The same half- groat 
reappears in 1859 at Martinis sale, accompanied again by 
a heavy groat. Of the latter coin the cataloguer remarks 
— " There is something unpleasant in the style of work on 
the obverse, and that on the reverse reminds one of a groat 
of Edward III." Something very unpleasant about the 
coin there must have been, as it realised only 3*. 6rf., 
whereas the half-groat brought £4? 5*. Martinis half-groat 
was Willet's ; it is possible Martin's groat was Willet's 
also ; both coins weighed 66 grs., and in other respects 
seem to be alike. 

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Heavy London Half-groat. 

^ JieCREia^ Dli GE7V X ESX x T^RGL ^ • F. 
Similar bust as on the half-groats of Bichard II. and Edward m. 

^ posvi Davm TVPiYTO Rgm x mav. 


This coin has passed through the sales of Willet and 
Martin, and, according to their catalogues, weighed 38 grs. 
It is engraved in Hawkins, No. 323, and is said to be the 
only one known. 

Heavt London Pennies (extra rare). 

t^anRia x d^ g ^ Rax x t^Rgl x f. 

Type of Edward in. and Eichard 11. 

1 . m.m. cross patee, a very faintly struck mullet with long 

pointed rays on the centre of the king's breast. 
Weight 17f grs. The heavy penny of Henry IV. 
had not been seen by Hawkins. Although my speci- 
men, which is from the Highbury find, is not worn 
by circulation, the features of the king are almost 
obliterated by an unlucky blow. However, the letter- 
ing, the m.m., the arrangement of the hair, to say 
nothing of the weight, clearly prove it to be a coin 
of Henry IV. 

2. In Whitboum's sale catalogue (Lot 181) is another penny 

stated to belong to Henry IV. It weighed I65 grs. 
It escaped my notice. 

Heavy York Pennies (very rare). 

riecRRia ^ esx ^ t^rgl ^ s x '^'^'^'^^ or FET^naiec. 

Type of Edward III. and Eichard 11. 


Open quatrefoil in centre of cross. 

1. m.m. cross patee, reads FETIRCI. Weights 16f and 17 

grs. ; also Hawkins, No. 337. Weight 16^ grs. 

2. Eeads FETVRaiGC, 17J, 16J, and 151 grs. 

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Heavy London Halfpennies. 
t]€CnEia X EGCX X T^RGL, T^RGLI or T^RGLia or 

iianBiavs j esx ^ t^rgl. 


Pellets sometimes joined, sometimes not joined, when united, 
not trefoil- wise. 

1. m.m. cross patee, llGCREiayS EGCX 7VRGL. Weights 

9 and 7 J grs. ; type as Hawkins, No, 324. Some 
halfpennies of Eichard 11. are of this type. 

2. Similar legend, the bust of the king smaller. Weights 11 5, 

9A, 8J, and 8 grs. 

3. Similar legend, head of king unusually large, lower part of 

bust detached from inner circle. Weights 10 and 
8 grs. 

4. liaREia ^ EGCX J T^RGLI*^, king's head very large, 

lower part of bust attached to inner circle. Weights 
llj and lOi grs. 

5. Lower part of bust passes through inner circle. Weights 

9f and 9j grs. 

6. liaREia X EG:X x TTRGLIGC, king's head also very 

large, lower part of bust detached from inner circle. 
Weights, 10|, 10, and 9 grs. 

7. Same legend, smaller bust, lower part of which is not joined 

to inner circle. Weights 9f and 7j grs. (PI. III., 
No. 5). 

8. Small bust, same legend, many trifling varieties. Weights 

ranging from 7f to 12 J grs. 

The type of the following halfpence is altogether new. 
The workmanship is unusually good for the period. 

9. tian . . D . EaX TTRGLIGC, three-quarter face portrait 

of the king. Weight 10 grs. 

10. m.m. the usual cross patee, hiaREia ^ EGCX ^ T^RGL. 
Weights llj, 10, 10, 9^, and 8 grs. All sHghtly 
different in details. (PI. III., No. 6.) 

VOL. XI. N.s. Q 

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11. Reads TTRGLI. Weight 9 J grs. 

12. r^GCnRia ^ RGCX J T^RGL, an annulet at each side of the 

king's neck, otherwise as No. 10. (PI. III., No. 7.) 

The halfpence of Henry IV. now described are, with 
perhaps one or two exceptions, unpublished. All are 
from the Highbury find ; their condition is as perfect as 
when issued from the mint. I cannot account for the 
indiflference shown as to the circulating value of the coins. 
The number of types (hardly two coins being alike) also 
puzzles me. It is not impossible they might have been 
intended for trial or pattern pieces. Coins might possibly 
have been collected then as they are now. One fact I can 
vouch for, and that is, the Highbury hoard disclosed 
coins struck in the reigns of Edward III., Bichard II., 
Henry IV., and Henry V., all in a like fine state of pre- 


London Groats (rare). 

4. r^anEia ^ di or Dai ^ gett ^ esx >^ T^RGLig ^<^ ^ 

Portrait continues to resemble that of Eichard II. 

4. posvi JfB Davm ^ TTDiyr oEgm ^ snsvsn. 


1. m.m. cross patee, a slipped trefoil on the king's breast 
and after POSVI, a pellet at the left side and over 
the crown (pellets similarly placed are discovered on 
certain groats of Edward III. and Eichard 11. ), the 
tressure consists of nine arches (always the case with 
English groats) all floured, excepting the one on the 
breast, which is ornamented with the slipped trefoil ; 
the Eoman N in London. Hawkins, 325. 

Obv. as No. 1 ; rev. old English R in London. Hawkins, 
p. 104. 

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3. Slipped trefoil on breast and after POSVI, pellets as No. 1, 

bat different bust, Roman N in London. Weight 67 
grs. (PL in., No. 1.) British Museum. 

4. Slipped trefoil after FETVOa only, old English R in 

London. (Mr. Pownall, N.O. viii. 343.) 

5. Slipped trefoil on breast, after FRTVna and after POSVI, 

Eoman N in London, pellet at left of crown. 

6. Pellet at each side of crown, Roman N in London. Weight 
54 J grs. This coin, described as ** being without the 
French title," appears, from a catalogue dated 
May 27, 1850, to have been bought by Mr. Shepherd 
for £3 10a. Ending, iv. 8, is also without the French 
title ; but the engraving strikes me as being very 
unsatisfactory. The engravings in Ruding of the 
coins of Henry IV., V., and VI., do not leave the 
right impression on the mind, and I do not therefore 
refer to them ; take as an example Sup. pi. ii. 

Light London Half-groat. 

rianRia x dgci ^ qrtv rg:x ^ tvrgl >^ s f\ 


arviTTTS LORDon. 

1. m.m. cross patee on obv. and rev., portrait of Edward III., 
pellet at each side of crown, nine arches to the tres- 
sure, eight being fleured ; apparently a slipped tre- 
foil upside down after 7VDIVT. The coin is much 
rubbed, but a slipped trefoil is just traceable on the 
breast. Weight 27 grs. This coin, which is pre- 
sumed to be unique, was &om Lindsay's sale. It is 
now in the possession of Mr. Robinson. To Mr. 
Longstaflfe I am indebted for the loan of it. See 
PI. m.. No. 2. 

Light London Pennies. 

rianRia . D or DI G or GRTV RGCX TVRGL, TIRGLIG: or 


Hair arranged as on the coins of Edward III. and Richard IE. 


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1. m.m. cross patee, riGCnRia EaX TTnGLIO:, annulet at 

left, pellet at right of crown, slipped trefoil (?) before 
aiVITTTS, Boman N in London. Hawkins, No. 327. 

2. rianEia x D x G x EGCX x T^RGL x F (?), a faintly 

struck mullet with long pointed rays on centre of 
breast. Old English R in London. Weight 14 grs. 
Besembles somewhat Hawkins No. 326. From the 
Highbury find. 

3. Beads TCnGLIGC. This coin is very poor. 

4. DI GRTT Rax TTRGL— LORDOn, trefoil (P) on breast, 

Hawkins, 326 ; the description of this coin does not 
quite agree with the plate. 

Light Dueham Pennies. 

1. m.m. cross patee, J^GCREIOVS x BGCX TTRGLIGC, slipped 

trefoil on breast, type of Edward III. x aiVITT^S 
DVR0L5n\ Weight 13 grs. (PI. HI., No. 3.) Mr. 
Longstaffe. Very rare. 

2. Similar, but reads DVRVia. Weight lOJ grs. British 

Museum. Very rare. 

Light York Pennies. 

1. m.m. cross patee, llGCRBia BGCX ^ TTRGLIGC, type of 
Edward IH., an annulet on the breast and before 
am, two annulets before GCBOBTVai. Weight 
14igrs. (PL m., No. 4.) Very rare. 

2." Similar, but of much coarser work. Weight 13i grs. 
From the Highbury find. Very rare. 

Light London Halfpennies. 

The weights alone — and I have stated I have but little 
faith in the weights — induce me to give the following 
halfpence to the light coinage of Henry IV. The types 
do not vary from the heavy money. The coins were 
found at Highbury. 

1. m.m. cross patee, fiaRBItt BaX TZUOrLlGL, king's bust 

rather large. Weights 7i and 6J grs. 

2. Small bust. Weights Vi, 7, and 5 grs. 

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1. m.m. cross, liGCnEia ESX T^RGL, large head (without 
neck or shoulders) within a dotted circle, LOIDOI. 
Weight 3f grs. From the Highbury find. This coin 
is unique. (PI. HE., No. 8.) A hal^nny of Edward 
m., also from the Highbury find, is exactly of the 
same type. 

Henry IV. or V. 

A line mast be drawn somewhere. It is very certain 
there must have been an end to one coinage, a beginning 
to another. Intermediate or transitional coins now come 
to our assistance, and show plainly enough where the line 
is to be drawn between the coinages of Henry IV. and V. 
They divide these coinages as completely as a plough 
separates the earth. 

Aa a rule, intermediate coins were, in my opinion, 
struck soon after a king's accession to the throne, and 
before a new type for the coinage had fully been decided 
on. We have several instances in the English coinage to 
prove that such was the case. Henry VIII. at first used 
his father's dies, the VII. in the legend being simply con- 
verted into VIII. The early coinage of Charles I. is 
another instance. When, on the contrary, any marked 
improvements were made in the national coinage, the 
sovereign had for some time been seated on the throne ;^* 
witness ^the coins of Henry VII., Edward Vf ., Elizabeth, 
Charles I., and George III. But perhaps the most striking 
instance of a stride in the right direction is to be found in 

16 Queen Yiotoiia*s reign is certainly an extraordinary ex- 
ception to this rule ; the reverse of the sovereign just issued 
being actually struck with one of George lY.'s old dies. The 
ghost of Pistrucci would surely feel astonished at seeing his 
initials on Victoria's money. 

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the admirable coinage of Oliver Cromwell. Like the man, 
we find some character about his coins. 

Now follows a list of intermediate coins, which, for the 
sake of argument and for simplicity of arrangement, I allow 
to fall into place under the heading of Henry IV. or V., 
although, if not otherwise stated, I wish it to be under- 
stood that in my opinion they belong to Henry F., being, 
in a word, the first money issued in his reign before a 
fixed type had been decided on. 


London Groats. 

1. m.m. plain cross, T^nGLIGC ^-Vx ^I^T^ntt'^, quairefoil 

after LlGCnEICC, a swelling the shape of an q^q^^ on 
the neck, the arches of the tressure all fleured ; rev. 
T^DIVTOEGC, the mark after POSVI blundered, two 
crosses after DaVSH and LORDOR. Portrait, ex- 
cepting in the arrangement of the hair, similar to 
that of Henry IV. I have little hesitation in assign- 
ing this rare coin to a very early issue of Henry V. 
(PI. m., No. 9.) The arrangement of the hair, the 
quatrefoil, the rev. legend, and type show its position 
in the series. 

2. Very similar, but no quatrefoil after I^GCREKI, and the 

arches of the tressure above the crown are not fleured, 
a very small trefoil or quatrefoil before DGCVSIl, two 
crosses after TT^S and DOR. Mr. Longstaffe. 

3. FE7VR*, mullet on centre of breast, arches of tressure 

above crown not fleured, portrait like Nos. 1 and 2 ; 
rev. large quatrefoil after POSVI, and two crosses 
after T7TS and DOR. This coin is also very rare. It 
is an early specimen of Henry V.'s coinage (PL HE., 
No. 10). 

4. m.m. cross pierced, FE7TR, qimtrefoil after I]G[REI(I and 
after POSVI. Somewhat similar to No. 1, and with- 
out the mullet on breast. (Very rare.) 

^^ This swelling on the neck must not be confused with the 
pine cone on Henry VI.'s coinage. 

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London Half-groats. 

1. m.m. obv., cross pierced; rev., cross patee, T^RGLIGC 

^^x I" ; the usual early bust of Henry V. within a 
treasure of twelve arches, a broken annulet — now for 
the first time introduced — at the left side of the crown ; 
the neck, on which is the egg-shaped swelling, is 
very long; rev., from a die of Henry IV., reads 
TVDIVTOEgffl ^ 5X^GCV, Eoman N in London, no 
mark after POSVI. Weight 26^ grs. Probably 
unique. (PI. III., No. 11.) This important coin 
is particularly referred to in the opening statement. 
Coins struck with dies prepared for Henry V, and VL 
read TVDIYTORg: ; coins issued hy Edward III. 
(a few half-groats excepted), Richard II,, and 
Henry IV, read TVDIVTORgm . 

2. obv., from the same die as No. 1 ; no m.m. on rev., old 

EngHsh n in London. POSVI x ^^^ x ^^^l^" 
TORGC X 5^5 X (PL III., No. 12). Mr. Long- 
staffe. Very rare. 

3. m.m. cross pierced obv. only, TTRGLIGC x "V x ^'» C ^-^ 

left of crown, mullet on centre of breast, extremely 
long neck exhibiting conspicuously the egg-shaped 
lump, eleven arches to the tressure, two above crown 
and one on breast not floured. Quatrefoil after POSVI, 
reads T^DIVTOEGC mGCVm. This is the only half- 
• groat belonging to Henry V. that has come under 
my notice reading mGCVSH. Weight 29^ grs (PL 
IV., No. 1). Very rare. 

4. m.m. cross on obv. and rev., TTRGLIGC x "^ x ^'» O ** 

left of crown, mullet on centre of breast, neck not 
unusually long, twelve arches to the tressure, two on 
breast not floured. Quatrefoil after POSVI, reads 
TTDIVTORe: meCV. Weight 28 grs. This is another 
exceptional coin. It is the only half-groat I have 
seen struck by Henry V. with the m.m. on both 
sides. It is an early and very rare specimen of his 
coinage. (PL IV., No. 2.) 

London Pennies. 

1. m.m. cross, [^GCnRia ^ RGCX ^ TTnGLIGC, Henry IV.'s 
head, annulet at left, mullet at right of crown, qua- 
trefoil on breast, old English R in London. (Very 

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rare.) In Mr. Longstaffe's collection. The quatre- 
foil on the breast alone deterred me from at once 
giving this coin to Henry IV. However, I cannot 
assign it to Henry V. 

2. m.m. cross pierced, DI GET^ EGCX TVRGL ^ P, 

Henry V.'s head, mullet left, three pellets (not 
united) right of crown. Mr. Longstaffe. 

3. m.m. plain cross, TVHGL ^ FET^R, star at left, O at 

right of crown, egg-shaped lump on neck, two crosses 
after T7VS and DOR. Weight 14^ grs. 

4. m.m. cross pierced. In other respects similar to the above. 

Nos. 3 and 4 are from the Highbury find, and, 
having the broken annulet, belong to Henry Y. 
The star (of six points) has not, I think, before been 
noticed on the money of Henry lY., V., or VI. 

London Halfpennies. 

1. m.m. plain cross, riGCREIG x R^CX J T^RGL, large 

mullet at right, pellet at left of crown. LORDOR. 
Weight 7J grs. 

2. Very similar in type, but an annulet at each side of the 

face, portrait as on some uncommon hal^ence of 
Eichard 11.; rev., usual type of Henry V., pellets 
trefoil-wise. Weights 7J, 7J, and 7J grs, 

3. No peculiar marks, pellets on rev. not joined. Weight, 

9f grs. 

4. No peculiar marks, pellets trefoil- wise, the shoulders of 

the king occupy considerably more space than usual. 
Weights*7f and 6^ grs. 

With the exception of No. 1, which appears to fall into 
place with the penny of Henry IV., Hawkins, No. 326, 
it is not unlikely that the above halfpence were issued at 
a very early period of Henry V.'s reign. Nos. 1, 2, and 
4 are from the Highbury find. No. 3 was found in the 
Thames. All are uncommon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Henry V. 


Henry of Monmouth succeeded his father on the 21st 
of March, 1412 — 3, and apparently lost no time in making 
the necessary arrangements for the issue of a new coinage. 
After one or two essays, as shown in the coins last de- 
scribed, a type was approved of, which, although a 
complete change, was certainly not an improvement on 
the preceding coinage. Nothing can well be more spirit- 
less in style, or coarser in workmanship, than the money 
eventually decided on for general circulation. The model 
chosen (I allude particularly to the groats) to represent 
the bust of the young and warlike Henry V. can lay little 
or no claim to any idea of portraiture. It is impossible 
to believe that this king looked the picture of old age and 
decay. Nevertheless, such is the image we have of him 
on his coins. This emaciated-looking portrait — which is 
very fairly rendered in vol. viii., PI. VL, of this 
Chronicle — seems to have been held in peculiar estimation, 
as little or no alteration was made in its ugliness during 
the lifetime of the king it was supposed to represent ; on 
the contrary, much care appears to have been taken to 
preserve its peculiarities intact. The change made in the 
arrangement of the hair is, of itself, a sure guide for 
separating the coins of Henry V. from those struck by 
his father. ^^ I will not dwell in detail on the peculiarities 

17 In a communication of mine published in vol. ix., n.s., of 
this Chronicle, I stated that I had ** some slight doubt as to 
whether the alteration of the hair on coins first took place in 
the reign of Henry V." Two halfpennies, weighing respectively 
9 and 9^ grs. caused me to hesitate. The find of coins at 
Highbury satisfy me that no argument can be founded on the 
weights of these small pieces struck by Henry IV. and V. See 
description of coins. 

VOL. XI. N.s. R 

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of portraiture, but at once proceed to what is of more 
importance — the marks by which the coins of Henry V. 
may be known. They are but four in number. His 
early coinage, or, in other words, the coinage preceding 
the great annulet coinage, is recognised by the distin- 
guishing marks of the quatrefoil, the broken annulet, and 
the mullet. These three marks were adopted very early 
in his reign, and appeared on his coins at the same, or 
very nearly the same, time. Singular to say, the broken 
annulet never appears on the groats, although it is very 
rarely wanting on the half-groats and smaller pieces. 
The quatrefoil invariably ^^ takes its place after POSVI ; 
the broken annulet is found at one or both sides of the 
king^s crown,^® though only at both sides on the half- 
pennies; whilst the mullet secures a position — ^nearly 
always on the left side — on the king^s breast, both on the 
groats and half-groats. This mark is also frequently seen 
on the pennies at one side of the crown ; but very rarely 
shows itself on the halfpennies. On some half-groats we 
find the quatrefoil, the broken annulet, and the mullet on 
the same coin. No early coin of Henry V. is without 
one or more of these marks, if we except a few uncertain 
looking halfpennies and perhaps a farthing, about whose 
position I entertain some doubt. 

When the Calais mint and the great annulet coinage 
were simultaneously introduced, the annulet, as a distin- 
guishing mark, superseded the quatrefoil, the broken 
annulet, and the mullet. The annulet was then in the 
ascendant, and held its position, without a rival, during 

^^ I have seen but ODe exception to this rule. 
^* A few rare halfpence exhibit the broken annulet at each 
side of the king's face, some have it at each side of the neck. 

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the remainder of HenryV.^s reign. This mark is placed 
alike on the coins issued from the London, Calais, and 
York mints. Those pieces struck at York having some- 
times a lis at each side of the king's neck. The annulet, 
as I explained in a paper on " The London and Calais 
Groats of Henry IV., V., and VI./* is by no means con- 
fined to the coinage of Henry V., and is therefore, of 
itself, no certain guide unless corroborated by additional 
evidence. As I shall shortly have to describe the coins, 
I will not here drift into out-of- place details ; but I may 
say that the division of the annulet money is by far the 
most troublesome — ^is by far the most intricate part of 
this inquiry to explain lucidly ; and my views respecting 
it, to be thoroughly understood, must be unfolded gra- 
dually, with the assistance of the coins. 

Henry V., who reigned nine years and a half, and 
whose coins all weigh at the rate of fifteen grains to the 
peimy, introduced the plain cross, and the cross pierced 
as his mint-marks, having discarded the cross patee, the 
usual cross of his predecessors. 

The badges and great seal of Henry IV. threw no light 
on the unravelment of his coins ; the badges and great 
seal of Henry V.^® are equally uncommunicative. The 
will of Henry V. directed that he should be interred in 
Westminster Abbey ;^^ and in J. P. Neale^s "History 
and Antiquities of the Abbey Church of St. Peter,'^^^ a 
full description is given of the ornaments on his tomb : 
quatrefoils and trefoils are several times mentioned, but 
very possibly those marks are simply the usual archi- 

2^ The badges of Henry V. were an ostrich feather, a chained 
antelope, a chained swan, and a fire-beacon. 

21 G. M. Towle's " History of Henry the Fifth." 

22 Vol. ii., p. 853. 

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tectaral ornaments, and have no bearing in connection 
with the coinage. 

I have already stated that the broken annulet was a 
mark exclusively used by Henry V., and I have an 
independent authority to strengthen me in that assertion, 
whose evidence cannot be rebutted. M. Adrien de 
Longp^rier, the author of a very interesting paper, en- 
titled " Remarks on an Unedited Mouton d^Or, struck in 
Normandy by Henry V. of England,'^ ^^ affords the 
required information as to the origin of the so-called 
broken annulet, little thinking at the time he made his 
communication that he was affording valuable assistance 
to future students of unclassed English coins. This writer 
does not give the meaning of the peculiar mark in ques- 
tion, neither does he allude to it by name, nor does he 
appear to be aware what object it was intended to repre- 
sent. He simply reproduces a drawing of it as it appeared 
in a manuscript in the mint at Paris. That manuscript 
contained extracts from the ^* Registre entre deux ais/' of 
which the following is a passage : — 

^^ Item, fit ouvrer ledit Henry en la mSme annee 
(1415), en les monnoyes de Normandie, moutonnets 
pareils ^ ceux du roy Charles, la grande croix de devers la 
croix angl6e de quatre fleur-de-lys. Et ont ete faits k 22 
karats, et pour difiFerence ont trois C sur la banni^re.^^ 
" On the margin of the manuscript,'^ continues M. de 
Longperier, "are drawings posterior to the text, and 
often inexact ; the banner of the mouton of Henry is 
there figured, having on the streamer one C thus, whilst 
the two others are placed in opposite directions, CO^ at 

23 This paper will well repay perusal. See Num. Chron., vol. 
xii., p. 6. 

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the extremities of tlie cross which terminates the shaft of 
the banner/-' 

Here we have 2^ facsimile of the broken annulet as seen 
on the English coins of Henry V., and satisfactory docu- 
mentary proof that this curious mark was adopted by that 
king. It will be found on his London, Durham, and 
York money. What I wish particularly to impress on 
Numismatists is, the fact that on the broken annulet half- 
groats of Henry Y . a quatrefoil is almost invariably found 
after POSVI, together with a mullet on the fdng^s breast. It 
must therefore be assumed that this king used both those 
marks. Consequently the only inference to be drawn is, 
that the " mullet-marked ^' groat with a quatrefoil after 
POSVI belongs to him, as I have confidently stated on 
two previous occasions. Any uncertainty is reduced to 
almost positive certainty as — the broken annulet will be 
discovered only on the coinage of Henry V. 

The division of the common annulet money has always 
proved a stumbling-block in the way of a satisfactory 
arrangement of the coins of Henry V. and VI. Old 
writers insisted on giving all the annulet money to 
Henry V., on evidence little better than a fairy tale of 
" a blue satin gown full of eyelet-holes.*^ Every scrap of 
evidence — the fairy tale excepted — ^proves that the old 
writers are clearly in the wrong. The Anglo-Gallic series, in 
addition to much other evidence, supports the opinion lately 
expressed by writers on this subject, viz., that the annulet 
was adopted both by Henry V. and VI. On their Anglo- 
Gallic coins it was used as a secret mark (point secret) 
under various letters on the obverse and reverse. It 
appears, moreover, that the mint at St. L6 did ^'not 
abandon the English mint-mark, the annulet, under the 
second letter, in order to adopt, the point under the 

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eighteenth letter," until about the year 1450, many years 
after Henry VI. had been seated on the throne. That 
young king '^was proclaimed King of France on the 12th 
of November, 1422; and the Duke of Bedford caused 
money to be struck in the name of the English prince 
everywhere within the extent of his power." ^ 


London Groats. 

Qimtre/oil after POSVI ; mvMet on the king's left breast, 

(rarely) -^ FBTma* or FBTmaGC (very rarely). 

c§. POSVI 4 Davm j 7tdivtor€c ;, mecvm 


1. m.m. cross pierced, TTnGLlGC -^ FETTRCI, egg-shaped 

swelling on the king's neck. (Num. Chron., N.S., 
vol. viii., PI. vi., No. 1.) I have four varieties of 
this type, but the differences are so slight as not to 
merit description. 

2. TKnGLIGC 4^ FBTVnao:. in other respects similar to 

No 1.26 

3. FETTnCI, part of the mullet extends beyond the shoulder 

of the king. 

4. m.m. plain cross, TTRGL' 4^ FRTTROC, mullet on breast in 

usual position. 

o. Beads 7TRGLGC. (British Museum.) 

6. m.m, plain cross; rev., cross pierced, 7VRGLIGC. 

7. m.m. cross pierced; rev., plain cross, type as above, but 

^ Num. Chron., vol. xii., p. 19. 

^ In order to avoid tedious repetition and confusion in the 
description of the coins, I wish it to be understood that No. 2 
differs only from No. 1, and that No. 8 differs only from No. 2 
(and so on), in the manner stated. 

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mullet on breast omitted (quite an exceptional coin). 
I have another exceptional piece from the Stamford 
find, the mullet, as usual, is on the breast, but the 
quatrefoil after POSVI is not visible. 

On all the above coins the carve of the tressure on the 
king's breast is fleured, the two curves above the crown 
being plain. It is very rarely that these early groats of 
Henry V. can be obtained in very fine condition. 

Early London Half-groats (not common). 

All mth the quatrefoil and broken anntdet. 

1. m.m. cross pierced obv. only. TVnGLIGC 4^ FR, mullet on 
breast, broken annulet (Q) at the left side of crown, 
eleven curves to the tressure, that on the breast not 
floured, usual quatrefoil after POSVI, reads TTDIV- 
TOEGCjmai. Weight 29J grs. (PI. IV., No. 3.) 
Another has the annulet broken at the right side. 

2. 4^^\ similar, but having in addition three pellets at right 

of cro^-n. Weight 28^ gi-s. Hawkins, 331. (The 
broken annulet was taken by Hawkins for the com- 
mon annulet.) 

3. Mullet on left breast. Hawkins, p. 110. These half- 

groats are not common. 

Early London Pennies. 

JiGcnEia i Eax j TrnoLia or ttrol f or PETTna. 
aivirra lordor. 

All with a broken annulet at one side of the king* a croion, 

1. m.m. cross pierced, TVRGLIGC ^ P, mullet at left, broken 

annulet (O) at right of crown, egg-shaped lump on 
neck, quatrefoil after aiVITTVS. Weight 14f grs. 
(PI. IV., No. 4). 

2. Without quatrefoil after ttlVITTTS. Throe varieties, with 

and without crosses after aiVITTVS and LORDOR. 
Weights 15i, 14^, and 14i grs. 

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3. T^nGL ;§■ F, mullet right, Q 1©^ o^ crown. Two varie- 

ties. Weights 14^ and 14J grs. One coin has two 
crosses, the other only one cross after CCiViTTVS. 

4. TTRGL ^ FETTna. 

Eably York Pennies. 

EGCX TvnGLiec. 

arVTTTTS eCBOETVai. Open quatrefoil in centre of cross. 
All with a broken annulet at one side of the king* a crown, 

1. m.m. cross, TTRGL ^ FETTRa, muUet at left, O at 

right of crown. Weight 15 grs. 

2. Mullet at left, C ^.t right of crown — ^very coarse work. 

Weight 15 J grs. 

3. J]G:nEiaVS x EaX x TmGLIGC, same marks as No. 1. 

Weight 15 grs. (PI. IV., No. 6.) 

The above are from the Highbury find. I do not 
attempt to classify the coins described by Hawkins^ no 
note having been taken of the broken annulet. 

Durham Pennies. 
All with a broken annulet at one side of the hinges crown, 

1. m.m. cross, JiGCRBiaVS J EGCX J TmGLia, mullet left, 

right of crown, DVROLJIl, a quatrefoil after 
TrnGLieC and aiVrTTTS. (PL IV., No. 5.) Two 
varieties from the Highbury find. 

2. Has in addition an annulet between the pellets in one 

quarter of the rev. 

Early London Halfpennies. 

JianEia x bgcx x ttrgl. 


All with a broken annulet at ea>ch aide of the neck or the face or crown 
of the king, 
1. m.m. cross pierced, C at each side of crown, LONDOR. 

1 have three of these unpublished coins from different 

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dies. They weigh respectively YJ, 8, and 8 grs., and 
are from the Highbury find. I call particular atten- 
tion to the fact that the first N in London is Boman, 
the second old English. (PL IV., No. 1.) 

2. C ^^ 6^^ side of neck, small head, broad shoulders, 

LORDOn. From the Highbury find, 9 and iTJ grs. 
(PI. IV., No. 8.) 

3. m.m. cross, Q at each side of crown, large head. Weight 

7 grs. (Highbury find.) 

4. m.m. cross pierced, C ^ach side of face, small head, 

shoulders unusually broad, covering much of the 
coin. Weights 7^ and 8 grs. 

6. O at each side of head, shoulders rather broad, two crosses 
after EGCX. Weights 8^, 7f , and 7 grs. ; different 

6. O at each side of crown, various types, sometimes with 

one, sometimes with two, crosses after I^GCRBKI and 
E6CX, a cross is also sometimes after (IIVIT7VS 
and LORDOn. Weights 9, 8, 7^, 7i, 7J, 7i, 7, 7, 7, 
and 6^ grs., all from slightly different dies. There 
were very many halfpence of this type amongst the 
coins discovered at Highbury. 

7. O at each side of face, level with the eyes, with two 

crosses after l]GCRBI(I and EGCX, with and without 
crosses after ttlVITTVS and LORDOR. Weights 8, 8, 
and 7i grs. 

8. O at each side of crown ; in other respects as the above 

type. Weights 8^, 8i, 7f , and 71- grs. 

London Farthino. 

1. m.m. cross, JiaREia ^ ESX ^ 7VRGL; rev,, ttlVITTVS 
LORDOR. Weight 3| grs. There are no peculiar 
marks on this coin, but so closely does it resemble 
some early halfpence of Henry V. that I venture to 
assign it to this king. It is one of three farthings I 
secured from the Highbmy'find. 
VOL, XI. N.S. S 

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126 numismatic chboniclv. 

Great Anntjlet Coinage. 
Type 1. 

Portrait, worhmamhip, and legend, a fac-aimile of the early money 
of Henry V, 

London Gboats. 

& I^GCnEia i DI i GE7T i EGCX x TmGLIGC or TTOGL (very 
rarely) -I^PETma. 

cga posvi Davm ^ TVDiYTOEGC ^ m&Ym. 
aiviTTO ^ LonDon ^. 

An annulet between the pellets in two quarters of the reverse. 

1. m.m. cross pierced obv. and rev., TTRGLIGC, arch of tres- 

snre on breast fleured, egg-shaped swelling on neck ; 
rev., an annulet affcer FOSYI and between the 
pellets in two quarters. 

2. Arch of tressure on breast not floured. This is seldom the 

case. (Num. Chron., N.S., vol. viii., PI. vi., No. 2.) 
Sometimes a comma after FETTRCI. 

3. Eeads TTRGL, tressure on bust not floured. Groats of this 

type very rarely read TTRGL. 

London Half-groats. 

i^anEia i di i getv i eg:x x ttrgl -^ f or fe. 

POSVI o DGCVni ^ TTDIVTOECC i_m or very rarely niGC. 

An annulet between pellets in two quarters of reverse. 
Mint mark on obverse only, 

1. m.m. cross pierced, TTRGL-^^FE', eleven arches to the 

tressure, arch on breast, and two arches above crown 
not fleured, 7TDIVT0EGC i 5110: i. Weight 30 grs. 
(PI. IV., No. 9). GC omitted in the plate. 

2. Nine arches to the tressure, 7VDIVT0EGC i HI ' . Weight 

28i grs. 

3. m.m. cross, F\ 

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The egg-shaped protuberance on the neck of the king is 
generally wanting on the annulet half-groats. In fact, 
these half-groats are of better workmanship than the 
groats. Comparatively very few were struck. 

London Pennies. 

1. ia.m. cross pierced, liGCRRIOVS J EeCX J TmOLIGC, 
two crosses after aiVITTVS and LOODOn, an an- 
nulet between the pellets in two quarters. 

Calais Annulet Money. 

Type 1. 

Calais Groats. 

ifla lianBia i DI i GETV i EGCX x TmGLia or T^OGL ^ 


An annulet at each side of the king's neck. 

c§3 posvi DGcvsn ^ TVDiYTOEGC j niGcvm. 
VILL7T ^ QTaisia ^. 

An annulet between the pellets in two quarters of the reverse. 

1. m.m. cross pierced on obv. and rev., TVRGLIGC, precisely 

as the London groat No. 1, but having, of course, 
the usual annulet at each side of the king's neck. 
(Num. Chron., N.S., vol. viii., PL vi., No. 3.) 

2. Arch of tressure on breast not floured (rare). Similar to 

the London groat No. 2. 

3. Eeads TTRGL, (rare), exactly as No. 3 of the London 


Calais Half-gboats. 

l^ecnBia i DI i GETV i EGCX x TmGLIGC x or TTRGL -^ P 

or FE. 

An annulet at each side of neck. 

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posvi o Dorm ; ttdivtorg: i jh i. 

VILL7V ^ ttTTLIS'^. 

An annulet between the pellets in two quarters of the reverse. 

Mint-mark on obverse only, 

1. cross pierced, obv. only, an annulet at each side of 

neck, TTRGLIGC •$^ F, eleven arches to the tressure, 
the arch on the breast, and two arches above the 
crown not fleured ; rev., T^DIYTOEGC i JR i- 

2. TTOGL -^^ FE, also eleven arches to the tressure. (PL 

.IV., No. 10.) 

3. TTnQLIS -^ F, nine arches to the tressure. 

4. FE. 

6. TVRGL^.^E. 

6. F. 

7. m.m. cross, FE. 

Calais Penny. 
1. m.m. cross pierced, l^anEiaVS ^ EGCX J TrnGLIGC, an 
annulet at each side of neck ; VILLTt ^ CCTTLIS' J, 
an annulet between pellets in two quarters. 

York Annulet Money. 

Obv. legend and outer legend of rev. similar to type 1 of the 
London and Calais annulet money, inner circle OCIVITTVS J 
ffBOETTai O. 

1. m.m. cross pierced on obv. and rev., TTRGLIGC ^ FETVRCC, 
Hs at each side of neck, arch of tressure on bust 
fleured, egg-shaped lump on neck ; rev., an annulet 
after POSVI and GCBOETVai and between the pel- 
lets in two quarters. This coin is a fac-simile of 
Henry V.'s first London and Calais annulet money. 
Hawkins, No. 336. I have also a specimen, weight 
&6i grs. 


1. Exactly similar to the groat. Hawkins, p. 106. See also 
Dimsdale's catalogue, lot 362. 

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1. Similar to the groat and half-groat. Hawkins, p. 106. 


1. Corresponds with the groat, half-groat, and penny, Haw- 
kins, p. 106. Annulet money struck at York is extra 

Henry V. or VI. 

At this point of the inquiry I confess I somewhat 
despair of making myself intelligible to those Numis- 
matists who have but a superficial knowledge of the 
English coinage. I have arrived now at the twisted link 
in the chain. The annulet groats ascribed by me to 
Henry V. have all the peculiarities of type and portrait 
by which at a glance his early money is known. Follow- 
ing these coins appears a variety ^of London and Calais 
groats, which, from the slight alteration made in the type, 
are the most confusing, and at the same time the most 
difficult to appropriate of the entire series. About these 
unaccommodating groats I admit I entertain considerable 
doubt. In a previous paper to this Society I declined 
altogether to risk an opinion respecting them. One thing, 
however, is certain, they are either the last coins issued 
by Henry V., or the first coined by Henry VI. Yet they 
cannot be called intermediate, because the coins are com- 
mon enough, and form of themselves a separate coinage 
(see PI. IV., Nos. 1 1 and 12) . The annulets retain their usual 
position on these coins. Diflfering as a rule from the groats of 
Henry V., and coinciding with those struck by Henry VI., 
the tressure of the arch on the king^s breast is never 
fleured. The coins likewise read TVRGL, as do those of 
Henry VI. ; never TTRGLIGC, the usual reading on the 

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groats of Henry V* The portrait inclines to the style of 
the latter king, and the diflFerence at first sight is certainly 
not very striking. Nevertheless there is a change and an 
improvement ; the features of the king are fairly distinct, 
and the egg-like protuberance peculiar to the coins of 
Henry V. has now more the appearance of a tube ex- 
tending from the chin to the chest. 

Mr. Longstaffe considers that these groats belong to 
Henry VI. I am slightly inclined to his way of thinking, 
for the reasons I have given ; but, perhaps, Mr. Long- 
staffe may have more forcible arguments than those I now 
offer for arriving at his decision. 

Calais Annulet Gboat (Type 2). 

I^GCnBia i DI i GE7V i RGCX x TTRGL* ■^PB7Vna\ 

An annulet at each side^of neck, tressure on bust not fleured. 

posYi DGCvm ^ tvdivtoeg: ;, mavm. 

An annulet between the pellets in two quarters. 

1. m.m. cross pierced, tube-like swelling extending from the 
chin to the chest. Three from different dies. (PI. 
IV., No. 11.) 

London Annulet Gboat (Type 2). 

1. Exactly same type as the Calais groat, two crosses after 
LOnDOn. (PI. IV., No. 12.) 

Calais PENmr. 

1. m.m cross, l^aRRIOVS J EaX ^ TVnGLia, without 
an annulet at either side of neck; rev., GCTVLIS ^ 
an annulet in two quarters. (Bare type). 

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London Penny -without a DisTXNainsHiNG Mark. 

1. m.m. cross pierced, I^GCREia ^ DIx GR7V RGCX x TTRGL 
— LOnDOn. (Bare type.) 

York Penny. 

1. m.m. cross, l^eCREiaVS ^ EffX ^ TTRGLIG:, trefoil at 
right, mullet at left of crown, open quatrefoil en- 
closing a pellet in centre of cross. GCBOETVOCI. 

London Halfpennies. 

1. cross pierced, l]G[nEia ^ EGCX ^ TTRGL, annulet 

at leffc, three pellets at right of crown. LORDOn. 
Weights 8^ and 6^ grs. 

2. Three pellets at leffc, annulet at right of crown. Weight 

6 grs. 

3. An annulet at each side of crown. Weight 6 grs. 
Nos. 1 and 2 probably belong to Henry VI., No. 3 to Henry V. 

Henry VI. 
1422—1461, and again, 1471. 

Henry VI. was born on the 6th of December, 1421, and 
at the death of his father was not nine months old. The 
young king was placed under the protectorship of his 
uncle, the Duke of Bedford. The first coins issued in his 
reign may possibly have been those last described under 
the doubtful heading of Henry the V. or VI. Should 
this supposition prove correct, then Henry VI. continued 
the annulet both on his London and Calais money, and 
his first coinage diflfered very slightly from his father's. 
Should, on the other hand, the coins in question belong to 
Henry V., then I feel persuaded the annidet was not 
introduced by Henry VI. on his English money. That, 
however, he continued this mark on the Calais money 
during the early part of his reign admits of no. doubt. 

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Following the coins last under examination, there appear 
in succession three distinct types of the Calais annulet 
money, which certainly do belong to Henry VI. The first 
variety, although the annulets are retained in their ac- 
customed places, exhibits a complete change in portrait, 
workmanship, and type. The bust now introduced by 
Henry VI., though certainly not baby-like, has a very 
youthful appearance (Numismatic Chronicle, N.S., vol. 
viii., PL vi.. No. 4). So entirely, indeed, does this type 
differ from that so carefully adhered to by Henry V., that 
the most incipient Numismatist — to use Mr. Hawkins's 
expression — can hardly avoid noticing the difference. The 
unsightly swelling on the king's neck, so often alluded to, 
has vanished, the tressure of the arch on the breast is 
never fleured, and the coins always read TTRGL. In short, 
with this type commences the alteration in portrait, which, 
with very trifling changes, continued into Edward IV.'s 
reign ; and with this type ends also the common annulet 
money. The annulet does not, however, disappear sud- 
denly on the Calais money, as it did on the English. It 
lingered awhile, and appears to have struggled to retain 
the position it had maintained for so many years. In the 
first instance it was opposed by the trefoil, or three 
pellets, but it outlived that opposition, although it lost 
for good its important position after POSVI. The 
rosette next became its rival. Again the annulet held 
its ground for a time ; but the mascle arriving to 
the assistance of the rosette, the annulet is finally 
defeated, and never again exhibits itself on the coinage 
of Henry VI. At this period of the English coinage 
the cross crosslet, or, more properly speaking, the 
cross patonce, was introduced as a mint-mark. The 
mascle also secured a firm footing during the remainder 
of Henry IV.'s reign. The rosette was not for any length 

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of time permitted to hold the position it had obtained. We 
shortly find the pine cone competing with it on the same 
coin. Ultimately the rosette is superseded, and the pine- 
coiie coinage appears. There are various types of this 
coinage. It must have continued for some years. A dis- 
tinctive mark after POSVI, which may be said to have con- 
tinued regularly since Henry IV. ^s time, ceased during the 
pine cone period. After its cessation conspicuous altera- 
tions in type occur, new marks and improved workmanship 
being introduced. I need not here enter into unne- 
cessary details, as I shall shortly have to describe and 
arrange the coins ; suffice it to say that, when a mark after 
POSVI ceased to be of importance, the new coinage 
selected by Henry VI. so closely resembles in type and 
marks the early money of Edward IV., that its position in 
the series cannot possibly be mistaken. The Calais mint 
appears to have stopped working about the time this type 
was introduced, a groat with a leaf on the king's breast 
being the last coin I have seen struck at that place. 

A very simple method of distinguishing the half-groats 
of Henry V. from those struck by Henry VI. is this : — half- 
groats of Henry V. have the mint-mark on the obverse of 
the coin only, and read TTDIYTOBGCim, very rarely JUGC : 
half-groats of Henry VI. read TTDIVTOBGCimavm, and 
have the mint-mark on both sides of the coin. These coins 
and pieces of smaller denomination fall into place under 
the groats. 

Henry VI. Annulet Money. 

Type 3. 

Calais Groats. 

c§] riGCREia i BI ;^ GE7V ^ EGCX x TTRGL' j ^ FETVRa. 

An annulet at each aide of the kitig^s neck, the arch of the treasure on 
the hreaat never fleured, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

134 NUMISMATIC chronicle' 

rga posvi o Decvm jttdivtorg: ^ mGCvm. 


An annulet between the pellets in two quarters. 

1. m.m. cross pierced, youthful portrait, features rounded 
and well-defined, very similar to the groats of 
Edward IV., no egg-like or tube-like swelling on the 
neck. (Num. Chron., N.S., vol. yiii., PL yi.. No. 4.) 

These groats always read TTRGL. I have four trifling 
varieties— two with, two without a comma after FRTTnCC. 

Calais Half-groats (Annulet Money^Type 3), 

cO JiGCnEia i DI i GE7T i EGCX x TTRGL' -^ F' or FE. 

Anntdet at each aide of the king's neck ; always nine arches to the 


<P POSVI Davm ^ TTDivTOEGC^ mgYm. 


Annulet between the pellets in two quarters ; mint mark always 
on both sides of the coin, 

1. m.m. cross on ohv, and rev,, TTRGL' -^ F', same youthful 

portrait as on the groats of this type. Weights 29 
and 27 grs., from diflferent dies. (PL IV., No. 13.) 

2. FE. Weights 28 and 27 grs. 

Calais Penny (Type 3). 

c{J3 I^GCRBiaVS ^ EGCX ^ TmGLIG:. 

Annulet at each side of neck. 

VILL7T ^ ttTTLIS ^. 

Annulet between the pelleti^ in two quarters. 

^1. m.m. cross, same type as the groat and half-groat. 

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Calais Halfpenny (Type 3). 

1. m.m. cross, FiGCnilia ^ RGCX ^ T^RGL'—YILLT^ ^ 
OCT^LIS ^, the annulet at each side of neck is as 
large as on the penny, same type as the groat, half- 
groat, and penny, 

London annnlet money of type 3 I have not seen. 
Perhaps a London halfpenny in my cabinet may possibly 
belong to this coinage. 

Annulet-Trefoil Coinage. 

Calais Gboats. 

An annulet at each side of the king's neck, and between the 
pellets only in one quarter of the rev, ; the annulet is discontinued 
after POSVI, a trefoil taking its place; the legend on obv. and rev. 
continues unchanged. 

1. m.m. cross pierced, rey. cross, arch of tressure on breast 
not fleured, small trefoil at left of crown. On rev, a 
trefoil or three pellets supersedes the annulet after 
POSVI. (Num. Chron., N.S., vol. yiii., PI. vi. 
No. 5.) Of this rare type I have two slight varieties. 

Calais Half-groat (annulet-trefoil coinage). 

1. m.m. cross on obv. and rev., TlUQrJj -^ F, legend and 
portrait same as preceding type. Unlike the groat, 
this half-groat has not a trefoil at the side of the 
crown ; but, like the groat, it has a trefoil or three 
pellets after POSVI. It has also only one annulet 
on the rev. Weight 29 grs. This is a rare coin. A 
Calais penny, hal^enny, or farthing of this type I 
have not yet met with. If coins were struck at 
London to correspond with this Calais money, they 
have escaped me unobserved. Perhaps the half- 
pennies Nos. 1 and 2 given to Henry V. or VI. may 
belong to this period. 

Annulet-Rosette Coinage. 
Calais Groats. 

An annulet at each side of the king's neck, but not between the 
pellets on the rev. ; a rosette supersedes the trefoil after POSVI ; 
legend on obv. and rev. remains unchanged. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1. m.iii. cross pierced, rev. cross, arch of tressure on bust not 
fleured ; rev. rosette after POSVI and aT^LISM. 
(Num. Chron., N.S., vol. viii., PI. vi., No. 6.) 

Calais Half-gboats (annulet-rosette coinage). 

1. m.m. cross on obv. and rev., T^RGL' i^ F', rosette after 

POSVI and C[7\[LIS, same type as the groat. 

2. Beads CCTUjISIQ!, a mascle or open lozenge between VIL 


Calais Halfpenny (annulet-rosette coinage). 

1. cross, FiGCREia i EGCX ^ 7\:nGL, same type as the 
groat and half-groat, rosetike after C£7\[LISI6C, masole 
before L7^. 

Rosette-Mascle Coinage. 

Annulets discarded. Bosette after POSYI, rosettes and masoles 
interspersed in the legends. 

Calais Gboats. 

1. m.m. cross pierced, rev. cross, crosses divide words on obv., 

rosette after POSVI, mascle between VIL and L7^, 
two crosses after CCTVLISIGC. Hawkins's Anglo- 
Gallic, No. 7. 

2. Eosette after POSVI and aTTLISIGC. Ditto No. 6. 

3. Has in addition a mascle between VIL and LTV. 

4. Eosette after JiGCREId and at each side of ^ , mascle after 

OE7T; rev., rosette after POSVI and ttTTLISia, 
mascle before L7C. 

5. Eosette only at each side of ^ on obv., otherwise as 

No. 4. 

6. Eosette after I^GCREia, DI, GE7V, and at each side of ^ , 

mascle after E6CX ; rev. as No. 4. 

7. m.m. cross, rosette after r^GCREia DI GE7V EffX and at 

each side of ^ ; rev. as No. 4. 

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8. m.m. cross patonce ; rey. cross, cross instead of rosette at 

each side of ^ mascle after B€CX; rev. as No. 4. 
Hawkins's Anglo-Gallic, No. 10. 

9. Eosette after riGCHEia DI GR7\: and at each side of ^ , 

mascle affcer BGCX ; rev. as No. 4 (three varieties). 
(PL v., No. 1.) 

10. Beads Fi^CnBI. Hawkins's Anglo-Gallic No. 12 ; also in 
my cabinet. 

Calais Half-oboats (rosette-mascle coinage). 

1. m.m cross on obv. and rev., 7\[nGL ^ F, rosette affcer 

FlCCRBia DI GB7\: and at each side of ^ , mascle 
after BGCX; rev., rosette affcer POSVI and 
QT^LISieC, mascle before L7^. 

2. m.m. cross patonce ; rev. cross, rosette after Fl^inBId, DI, 

and B€CX, mascle after GB7^ ; rev. as No. 1. Haw- 
kins's Anglo-Gallio, No. 18. 

3. Bosette after riSRBia, DI, and GB7\:, and at each side of 

^ , masde affcer BSX ; rev. asNo. 1. (PI. IV., No. 14.) 

Oalais Pennies (rosette-mascle coinage). 

1. m.m. cross, riGCRBICCVS BGCX T^RGLIGC, rosette affcer 

first word, mascle after second; rev., rosette after 
CCT^LISIS, mascle between VIL and L7\: ^. One 
coin reads Q!7\[LIS and has only rosette on rev. 

2. m.m. cross patonce, otherwise as No. 1. Hawkins's Anglo- 

GalHc, No. 22. 

Calais Halfpennies (rosette-mascle coinage). 

rosette after I^GCRBIO; and G7VLIS, mascle after 
BGCX and before L7v. 

2. Bosette after r^GCnBia BffX and GTVLIS', mascle before 

L7\:. Bud. iv. 18. 

3. m.m. cross patonce, otherwise similar. 

Calais Fabthino (rosette-mascle coinage). 

1. Similar to the halfpenny No. 1. Hawkins's Anglo-Gallic, 
pi. iii., No. 9. Calais farthings are very rare. 

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London Gkoat (rosette-masde coinage). 

1. m.m. cross pierced, mascle after CCiYlTTTS, rosette after 

LORDOn. Hawkins, p. 110. 

2. m.m. cross patonce; rey. cross, rosette after Fi^inEKX, 

DI, GE7T, and at each side of ^ , mascle after B€CX ; 
rev., a rosette after POSVI, mascle before, rosette 
after LOHDOR. Also Hawkins, 330. 

London Halfpennies. 

1. m.m. cross, r^GCREia, EGCX, 7VRGL, mascle before LOR- 

DOR and after £aX, marks after l]€(:REia and 
LORDOR indistinct. 

2. Mascle before, rosette after LORDOR, no marks on obv. 

(Mr. Golding.) 


Calais Gboats. 

1. m.m. cross patonce ; rev. cross, rosette after Fi^REId, DI, 

GE7\[, and at each side of ^ , mascle after E6CX ; 
rev., pine cone after POSVI and CTKLlBlGi, mascle 
before L7\: (rare). (PI. V., No. 2.) 

2. Eosette after FiGCREia and DI, pine cone after GE7V, 

POSVI, and aTTLISIGC, mascle after EGCX and 
before L7^ (rare). 

London Half-gkoat (rosette-pine-cone coinage). 

1. m.m. cross, T^RGL* $; F, rosette after FiGCREia, DI, 
GE7T, mascle after EGCX and before LORDOR, pine 
cone after POSVI and LORDOR. End. iv. 16. 

PiNE-CoNE Coinage. 

Pine cone after POSVI ; pine cones and mascles on ohv, and rev, 

Calais Geoat. 

1. m.m. cross patonce ; rev. cross, pine cone after l]GCRECI, 
DI, and GE7\[, mascle after EGCX ; rev., pine cone 
after POSVI and ttTTLISIGC, mascle between VIL 
and L7^. With and without comma after FE7\[R(I, 
with and without two crosses after VIL L7\:. (PL 
v.. No. 3.) 

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Calais Half-groat (pine-cone coinage). 

1. m.m. cross patonce; rev. cross, TirtQli ^"F, pine cone 
after r^GCRRia, DI, and GE7\:, mascle after EGCX ; 
rev., mark after POSVI discontinued, pine cone after 
aTTLISia, mascle before LTV^. Weight 30 grs. (PI. 
v.. No. 5.) 

Calais Penny (pine-cone coinage). 

1. m.m. probably cross patonce, I^GCRRiaVS I eCX 7\:nGLIQ:, 
pine cone before, mascle after B€CX, pine cone after 
C[7\:LISIG[, mascle between VIL and L7\:. Haw- 
kins's Anglo-Qtdlic, No. 23. 

Calais Halfpenny (pine-cone coinage). 

1. m.m. cross patonce, Ji^ri^ICC^S B6CX TVRGL, mascle 
after EGCX and between YIL and L7^, pine cone 
after a7\:LISIQ:. Hawkins's Anglo-Gallic, No. 27, 
I have also a specimen. 

London Groats (pine-cone coinage). 

1. m.m. cross patonce, rev. cross, pine cone after I^GCRRId, 

DI, and GE7V, mascle after EGCX; rev., pine cone 
after POSVI, mascle before, pine cone after, LOH- 


2. Pine cone or leaf P after DI, GE7T, POSVI, and LORDOR, 

mascle after EGCX and aiVIT7\:S. End. iv. 14. 

Marks after POSVI cease, 

1. Pine cone after FiGCREia, DI, and GE7\:, three pellets 

after EGCX; rev., no mark after POSVI, pine cone 
before, three pellets after, LORDOR. 

2. Pine cone on arch of tressure on king's breast, three 

pellets after EGCX, crosses divide other wocds of 
outer legends; rev. as No. 1. 

3. Pine cone on breast and also after F2GIREIOC, DI, and 

GE7^, three peUets after EGCX ; rev. as No. 1. (Two 

London Half-groat (pine-cone coinage). 

1. m.m. cross patonce, pine cone after [^GCREId, DI, GE7^, 
and LORDOR, lozenge after EffX and ttlVITTVS. 
Hawkins, p. 110. 

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London Halfpennies (pine-cone coinage). 

1. m.m. cross, r2GCnEia ^ RGCX TVnQL, masole after E€CX, 

pine cone on breast and under R in LOR. 

2. Leaf or pine cone on breast, cross before, lozenge (?) after 

EGCX. Hawkins, p. 111. 

3. m.m. cross patonce, lozenge before, leaf or cone after E€CX, 

lozenge before T7VS. Hawkins, 334. 

The last Groats struck at Calais. 

1. m.m. cross, mascle after EffX, ^ after aTTLISIGC. 

2. m.m. cross, leaf in spandril under bust, mascle after 

EaX and between VIL and LTV. (PI. V., No. 4.) 

This is the last coin I have seen issued from the Calais 
mint. It is rare. 

Groats struck at London about the time the Calais 
Mint ceased working. 

1. m.m. cross voided ; rev. cross, pine cone in spandril under 

bust, mascle after EGCX ; no marks on rev. 

2. obv. as No. 1 ; rev., mascle before DOnDOR (so spelt), 

pine cone under final 511 in SHGCY^n. Hawkins, 328. 
I have likewise a specimen. 

3. m.m. cross patonce, trefoil or three pellets after E€(!X, 

meCVStt, and aiYIT7\:S, two crosses after LOR and 
DOR ; reads 7\:DIVT0E. 

Coins struck at London after the Calais Mint 
ceased working. 

Three pellets at each side of neck^ leaf or pine cone on arch of treasure 
on breast, 

1. m.m. cross patonce, crosses divide words of obv. legend, 
leaf or pine cone on breast outside the tressure, three 
pellets at each side of neck; rev., three pellets after 
DGCVJIl ; reads SIVIT7TS. Hawkins also mentions 
this curious variety. In Sir John Twisden's cata- 
logue a groat is stated to read CCIYITOS. 

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2. Three pellets after GR7V and LORDOR, pine cone or leaf 

before LORDOR. Hawkins, p. 110. 

3. m.m. cross patonce ; rev. cross, three pellets after l^eCRRICC, 

DI, GR7V, and LORDOR. 

4. Three pellets after EGCX and rE7\:Ra, small leaf on 


5. m.m. cross patonce oby. only, reads FBT^R, three pellets 

after DI and LORDOR. 

Three pellets at each side of neck and a dot in ttuo quarters of rev., 
leaf or pine cone on arch of tressure on breast. 

London Groats. 

1. m.m. cross patonce oby. only, reads FE7\[R€C, three pellets 
after RGCX, two crosses after POSVI and before 
Dots in quarters of rev, ; no peculiar marks, 

1. m.m. cross patonce oby. only, a dot between the pellets in 

two quarters of rey. 

2. A dot in each quarter of rev. (Eare). 

A dot at ea/ch side of crown and in two quarters of rev., pine cone or 
leaf on the arch of the tressure on the breast. 

London Groats. 

1. m.m. cross patonce oby. only, three pellets at each side of 

neck and after EGCX, reads FE7\:Ra. 

2. Without the three pellets at each side of neck and after 


3. Eeads FE7\:Raie[, two crosses after POSVI. 

4. 7VRGLI ;§• FE7\:Ra:, no crosses on rey. 

5. T^RGLI ^ FE7VR. 

Pine cone or leaf on neck^ dot at each side of crown and in two 
quarters of rev. 

London Groats. 

1. no m.m. 7\[RGLI ^ FETTRCC, arch of tressure on bust 
fleured, small cross after POSVI and LORDOR. 

vol. XI. N.S. U 

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2. m.m. cross patonce obv. only, no crossee on rer. (Three 

On thefolloimng coins I find no trace of dots in the quarters of the 
rev, ; in other respects the type is unchanged, 

London Groats. 

1. Small mullet in place of m.m., 7\:nGL 4? FET^HGC, pine 

cone or leaf on arch of tressure on breast, pellet each 
side crown, crosses diyide words of obv. legend. 

2. m m. cross patonce, obv. only, TTRGLT ^ FB7\:n(I, tres- 

sure on bust fleured, pine cone or leaf on neck, in 
other respects similar to No. 1. (Two varieties). 

3. reads FETVnai. 

4. TVRGLI ;§■ FETrnCC, peculiar shaped bust, arch of tres- 

sure fleured, above the tressure a pine cone or leaf, 
no mark on rev. (PI. V., No. 10.) 

Two dots at each side of head {rare) and one dot in two quarters of 


Loia)ON Groat. 

1. m.m. cross patonce obv. only, TVRGLI, tressure on the 
bust fleured, pine cone or leaf on neck. 

Cross {saltire) on neck, dot at each side of crown and in two quarters 

of rev, 

London Groats. 

1. m.m. cross patonce obv. only, 7\:nGLI FE7\:n(I (Z 

omitted), tressure on bust not fleured, no mark after 

2. Pierced mullet after POSVI. 

5. Pierced mullet after [^GCRRKI, treasure on bust fleured 

(Two varieties.) 

4. Tressure on bust not fleured. 

5. Similar, but reads 7\:nGL FRTVna ^ . 

6. Tressure on bust fleured and a cross after 7VDIVT0EGC. 

7. TVHGLI FET^na* (^omitted), pierced mullet after l^eCR- 

EIG and POSVI, treasure on bust not fleured. 
(Num. Ch^on,, vol. viii., PI. vi., No. 7.) 

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8. Treesure on bust fleured, the mullet after FlGCREICC and 

POSVI apparently not pierced. 

9. Pierced mullet after riEREia, closed mullet after POSVI, 

tre&sure on bust not fleured. 

10. Mascle, or open lozenge after F|eCnRICC and GE7\[, pierced 

mullet after POSVI, tressure on bust fleured, 7\:nGLI 
^ FE7\:n. Hawkins, No. 829, reads FE7\:na. 

11. Mascle after l^GCnEia, reads 7\:nGLI FE7\:na ( ^ omitted). 

no mark after POSVI. 

12. Mascle after J^GCREia and GE7^, reads TTRGLI $ FE7\:n. 

This coin has not the usual dots on the rev. 

A fleur-de-lis on the neck; last of the heavy groats of Henry VL 

London Groat. 

1. m.m. cross patonce oby. only, dot each side crown and in 
two quarters of rev., arch of tressure on bust fleured, 
two crosses after LORDOR, reads 7\:nGLI FET^Rtt 
(^ omitted) (PI. V., No. 11). On heavy groats 
of Edward IV. the Z is very frequently omitted, see 
Num. Chron., N.S., vol. x., PL viiL, No. 2. After 
the Calais mint ceased working, it wiU be observed 
that the heavy London money of Henry VI. usually 
has the mint-mark on the obverse of the coin only. 

London Half-groats. 

1. m.m. cross patonce; rev. cross, 7\[RGL' ^ F', nine arches 

to tressure, that on breast not fleured ; rev., TVDIV- 
TOEGC meCVm, no mark after POSVI, three pellets 
after LORDOR. Weight, 28 grs. (PL V., No. 6.) 

Extremely few half-groats were coined by Henry VI. 
after the Calais mint ceased working. The above is the 
only example I can boast of. In the British Museum is 
another and later specimen. 

2. m.m. small mullet, obv. only, 7\:RGLI ^ FE7\:R, peUet 

each side of crown and in two quarters of rev., pine 
cone on breast. 

London Pennies. 
1. m.m. cross, r^GCREiaVS EGCX 7\:RGLI, lozenge after 
E6CX, cross at each side of crown. Boman N in 

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London. See Bud. Sup. 2, 13. I doubt the authen- 
ticity of this coin. 

2. m.m. cross patonce or crosslet, fiGUl EICC B€CX T^RGLI, 
cross (s£iltire) on breast, dot at each side of crown 
and in two quarters of rev., trefoil (?) after I^GCR, 
open lozenge before and after E6CX, two crosses after 
LOHDOn. Hawkins, No. 333. 

Durham Pennies. 

1. m.m. cross, I^GCnBiaVS ^ EGCX T^RGLIGC, muUet at left 
of crown, mascle after RGCX and DVOOLJIII. Haw- 
kins, No. 332. 

I pass without remark the Durham pennies engraved 
by Buding. 

York Pennies. 
Quatrefoil in centre of cross. 

1. m.m. cross patonce, l^eCREiaYS EGCX T^RGLI g, cr oss 

at each side of head, mascle after EGCX ; aiYITTTS 
GCBOETVai, mascle after aiVI. (See also Eud. Sup. 
11, 33.) 

2. Saltire instead of cross at each side of crown. Hawkins, 

p. 106. 

3. Mullet at leach side of crown, rose before €[BOE7\[0[I, 

mascle before T7\[S. Hawkins, No. 340. 

4. 7\[nGL, muUet at right, cross at left of crown. 

5. l]GCnEia EGCX 7\:nGLI, dot at each side of crown and in 

two quarters of rev., saltire at each side of neck and 
after TVRGLI. 

Loia)ON Halfpennies. 

It is not unlikely that some of the halfpence to follow 
should have been arranged under the groats with a pine 
cone after POSVI — i.e., the pine-cone coinage proper. 

1. m.m. cross patonce, I^GCRBIO] EGCX TTRGL, two crosses 

between words ; rev., arVIT7\:S LORDOn. 

2. Mascle after EGCX. 

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3. m.m. cross, leaf on breast. 

4. Three pellets each, side of neck, leaf or pine cone on breast, 

reads SIVIT7\:S. 

5. Similar, but reads 7\:nGLI and aiVIT7\:S. 

6. Leaf or pine cone on breast, dot at each side of crown and 

in two quarters of rev., reads TVRGLI. 

7. m.m. cross patonce, leaf or pine cone on breast, dot at each 

side of crown and in two quarters of rev., a cross 
after I^GCR and T^RGLI. (Two varieties.) 

8. Without dots on rev. and without cross after I^GCR. (PL V., 

No. 8.) 

9. m.m. cross, saltire on breast, pellet each side of crown. 

(PL v.. No. 7.) 

YoBK Halfpenny. 

1. m.m. cross fleury or patonce, J2GCRBI0C EGCX 7TRGL, 
cross after ^iGCRx, -BIO!, and EGCX, pellet at each 
side of crown, aiVITTTS GCBOKTVai. Hawkins, 
339. (Rare). 

London Farthings. 

1. m.m. cross, JiGCRRICC EGCX 7TRGL, no peculiarities. 

Hawkins, 335. I have a specimen of this coin, 
weight 3j grs. It is the only type mentioned by 

2. 7\[RGLI, leaf on breast, pellet each side of crown, m.m. 

cross. Weight 3^ grs. (PL Y., No. 9.) (Eare.) 

3. I]GCREV EGCX 7\:RGLI, m.m. cross, a saltire on breast. 

Weight 4 grs. (Eare). 

The following is a rough summary of the arrangement 
of the silver coins of Henry IV., V., and VI. 

Henry IV. 

During the reign of this king the weight of the silver 
coinage was reduced from 18 to 15 grs. to the penny. He 

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coined money at London^ Durham, and York. His mint- 
mark was a cross patee. His portrait, particularly in the 
arrangement of the hair, resembles the money of Edward 
III. and Richard II., and his coins cannot therefore be 
mistaken. He sometimes used the Roman N, sometimes 
the old English R in London. There is at present no 
satisfactory proof of the existence of a genuine heavy 
groat. Light groats read 7\:nGLIG(: and TTOIVTOEecm, 
and have a slipped trefoil on the breast, after POSVI or 
after rR7\:na. For coins of Henry IV. see Plate III., 
Nos. 1 to 8 j also Hawkins, Nos. 323 — ^327, and No. 337. 

Henry V. 

M.M., plain cross or cross pierced. Weight 15 grs. to 
the penny. Two distinct coinages. Portrait altered from 
that of Henry IV., the hair being arranged as on the 
money of Edward IV. Tressure on bust, as a rule, fleured. 
Old English U in London. Groats and half-groats, 
though sometimes reading 7\:nGL, as a rule read T^nGLIGC ; 
they also read 7\:DIVT0RQ:, never TVDIVTOEecm. Half- 
groats, in this reign only, frequently have more than nine 
arches to the tressure ; another peculiarity with these half- 
groats is that the m.m. is on obverse only, and the reverse 
legend reads SIl, very rarely ^GC. Groats of Henry V. 
have an egg-shaped swelling on the throat ; so not un- 
frequently have the half-groat and smaller pieces. 

Early or quatrefoil — broken-annulet coinage: London, 
Durham, and York. On the groats and half-groats a 
quatrefoil after POSVI, and a mullet on the breast. Half- 
groats are further marked with the broken annulet (c) 
at one side of the crown. On the pennies and halfpennies 
will also be discovered this peculiar mark, which was only 

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used by Henry V. For his early coins see Plates III. 
and IV., and Num. Chron., N.S. vol. viii. PL vi. No. 1 ; 
also Hawkins, No. 3<5l. 

Annulet coinage, type 1 : London, Calais, and York. A 
fac-simile of the early coinage in portrait, legend, work- 
manship, and peculiarities of type ; the annulet, however, 
supersedes the quatrefoil, the broken annulet, and the 
mullet. See Plate IV., Nos. 9 and 10 ; also Num. Chron., 
N.S., vol. viii. PL vi. Nos. 2 and 3; also Hawkins, No. 

Henry V. or VI. 

Annulet money, type 2: London and Calais. M.M. 
cross pierced, 7\[nGL, never TTRGLIGC. Arch of tressure 
on bust never fleured. Tube-like instead of egg-like 
swelling on neck. Workmanship improved ; the portrait 
has neither the emaciated appearance of type 1, nor the 
youthful appearance of type 3. See Plate IV., Nos. 11 
and 12. 

Henry VL 

Youthful portrait. Style of work much improved. Mints 
— London, Calais, Durham, York, and Bristol.^ Weights 
15 and 12 grs. to the penny. M.M. plain cross, cross 
pierced, cross voided, cross patonce, small mullet, and one 
variety has no m.m. Marks after POSVI are: — ^the 
annulet (type 3), the trefoil or three pellets, the rosette, 
the pine cone, and the pierced mullet — with the pine cone, 

^ Light money only was struck at Bristol. For description 
of light money see a page or two forward. 

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however, a mark after POSVI ceased to act as a guide. 
Interspersed iu the legends on obverse and reverse will 
be found on certain coinages the rosette, the mascle or 
open lozenge, the pine cone, the leaf,^'^ the trefoil or three 
pellets, the mullet, and the pierced mullet. On the neck 
or breast of heavy money struck late in the reign of 
Henry VI. will be seen a pine cone, a leaf (on breast 
only), a cross (saltire), or a fleur-de-lis. Dots at this 
period will nearly always be discovered at each side of 
the crown, and extra dots are also in the quarters of the 
reverse. Groats and half-groats of Henry VI. never read 
7\:nGLIG[, and always have the old English U in London. 
Until late in his reign the tressure on the bust was not 
fleured. Half- groats have m.m. on obverse and reverse, 
and read ^6CY5Il, and have the usual nine arches to the 
tressure. All coins of Henry VI. resemble those struck 
by Edward IV. Towards the end of his reign this 
resemblance, both as regards the heavy and light money, 
is so striking, that the name of the king must be referred 
to before one coinage can with certainty be separated 
from the other. For a description of the annulet money, 
and for a list of the numerous types and changes made 
by Henry VI. on his coinage before his first dethrone- 
ment, I must refer those who are suflSciently interested 
in the subject to the information already given in detail. 

^ Both a pine cone and a leaf (a rose leaf?) are distinctly 
visible on some coins of Henry YI. Many times in the pre- 
ceding pages I have written ''pine cone or leaf" as if in un- 
certainty. The reason of my hesitation is that when Henry 
discontinued a mark after POSYI, it is impossible to say for 
certain whether the pine cone or the leaf is represented. I 
think the former. The mark resembles an apple pip. It shows 
neither the fibre of a leaf nor the divisions of a pine cone, and 
sometimes is without a stalk. 

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As I can add to Hawkins's list of the light money of 
Henry VI., a few words on the subject may at this point 
not be out of place. The last heavy coins issued by Henry 
were, I venture to say, those groats with a fleur-de-lis on 
the neck, which very probably were circulated about the 
year 1460. Not many of them appear to have been struck, 
and before the discovery of the Stamford coins the type 
was apparently unknown. An interval of about ten years 
divides the heavy from the light coinage of Henry VI. 
On the 4th of March, 1460—1, Edward, Earl of March, 
aided by the Earl of Warwick, entered London, and was 
proclaimed king under the title of Edward IV. On some 
early coins issued by Edward a fleur-de-lis on the neck 
was continued, and the type in other respects underwent 
little or no alteration, the name of the king being merely 
changed (Num. Chron., N.S., vol. x. PL viii. Nos. 1 and 
2). Towards the close of the year 1464, Edward reduced 
the weight of the silver coinage from 15 to 12 grs. to 
the penny. In 1470, Edward, feeling secure of his 
position, ventured to give oflfence to Warwick, who 
retaliated by assisting Henry to regain his crown. It was 
during the period of this king's brief restoration that the 
following coins were issued from the mints of London, 
Bristol, and York. The letter R in every instance is 
formed like the letter B ; the same peculiarity is notice- 
able on the early light money of Edward. (Num. Chron., 
N.S., vol. X. PL viii. No. 3). 


Groats not exceeding 48 gra* 

r^GCRBia or I^GCRBiaV or I^GCRBiaVS (very rarely) DI GB7^ 
BGCX TVnG (very rarely) or 7\:nGL ^ FBTTRa 

posvi DGCvm tvdivtobg:' siiGcvm. 

VOL. XI. N.S. X 

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London Geoats. 

1. m.m. cross pierced on obv. and rev., JjGCnBICC, small tre- 

foils divide words of obv. legend ; cross after DGCVStt, 


2. m.m. cross pierced; rev. cross, otherwise as No. 1. 

3. m.m. cross pierced ; rev. lis, otherwise as No. 1 ; but no 

cross after DGCVm. 

4. m.m. cross on obv. and rev., JjGCRBICCV. Hawkins, p. 108. 
6. Beads J^eCRiaV. Num. Chron., N.S., vol. i., p. 21. 

6. m.m. cross; rev. cross pierced, I^GCnBICCV, lis after 

DGCV5II. Hawkins remarks, **the lis on the rev. is 
curious and confinnatory, because the lis upon the 
gold coins of Henry VI. is exceedingly common." 
(No. 342.) 

7. m.m. cross pierced obv. and rev., I^GCnBICCV, also with 

lis after DGCVJIl. 

8. m.m. cross; rev. lis, I^GCnBICCV (Num. Chron., N.S., 

vol. i., p. 21). 

Bristol Groats. 
All with B on the king's breast. 

1. m.m. rose (?); rev. lis. I^GCnBiaV, VILLTV BBISTOW. 

Hawkins, p. 108. 

2. m.m. cross ; rev. rose, small trefoils separate words of 

obv. legend, l^eCnBiaV, BISTOW. 

3. m.m. trefoil ; rev. cross, J^ffRBiaV, BBISTOW. (Num. 

Chron., N.S, vol. 1, p. 21.) A specimen of this coin 
has also passed through my hands. Weight 44 grs. 

4. m.m. cross ; rev. rose, J^anBiaVS and TVRG, BISTOW. 

Hawkins, 341. 

6. m.m. sun ; rev. rose, J^aRBia, BBISTOW. This coin I 
have seen. Weight 43^ grs. 

York Groats. 

All with 6C on the king's breast. 

1. m m. lis obv. and rev., I^GCRBICI, trefoils between words of 
obv. legend, GCBOBTVai. 

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2. Similar, but reads I^GCnBICCV. Hawkins, p. 108. I have 

also a specimen of this coin ; it has not the trefoils 
between the words of the legend. 

3. m.m. lis ; rev. rose, l^GCnBICCV. I have seen this coin. 

Weight 40 grs. 

Light half-groats of Henry VI. are extremely rare. 
Hawkins publishes one struck at London (No. 343). He 
had not seen a specimen from the York mint. A genuine 
York half-groat^ however, is now known. It has passed 
through the sales of Cuff, Martin, Murchison, and Whit- 
bourn. It reads JiaRBiaV, aBOBTVai, has GC on breast, 
and weighs 20 grs. 

A light penny of Heniy VI. is at present unknown. I 
am not satisfied with the halfpence engraved by Hawkins ; 
one weighs 8, the other as much as 10 grs. Moreover, 
the type leads me to suppose they form part of the heavy 
coinage. The raascle after RQiX on No. 344 is against 
the theory that this halfpenny belongs to the light 
coinage. That mark is common enough on his heavy, 
but I have never seen it on his light money. I believe 
the marks after I^GCHEKI are simply mascles or open 
lozenges, and have been taken for Y. I may be wrong. 
I have not seen the coins, and cannot therefore speak 
with certainty. I say nothing of the farthing No. 346. 
With one exception (tiGCnBiaVS), the light groats of 
Henry VI. enumerated by Hawkins read I^GCnBICCV, not 
one l^Q^nBKI. The latter reading, however, it will be 
noticed from my list, is not uncommon. 

In conclusion, I will merely say that ray knowledge of 
the gold coinage of the Henries is so slight, that perhaps 
I am unwise in venturing an allusion to it ; nevertheless, 
I am under the impression that the gold money will 

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support the silver. It may be remembered that at a 
meeting of this Society in December, 1868, "Mr. Evans 
exhibited nobles of the first and second coinage of Henry 
IV., and a half-noble of his second coinage, the two latter 
having a small trefoil close to the head of one of the lions 
on the reverse." The broken annulet will also be dis- 
covered on some gold money of the Henries. 

J. Fked. Neck. 

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The premiere livraison of the Eeviie de la Numismatique Beige 
for 1871 contains the following articles : — 

1. '* Catalogue of obsidional coins and pieces de Necessite ** 
(20th article), by M. le Lieut.-Col. P. Maillet. 

2. "Coins of the Seigneuries — Frankenberg, Argenteau, 
Bicht,** by M. le Baron de Chestret. 

8. " Desiderata," by M. Edonard van der Broeck. 

4. " Medals relating to the history of the Netherlands," by 
M. Alex. Pinchart. 

6. ** Uninscribed jetons of the receveurs of Brussels " (5th 
article), by M. R. Chalon. 

In the Correspondance are letters from M. le Comte Maurin 
Nahuys, M. H. Schuermans, and M. van Peteghem, to M. R. 
Chalon, the President of the Society. 

In the Melanges are notices and engravings of the Red-Cross 
decorations presented by Belgium to wounded French and 
German soldiers during the late war ; remarks on some Roman 
coins found in Scandinavia, and notices of recent numismatic 

In the Necrologie are recorded the deaths of M. Clement 
Wytsman and M. le General de BartolomaBi, the latter of whom 
died at Tiflis on the 5th October, 1870. His fine collection of 
Persian and Bactrian coins will, it is reported, be acquired by 
Imperial Museum of the Hermitage. 

In the deuxieme livraison of the Revue de la Numismatiqiie Beige 
for 1871 are the following articles : — 

1. "Catalogue of obsidional coins and pieces de Necessite." — 
Supplement, by M. le Col. Maillet. 

2. ** On six unedited coins," by M. le Baron J. de Chestret. 
8. " Notice of unknown or unedited coins relating to the 

history of Belgium," by M. le Baron H. Surmont. 

4. <' Numismatic history of Lausanne. Amedee de Clermont 
Hauterive (Saint Amedee)," by M. A. Morel Fatio. 

5. " L'Etoile d'honneur de 1881, and its different modifica- 
tions before the creation of the iron cross," by M. A. L. 

6. " Researches on the intrinsic value of the Brabant florin, 
from the middle of the 15th century to the year 1794," by M. 
R. Chalon. 

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In the Cowespondance are letters from M. H. Schuermans 
and M. le Baron de Koehne to M. R. Chalon, the President of 
the Society. 

In the Melanges are notices of all the recent numismatic 

In the Necrologie is a notice of the life of General Bartolomsei, 
and the deaths are recorded of M. le Gomte Achmet de Servins 
d'Hericonrt, M. Dargent, M. de la Fontaine, and M. Ulysse 

We have just received the first part of the Annuaire de la 
SocUtS Frangaise de la Numismatique et d' Archeologie for 1868, 
and we cannot speak too highly of the zeal and enterprise shown 
by the members of this Society in the production of another of 
these handsome volumes. The present part contains, be- 
sides the reports and proceedings of the Society, the following 
articles : — 

1. '' Besearches on the coins of the chiefs of the Boians 
struck in Transpadania und Pannonia," by M. F. de Saulcy. 

In this article M. de Saulcy confines himself to the inscribed 
tetradrachms commonly called Pannonian, reserving for a future 
occasion an examination of the numerous class of pieces either 
unepigraphic or with legends imitated from the Greek coins of 
Macedonia, PsBonia, and Thrace. He divides the tetradrachms 
under his consideration into two groups, according to their 
weight, and gives cogent reasons for supposing that the lighter 
class, weighing on the average about 160*9 grains, belongs to 
Cisalpine Gaul, and are in fact tetradrachms struck by the 
Boians of Transpadania, representing four Massaliote drachms. 
The heavier class, weighing about 266 grains on the average, 
he assigns to Pannonia proper ; these he supposes to have been 
struck by the Boians established on the banks of the Danube, 
where they no longer had relations with the Cisalpine Gauls, 
but with the Greeks of Macedonia and Thrace, among whom 
the Attic standard was established. 

2. ** Selection of ancient coins described, by M. W. Froehner." 
This article is accompanied by a series of fourteen beautiful 

plates, the same which illustrated the sale-catalogues of the 
celebrated collections of M. Prosper Dupre and M. Julien Greau. 
These plates, which are by Dardel, combine great accuracy of 
detail with an artistic appreciation rarely met with in this 
country. Our English artists and engravers of coins would do 
well to devote some time to a careful study of DardeFs method 
of producing the effect of the various styles of workmanship 
which characterise the schools of art of different parts of the 

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Hellenic world. The coins engraved form a large selection of 
rare or unedited Greek and Roman coins, and the descriptive 
text is arranged in the order of subjects, and thus forms a series 
of mythological and artistic notes upon the various types which 
occur upon the coins. 

8. ** Researches on the Merovingian coins of Touraine," by 
M. le Vicomte de Ponton d'Amecourt. 

This learned article will enable the Numismatist to attribute 
many coins hitherto placed among the uncertain. M. de Ponton 
d*Amecourt enters upon his task of attribution, by a critical 
study of the style of the coins rather than by an endeavour to 
decipher their legends ; this method enables him to distinguish 
the products of a large number of mints which bear the same 
name, as well as to ^x the geographical position of localities 
whose names have not been preserved. The article is accom- 
panied by numerous wood engraviogs, and by a map of Touraine 
showing the various places of mintage. 

4. " The Merovingian coins of Grenoble." A letter from 
M. Gustave Vallier to M. de Ponton d'Amecourt. 

M. Yallier, in this monograph, collects all that is known of the 
numismatic liistory of Grenoble during the Merovingian times. 
It is a valuable contribution to this period of numismatic history. 
The essay is illustrated by a plate by Dardel. 

5. **0n the coinage of John IV., Duke of Brittany," by M. 
Lecoq- Kerne ven. 

6. "Numismatic map of the Dauphine," by M. Roman. 

7. ** Report of M. J. Sabatier on the royal collection of 
Portuguese coins exhibited in the P'rench International Exhibition 
of 1867." 

The volume concludes with an article by M. Reynard- 
Lespinasse on the Assignats and other paper money issued by 
the French Government between the years 1789 and 1796. 

B. V. Head. 


Coins found near Ross. — In the Journal of the British 
Archaological Association for June last, will be found a notice of 
antiquities and coins from Ariconium, near Ross, Herefordshire, 
by W. C. Palmer, Esq. The coins have been examined by Mr. 
Bergne and Mr. Gordon M. Hills, and range over a consider- 
able period. Among them are nine of ancient British date, 
including two in copper of Cunobeline. One of these is of the 
type, Evans, PI. xii., No. 4, with what appears to be the 

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legend TASC FIL below the boar on the reverse, but unfortu 
nately the coin, though fairly preserved and beautifully pati- 
nated, does not assist in determining the question -whether the 
legend be undoubtedly FIL or not, as all that can be seen is 
III. Of the Boman coins, the earliest is one of the Cordia 
family, and the latest, apparently of Magnentius. There do not 
appear to be any coins of rarity among them, unless the legends 
on the obverses of two coins of Julia Mamsea and Fausta are 
correctly given, and not misread as IVLIA MAMMAE. AVG 
(M), and FLAVIA. FAVSTA. AVG. {M 8). 

Liverpool Numismatic Society. — We are glad to hear that 
a Society has lately been formed in Liverpool, for the purpose 
of furthering the knowledge of coins, medals, &c., under the title 
of "The Liverpool Numismatic Society." The meetings are 
held every first and third Tuesday evening in the month, at 
seven o'clock, in the Free Library, William Brown Street. 
The subscription is 10^. 6d, per annum, and 7^. 6d, for corre- 
sponding members. The honorary secretary is Mr. Charles 
Lionel Beis, Bank, 21, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

Coins and Medals of Oliver Cromwell. — ^Mr. Henry W. 
Henfrey will be glad to forward post free to any collector, upon 
application, a brief printed list of Oliver Cromwell's Coins and 
Medals, which he is now circulating with a view to obtain addi- 
tional materials for a Medallic History of Oliver Cromwell. Any 
information, either on this subject, or relating to Thomas Simon 
the medallist, will be thankfully received and acknowledged. 
Address — 15, Eaton Place, Brighton. 


The following errors in Mr. Schive's paper on the weight of 
English and Northern coins require correction : — 

Page 43, 1st line of Table, for 19-837 read 19*887 

43 23 „ „ „ 1-723 „ 1-423 

44 20 „ „ „ 1-05 „ 1-105 
46, bottom of Table, transpose 701-358 and 

56, Note, for Bosenringe read Bosenvinge. 
60, line 12, for 37-140 read 37-40. 
63, line 9 from bottom, for 417*274 read 417-291 
63 „ 8 „ „ 416-181 „ 216-181 

63 „ 7 „ „ 1-415 „ 1415 

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L'historien Josephe nous a transmis sur ces dynastes 
d'int^ressants details que j'ai d6]k utilises dans mon 
" Histoire d'H^rode " (pages 332 et suivantes). Je ne 
saurais mieux faire que de transcrire textuellement ici le 
r^sum^ que j'en ai fait dans cet ouvrage. 

** Herode n'avait pas cesse d'etre inquiet au sujet des Tra- 
ebonites, et pour les tenir en bride, il songea a fonder au milieu 
de leur pays one bourgade considerable exclusivement babitee 
par des juifs, qui protegeraient ses etats centre les incursions 
de ce peuple de bandits, et qui, toujours prets a leur courir sus, 
les tiendraient facilement en respect. Ayant appris par basard 
qu'un juif Babylonien nomme Zamaris, qui avait passe FEupbrate 
a la tete de cinq cents arcbers a cbeval et d'une centaine de ses 
parents, etait venu avec tout son monde a Antiocbe pres de 
Dapbne et que Satuminus, gouvemeur de la Syne pour les 
Remains, leur avait assigne pour residence la localite nommee 
Oualatba, Herode leur proposa d'entrer a son service, en leur 
promettant des terres situees dans la £atan6e, qui confine a la 
Tracbonite, a cbarge par eux de fftire Toffice de poste avance 
pour son compte ; il s'engageait en outre a exempter de tons 
impots la contree qu'il leur assignait. — (Antiquites Judaiques, 
XVII. ii., 1.) 

''Allecbe par ces promesses seduisantes, Zamaris avec sa 
troupe vint se fixer dans le pays qui lui etait ofFert, et il y batit 
immediatement des postes defensifs et une bourgade a laquelle 
il donna le nom de Batbyra. 

VOL. XI. K.s. Y 

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** Get homme devint le proteateur des habitants du pays, et 
des caravanes juives qui faisaient le voyage de Babylone a 
Jemsalem, poor assister aux solennites reHgienses. Beauconp 
de gens vinrent se refagier antour de cette sorte de colonie 
militaire, et firent du pays qu'elle habitait nne nouvelle province 
judaiqne. EUe devint eztremement popnleuse, parce qu'on pou- 
vait y vivre dans une securite complete, et sans avoir d'impots a 
payer an fisc. Ces immnnites snbsisterent tant qne vecnt Herode ; 
apres Ini, son fils Philippe, devenu sonverain de cette contree, 
la taxa a de petites redevances, pendant nn temps assez court 
d'ailleurs. Mais Agrippa le grand, et son fils qui porte le mime 
nom, en pressurerent avidement les habitants, tout en respectant 
leur independance. Les Bomains, entre les mains desquels 
ce pays tomba apres la fin du regne d*Agrippa le jeune, eurent 
bien aussi la pretention de conserver k ses habitants les droits 
qui leur avaient ete concedes; mais ils leur imposerent des 
tributs on6reux.** — (Antiquites Judaiques, XVll. ii., 2.) 

'< Lorsque le Babylonien Zamaris mourut, apres avoir foumi 
une briUante carriere, il laissait des fils pleins d'activite et de 
bravoure, dont Tun, Jakim, se rendit celebre par son energie et 
par son habilete pour instruire ses compatriotes dans Tart de 
1' equitation. Aussi les rois de race juive eurent-ils k leur 
service un escadron de ces hommes qui formaient leur garde 
du corps. Jakim mourut vieuz, et son autorite passa a son 
fils Plulippe, qui ne fut ni moins brave ni moins renomm^ que 
ses peres. II fut honors de la confiance et de Tamitie du roi 
Agrippa ; il s'etait charge d*instruire Tarmee de ce prince, qui, 
toutes les fois qu*il entreprit une campagne, eut grand soin 
de le mettre a la tite de ses troupes." — (Aiitiquites Judaiques, 
xvn. ii. 8.) 

Le r^cit qui pr^cdde donne lieu k quelques observations 

Satuminus fut pr^fet de Syria, pendant les annees 9, 
8, et 7, avant J.-C. ; c'est post^rieurement au meurtre des 
deux fils qu'H6rode avait eu de la reine Mariamme, meurtre 
qui se place vers Tan 8 avant J.-C, que le Babylonien 
Zamaris, accueilli par Satuminus, fut rendu ind^pendant 
par H6rode ; c*est done en Tan 8 ou en I'an 7 avant J.-C. 
que fut conclu le traite qui mettait Zamaris au service du 
roi des juifs. Par ce traits Zamaris devenait un veritable 

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prince feudataire, dependant de la couronne de Jerusalem. 
Le nom Zamaris est evidemment un nbm h^brai'que 
estropii. Je ne crois pas trop hasarder en y recherchant 
le nom '^-itdt, porte par plusieurs personnages de Tecriture 
et notamment par Zimri, roi d* Israel. La prononciation 
massor^tique de ce nom propre ne doit pas nous arreter, 
puisque les mSmes docteurs ont prononce ]ins\ Zamran, 
le nom d'un fils d' Abraham et de Ketoura. II est bien 
Evident en effet que les deux noms d^rivent du mdme 
radical itdt, chanter, c^l^brer par des chants. 

Ija locality donnee par Satuminus k Zamaris pent se 
reconnattre ; sa demeure est appel^e par JosSphe *Ova\d0a. 
C'est certainement la memo que, dans un autre passage, 
relatif aux 6tats du tetrarque Zenodore attribu^s h H6rode 
par Auguste (Ant. Jud., XV. x. 3), il nomme 'OvXaOa, 

II est k peine douteux qu'il s'agit des bords du Lac 
Samachonite, encore connus de nos jours sous le nom de 
Ardh-el-houleh, nom qui est de mSme appliqu6 au lac 
toujours appele par les Arabes du pays, Bahr-el-houleh. 

Quant k Bathyra, Batfvpa, je ne saurais proposer son 
identification avec aucune localite modeme connue, et 
mon savant ami et confrere, Mr. Waddington, qui a par- 
couru avec tant de soins la Batan^e, ne connait dans ce 
pays aucune mine qui puisse correspondre k la Bathyra 
fondle par Zamaris. 

Son fils Jakim, laKce/Aor, portait le nom h^braique bien 
connu, o^p% Dieu Filkve. 

Si nous remarquons maintenant que ces petits dynastes 
furent tout-4-fait ind^pendants, d6s Tabord, et qu'ils 
Y^curent k une ^poque imm^diatement rapprochee de 
celle oil les t^trarques du mSme pays, Ptol^m^e, fils de 
Mennffius, Lysanias, et Zenodore, frappaient des monnaies 
k\e\xr effigie et k leur nom, nous serons tout naturellement 

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port^s k supposer que les Zamarides ont imit6 cet exemple, 
ne fiit-ce que pour faire acte d'autonomie, et de libre 
souverainet^, comme ils en avaient le droit. Ces monnaies 
j'espdre les avoir retrouv6es, et j'en fais juge tous les 
Numismatistes qui voudront bien lire cette notice. 

1. . I . I II — nOY. Bnste tonme a droite ; la tete est 
ceinte d*nn large bandeau serre en forme de 
diademe, ou d*une espece de turban 6troit dont 
Tattacbe pend derriere le cou ; traces de grenetis. 

Bev» — A 6 — Y P — . Sphinx aile, accroupi, tourne a 
gauche. II a la tete tourelee ; grenetis grossier 
mais assez regulier. ^. 22|^ millimetres. Style 
d'une extreme grossierete ; flan tres-irregulier et 
fort epais. 

Cette curieuse monnaie me fut apport^e en decembre 
1869, k Beyrouth, avec un inoTjaG farrago de monnaies 
antiques et cufiques, ramass^es un peu partout dans le 
paysy et dont je fis I'acquisition en bloc. Les deux 
16gendes de cette piece se compldtent tout naturellement 
et nous foumissent les noms ^lAiniTOY et BA®YPA. Le 
type du sphinx ail^ parle de lui-m6me, et sjinbolise, de la 
mani^re la plus vraisemblable, la vigilance de la nation 
armee que commandait Philippe, et qui surveillait tous 
les mouvements des bandits de la Trachonite. Je ne crois 
done pas me tromper en attribuant cette interessante 
monnaie au dernier des Zamarides, k Philippe fils de 
Jakim et petit fils de Zamaris. 

Pendant quelques mois je n'avais eu entre les mains 
que cet unique produit de Tatelier monetaire des Zama- 
rides; au mois de juillet dernier je re9us de mon ami 
Ayssa-kouboursy, de Nazareth, un petit envoi de mon- 
naies antiques recueillies par lui k mon intention. Outre 
plusieurs exemplaires des rares monnaies frapp6es k 

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TiMriade par Tordre d'Herode-Antipas le T^trarque, j'y 
trouvai une piSce d'une extreme barbarie^ et qu'au premier 
coup d'oBil je jugeai sortie du mSine atelier que la piece de 
Philippe decrite ci-dessus. En voici la description : — 

2. lAE? Tete grossiere d'homme toumee ll droite et 
nne. Sur le con one profonde impression rect- 
angalaire qui est evideniment Timpreinte d'un 
poin9on applique avee une force considerable. 
Traces de grenetis. 

Rev, — Je crois demeler le profil grossier d*une tete de 
femme voilee et toumee a gauche. Mais je me 
garderais bien d'affirmer que j'ai compris ee type 
a peu pres meconnaissable. M, 24 millimetres. 
Style bien plus grossier encore que celui de la 
piece de Philippe; flan tres irregulier et fort 

Si je ne me suis pas tromp^e en croyant les reconnaitre, 
les lettres lAK nous foumissent le commencement de la 
l^gende lAKEIMO Y. Je dois faire observer toutefois que 
le K ressemble plus Jl un X qu'k un K. Quoiqu'il en soit, 
les deux pidces que je yiens de decrire se distinguent de 
toutes les monnaies antiques connues jusqu'& ce jour. 
Elles constituent une classe a part, ayant un caract^re 
uniforme sui ffeneris, indice certain d^une origine toute 
particuli^re. La taille de ces monnaies les rapproche 
^troitement de celles des rois Farthes et des rois de la 
Characdne, et cela n'a rien que de trds-naturel^ si Ton songe 
que Zamaris avait quitt^ la Babylonie, pour venir se fixer 
en Palestine. 

Esp^rohs que de nouvelles trouvailles viendront bientot 
corroborer ou renverser I'attribution que je propose 
aujourd'hui. Jusque Ik je croirai avoir enrichi la Numis- 
matique Palestinienne des monnaies d'une dynastie 
nouvelle. F. de Saulcy. 

Pabxs, le 15 Octobre, 1870. 

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Numismatists have been much perplexed by certain coins, 

specimens of which are engraved on the accompanying 

plate (PI. VI. 4), which are usually ascribed to a colony of 

Corinth and bear on their obverse the head of Medusa 

T P 
facing, with the letters ^ j within an incuse square, and on 

the reverse Pegasus with curled wing flying to left. Other 

H T 
coins of the same class bear the inscription j p, and 

several of them bear the Corinthian 9> while a few have 

in its place A. The meaning of these letters has been 

much disputed. Millingen, in his '* Sylloge of Ancient 

Inedited Coins/' publishes a coin of similar size, which 

bears on the obverse a half Pegasus to right, and on the 

T P 
reverse the letters „ j (PI. VI. 5), and expresses his 

opinion that this and similar coins belong to the Trieres 
of Thrace, or to Trieres in Lycia, or, finally, to Teria in 
Troas, no reason but the inscription being given for any 
of these attributions. Mr. H. P. Borrell, writing in the 
third volume of the Numismatic Chronicle, ascribes all 
the above coins to Tirida in Thrace, and adds a new 
variety thus described : — 

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Obv. — Head of Apollo laureate, left. 
Rev. — Incnse square, within which a laurel branch and the 
letter8 2j(Pl. VI. 6). 

There are very few Greek coins exhibiting these or 
kindred letters thus arranged; almost the only similar 

T P 

inscription I can find is the letters ^ . on the reverse 

of the coins of Traelium in Macedonia. This latter 
inscription is interesting as tending to prove that the 
letters on the coins I am discussing must be arranged 
thus, TPIH, and not thus, TPHI. 

With regard to all coins with TPIH I have a new theory 
to propose. I need scarcely, as a preliminary, attack the 
opinions of Millingen and Borrell, because they con- 
fessedly go on the slight ground of the inscription only, 
and the 9 which occurs below the Pegasus on the coins I 
first mentioned, proves beyond a doubt that these must have 
been struck at Corinth and nowhere else. I believe that all 
the coins I have mentioned, except the one bearing the 
head of Apollo, which I shall presently discuss, were 
struck at Corinth, and that the letters TPIH are nothing 
else than the beginning of the word TPIHMIOBOaION, 
proving that these coins passed for an obol and a half. 
The crucial test of the truth of my theory is obviously a 
consideration of the weight of the coins. A Corinthian 
trihemiobolion ought to weigh about 11*25 grains; but, 
of course, specimens will seldom reach that weight. 
I have weighed eight examples of coins with TPIH, 
and find that the heaviest of the eight weighs about 
11*2 grains, the average weight bein^ 9*8 grains. This, 
although not altogether satisfactory, tells more for my 
theory than against it, especially if we reflect how prone 
standards are to degenerate. 

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One or two other circumstances in my favour may be 
mentioned. It seems not at all unlikely that the 
Corinthians may have kept the head of Medusa^ as the 
Athenians did the owl facings for the trihemiobolia in 
particular^ to prevent their becoming confused with coins 
of another value, but not very dififerent size. On the 
other hand, it is hard to believe that if TPIH had been the 
name of a place, that place would have left us so many small 
silver coins, all of about one weight, and no larger silver 
or copper coins. Nor should it be forgotten that the un- 
mistakable word HMIOBEAIN occurs on coins of Aegium 
in Achaia, and the words APAXMH and AIAPAXMON on 
many coins of Nero and others struck at Ephesus. 
Specimens of these are engraved in Plate VI. 8 and 9. 

With regard to Mr. Borrell^s coin, which bears the 
head of ApoUo to left, and the letters TPIH ; this I should 
also be inclined to call a trihemiobolion in spite of its light 
weight of scarcely more than seven grains, which can 
only be accounted for on the supposition of a late date, 
and a singular degradation of standard. And as its style 
bears a striking resemblance to that of the coins of Ghal- 
cidice, it seems possible that it may have been current in 
that district. 

If, however, I have at all made out my case, and it be 
granted that the denomination of a coin may fairly be 
looked for on its face, a good deal of light is thrown on 
other difficult inscriptions. For instance, the letters AI or 
AIO, which occur on the reverses of many coins of Corinth 
which bear a Pegasus on both faces (see Plate VI. Fig. 2), 
may fairly be supposed to stand for AI0130A0N, and in 
this case the weight corresponds more nearly than before. 
Two examples which I have chosen weigh respectively 
12*7 and 13 grains. The great A which forms the reverse 
of the Corinthian coins (PI. VI. 3), the obverse of which 

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bears a horse's head to left, and 9 ) ^^^Y show these also 
to be diobola, and their weight (about 14 grains) confirms 
this conjecture. It will be remembered that a diobol of 
Corinth in perfect preservation ought to weigh about 16 
grains. There are still other coins of Corinth bearing on 
the obverse Bellerophon on Pegasus, and on the reverse 
the Chimaera and the letters AI (See Plate VI., Fig. 
1). By analogy one might conclude that these were 
didrachms ; but it must be added that the weight (from 
52 to 60 grains) would rather show that they were of the 
value of a drachm and a half, or a drachm after the Attic 
standard. Perhaps other students may be able to explain 
this difficulty. 

I must mention what I am disposed to think another 
mistaken attribution caused by a determination to make 
the letters on coins stand for nothing but the name of a 
place. Among the coins of Dardanus are usually placed 
some which seem to have small business there {cf, Plate 
VI., Fig. 7). These may be thus described : — 

Ohv. — Head of Heracles bearded, facing, in lion's skin. 
Rev, — ^Bow and quiver of Heracles crossed, and the letters 
n iji ft shallow incuse. Weight about 
85 grains. 

All the other coins of Dardanus are so diflFerent from 
this, that I cannot help thinking that it must be a drachm 
of Corinthian standard, though a doubt must still remain 
as to where it was struck. The attributes of Heracles 
and the incuse seem to point towards Thessaly, but the 
form of the R towards Italy or Sicily. I confess myself 
unable to determine to what place these coins ought to be 
ascribed, but that they ought not to be ascribed to Dar- 
danus seems little less than certain. 

Percy Gardner. 

VOL. XI. N.S. z 

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The coins which I have the honour to bring before the 
notice of the Society this evening have been recently pur- 
chased by the Department of coins and medals in the 
British Museum. The following is a short description : — 

AVRVNCA. Campanifle. 

Obv. — Head of Apollo laureate to left, behind neck 0. 

Rev. — ^Dolphin to right, above >i MyAYiV, (?) below 
^ II ^ ><Nm and club. M. 7 in. (Pl.VI., No. 1). 

This curious coin, which Friedlaender, in his ''Oskis- 
chen Miinzen/' classes among the unascertained, has 
been attributed by Garrucci (Bulletino arch. nap. nv. 
sr. I. 65 sq.) to the town of Aurunca in Campania. This 
town was founded by Auson, the son of Odysseus and 
Kalypso. The Aurunci are supposed to have been the 
same people as the Ausones. Suessa Aurunca was a 
colony from this city. 

The word Makdiis or Makkiis on the reverse is sup- 
posed by Friedlaender to be a magistrate's name, the 
ending iis corresponding to the Latin ius. The word 
would thus be analogous to the Latin Magidius or 
Maccius, and is in all probability an Oscan family name. 

The bad preservation of the few known specimens of 
this type has been the great obstacle to their satisfactory 
attribution. There can . be little doubt however that 

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Garrucci has correctly read the word Aurunk on the re- 
verse^ and for further information respecting the city of 
Aurunca I can do no better than refer the reader to his 
paper mentioned above. 


Obv. — Male head to left wearing close beard, the whole in 
dotted circle. 

Rev. — TPA Table, above which a bunch of grapes. M. -7 in. 
Weight, 88 grains (PL VI., No. 3). 

Obv. — ^Same as preceding. 

Rev.—T^A Table, but no grapes, m- '6 in. Weight 22 
^rwns (PI. VI., No. 4). 

The autonomous coins of the city of Trapezos in 

Pontos are of extreme rarity. They are curious as 

affording an example of the device upon the coinage, 

viz., a table, suggested by the name of the town. The 

city of Trapezos on the coast of Pontos was a flourishing 

commercial town, a colony from Sinope. Its name may 

be derived from its position, cut out of the declivity of a 

mountain, and forming a sort of table land ; or, possibly, 

from the city of Arkadia bearing the same name, and from 

which it was said to have been colonized previously to its 

foundation or re-colonization from Sinope. The town 

attained to great wealth and importance under the Roman 

Empire, and has bequeathed its name to the modern 

Trebizond. The bunch of grapes upon the table perhaps 

contains an allusion to the fertility of the district and the 

abundance of fruit. 

MITHRADATES lU., King of Pontos. 

Obv—BuBi of Mithradates UI. to right filleted. 

Ew.— BASIAEOS MI0PAAATOY Zeus aetophoros on 
throne to left. In field to left cresc nt and 
star, to right mon. 7^, under throne M/j. ^. 1*25 
in. Weight 264-7 grains (PI. VI., No. 2). 

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Mithradates III. was king of Pontos from b.c. 302-266. 
The beginning of the Pontic era afterwards adopted by 
the kings of the Kimmerian Bosporos is to be ascribed 
to some event which took place during this reign in 
B.C. 297. The star and the crescent on the reverse are 
perhaps symbols of the sun and moon^ and may allude to 
the ancient religion of the Persians, from whom the kings 
of Pontos were descended. Cf. the name Mithradates 
from the Persian word Mitkra " the sun," and the root 
da, signifying " given by the sun." This coin is in a 
perfect state of preservation, and the portrait of the king 
is full of life. Vide Visconti Icon. grec. II. p. 168. 


OJyv. — Lion reclining to left, his head turned back and 
mouth open. 

Eev. — Human figure with bear's head kneeling to right, 
right hand extended, left raised, the whole in 
oblong incuse. M. *85 in. Weight, 154*9 grains 
(PI. VI., No. 2). 

This remarkable coin is of a type hitherto entirely 
unknown ; it is of the archaic period of art. The figure 
with the head of the bear may be intended to represent a 
divinity, the bear, like the stag and the boar, being a sym- 
bol of Artemis ; cf. the story of Kallisto, the companion of 
Artemis, who was changed into a bear. Gerhard '' Gr. 
Myth.," § 340. The bear was probably as common on the 
mountains of Lykia when this coin was struck, in the 
sixth century b.c, as it is at the present day (see Sir 
Charles Fellows^ " Discoveries in Lycia," p. 158). The 
type of this Lykian coin reminds us of the fragment of a 
frieze from the obelisk tomb at Xanthos, now preserved in 
the Lykian room of the British Museum, upon which is 
represented a horseman killing a bear. 

Barclay V. Head. 

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The coins which are described in the following list were 
discovered some time in the summer of 1869 at the town 
of Lutterworth, in the county of Leicester. It appeared 
to me then that a useless air of mystery was thrown over 
the circumstances of the find, because the coins have no 
intrinsic value ; so that the fear of interference, which 
usually hedges the mind of the finder on occasions like 
this, was really quite needless. If that, however, be true, 
which was whispered at the time, that we possess in those 
which are here enumerated only a portion of the find, and 
that some of larger module once formed part of it, then 
reasons for secrecy may have presented themselves to 
others, which it is impossible for me to measure ; but the 
mention of such a fact, as a possible cause of influence, may 
tempt us to consider whether all is now being done, which 
might be done, to efiect a wise and equitable disposal of 
objects found in a similar manner. As regards this par- 
ticular find, those coins which I obtained are, without 
exception, the common "billon " and "petit bronze^^ of the 
middle of the third century. Indeed the mass might be 

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thought SO common as to make a description of them in 
the pages of the Chronicle scarcely worth setting up in 
type, were it not obviously useful to the collector to see 
the relative rarity of the rarer coins in every well-authen- 
ticated find. I have consequently been led to look back 
intx) the records of past finds which we possess in our 
Society's Proceedings. By doing so one gets a clear 
perception of the scarcity in England of the money of 
the usurpers, Marius and Quintillus, a fact which Mr. Aker- 
man noticed many years ago in his work on ^* Bare and 
Inedited Roman Coins/' (Vol. ii. pp. 68—90. 1861.) 
Were it not for the more abundant supply which comes 
to us from abroad, I suspect many English collections 
would distinctly show traces of this scarcity. Perhaps 
even some of those coins which, in Cohen's '^ Monnaies 
Bomainesi,'^ are now marked '* common," would be per* 
ceived not to be so, were inquiry made for them in 
London, and not in Paris. The table which I present 
with this list of the Lutterworth coins, exhibits statistics 
constituting the ground upon which this remark is based. 
There it may be seen that in the accounts preserved in 
the pages of the Chronicle of fifteen finds of Roman 
money of the later part of the third century, including 
many thousand coins, there are noted but thirty-four of 
the unfortunate pretender Quintillus, and only fourteen 
of the usurper Marius. 

List of Roman Coins, billon, or third brass, found 
AT Lutterworth. 

Heferences to Cohen's *' Monnaies Bomaines." 


CONCOBDIA AVGG 1 (Cohen, 12, without a 

star in the field.) 

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APOLLINI CONSERVA ... 1 (Cohen, 17.) 


OMENS AVG 1 (Cohen, 88.) 


ABVNDANTIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 28.) 

AETERNITAS AVG 1 (Cohen, 41.) 

APOLLINI CONS AVG. . . . 6 (Cohen, 68, 69, and 61.) 


DIANAE CONS AVG .... 4 (Cohen, 108, 109.) 

FELICIT AVG 2 (Cohen, 121.) 

FORTVNA REDVX 2 (Cohen, 169.) 

lOVI CONS AVG 1 (Cohen, 204.) 

LAETITIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 260.) 

MARTI PACIF 2 (Cohen, 862.) 

PAX AVG 1 (Cohen, 890.) 

PIETAS AVG 1 (Cohen, 416.) 

PROVID AVG 8 (Cohen, 468.) 

SECVR TEMPO 1 (Cohen, 619.) 

SECVRIT PERPET (N in field) . 1 (Cohen, 618.) 

VBERITAS AVG 1 (Cohen, 641.) 

VICTORIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 688.) 

VICTORIA AET 2 (Cohen, 677.) 

VICT ? ? .1 

VIRTVS AVG 2 (Cohen, 678.) 

VIRTVS AVGVSTI 1 (Cohen, 694.) 

DIVO SEVERO 1 (Restored coin of S. 


IVNO REGINA ...... 1 (Cohen, 48.) 

PIETAS AVG 1 (Cohen, 27.) 

1 Placed by Cohen under " Valerien Jeune,*' No. 1. 

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CONCORD EQVIT 2 (Cohen, 18.) 

FELICITAS AVG .2 (Cohen, 27.) 

HERC DEVSONIENSI .... 2 (Cohen, 44.) 

HERC PACIFERO 1 (Cohen, 46.) 

LAETITIA [AVG] 1 (Cohen, 88.) 

MINERVA FAVTR 1 (Cohen, 256.) 

MONETA AVG 4 (Cohen, 91.) 

NEPTVNO REDVCI 2 (Cohen, 98.) 

ORIENS AVG ....... 1 (Cohen, 95.) 

PAX AVG .10 (Cohen, 266 : six have 

the letter P in the field. ) 

PM TR P COS n PP . . . . 8 (Cohen, 114.) 

PM TR P im COS m PP . . 1 (Cohen, 121.) 

PM TR P Vim COS nn PP . l (Cohen, 126.) 

PROVIDENTIA AVG .... 2 (Cohen, 186.) 

SAECVLI FELICITAS .... 1 (Cohen, 156.) 

SAECVLO FRVGIFERO . . .1 (Cohen, 157.) 

SALVS AVG 1 (Cohen, 161.) 

VICTORIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 181.) 



AEQVITAS AVG 1 (Cohen, 6.) 

FIDES MILITVM 1 (Cohen, 21.) 

INVICTVS (* in field) .... 25 (Cohen, 29.) 

PAX AVG 29 (Cohen, 48.) 

PIETAS AVG 19 (Cohen, 51.) 

PROVIDENTIA AVG .... 8 (Cohen, 57.) 

(a) SALVS AVG* 28 (Cohen, 66.) 

ip) „ „ ...... 18 (Cohen, 70.) 

VICTORIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 75.) 

VIRTVS AVG 9 (Cohen, 80.) 

Illegible 1 


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VICTORIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 16.) 

Tetricus, Sekior. 

COMES AVG 1 (Cohen, 46.) 

LAETITIA AVG 2 (Cohen, 71.) 

VICTORIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 116.) 

VOTA PVBLICA 1 (Cohen, 120.) 

lUegible 1 

Tetricus, Junior. 

PIETAS AVG 1 (Cohen, 26.) 

Illegible 1 


Claudius Gothicus. 

AEQVIT 2 (Cohen, 29.) 

ANNONA AVG 3 (Cohen, 88.) 

CONSECRATIO (no letter in ex- 
ergue) 1 (Cohen, 60.) 

FELICITAS AVG 2 (Cohen, 267.) 

FIDES EXERCI 3 (Cohen, 74.) 

FIDES MILIT 1 (Cohen, 76.) 

AVG 1 

GENIVS EXERCI 2 (Cohen, 94.) 

VICTOR 1 (Cohen, 101.) 

MARS VLTOR 1 (Cohen, 121.) 

PAX AVG 4 (Cohen, 146.) 

PM TR P n COS PP . . . . 1 (Cohen, 168.) 

PROVIDENT AVG 2 (Cohen, 166.) 

SECVRIT AVG 1 (Cohen, 198.) 

VICTORIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 209.) 

VIRTVS AVG 6 (Cohen, 228 ; and one 

has S in the exergue.) 
Illegible 2 



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MARTI PACIF 1 (Cohen, 88.) 

PROVIDENT AVG 2 (Cohen, 45.2) 

SECVRIT AVG 2 (Cohen, 47.) 

VICTORIA AVG 1 (Cohen, 62.) 

VIRTVS AVG 1 (Cohen, 66.) 



Volusian . 1 

Valerian 3 

Gallienus 86 

Salonina 1 

Saloninus 1 

Postumus 87 

Victorinua 126 

Marias 1 

Tetricus, senior 6 

Tetrieus, junior 2 

Claudius Gothicus ....... 88 

Quintillus 7 


* This coin differs slightly from No. 46. Providence is here 
repreitfented with hasta in left hand. 

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1 1 '^ 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1^ 1^ I 1 1 - 



^1 ^ ^ 




CO ^ 

*tre9(I JO :»8M0^ 




XX 1 xi x"*" M X 1 


1 1 1 1 IS§ 1 1 1 1 - 


1 1 XX 1 i X 1 X 1 1 X- 



1 |XX|XX|X|X| 

•If— f88l 


1 1 g I 1 "«^ 5 §§^ 

• •6881 

1 1 *>- 1 c- 1 1 1 w» 1 


1 Tt^ »H ^ (M 1 







Victorinus .... 


Tetricus, Senr. . . 

Junr. . . 

Claud. Gothic : . . 

Quintillus .... 





or -§ 











§§■•65 8'= "as;: 


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I am now tempted to speak again of that veil of mys- 
tery which was drawn over the discovery of the Lutter- 
worth hoards in order that I may raise a question^ which 
apparently it is high time some one did raise. I 
mean this, does the assertion of the Crown's right to 
objects of archaeological interest, as treasure trove, work 
beneficially in the interests of the branch of historical 
research which the Numismatic Society fathers ? With- 
out pretending to go into the law of the case, we all know, 
in a general way, what has been the exercise of this right, 
on the part of the Crown, in ancient times ; and in that 
which follows, I venture not to dispute the legality of a 
claim which demands for the sovereign whatever natural 
or hidden treasure may be found lying buried in the 
soil.^ Nor does the claim surprise us. When gold and 
silver, in bulk, were habitually secreted, in consequence 
of that general feeling of insecurity which unsettled times 
begot, it might be foolish and profitless, but it was 
not unfair for a prince like Richard II. to cause 
search after search to be made for supposed buried 
treasure, that he might add to his revenue.* The 
actual owners of the deposit had passed away from 
life, and no one but the king had better claim to it, 

3 In the laws of Edward the Confessor, chap, xiv., " all 
treasure found in the earth is declared to belong to the king, 
except it should be discovered in a church, or in a churchyard, 
in which case the king should have the gold, and one-half of the 
silver, the other moiety to be taken by the church where it 
was found, whether it were rich or poor." — (Ruding, vol. i. 
p. 141, quoting Wilkins.) 

* Among other expedients to procure money, a writ was 
issued for the discovering of black money, and other subter- 
raneous treasure hidden of old in the county of Southampton, 
in whosesoever hands it might be, and to seize it for the king*s 
use (Pat. i., R. ii., pt. 8, m. 85 dors). He afterwards claimed 
black money to the amount of 160 lbs. of full weight, which 

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for in him lay the original title to the soil. But 
within the last few years the exercise of this right has 
taken a new form, and now the strong hand of power is 
stretched forth to get hold, not of sums which might fill the 
coffers of a king, enabling him perhaps to remit taxation 
or defend his coasts, but of sums absolutely insignificant, 
in relation to such objects. It takes possession even of a 
few hundred old silver coins, of no intrinsic importance as 
bullion ; their worth lying, not in the value of the metal 
out of which they were made, but in the light they shed 
on local or general history — ^the light which chiefly gives 
them lustre in our eyes. Further, it is urged that this 
is done in the interests of the public and for the benefit of 
scientific and historical inquiry. In strictness it cannot be 
denied that the original right of the Crown may be held 
to cover this novel use of it; but it is rather on the 
grounds of public interest that this reassertion of the 
right has been recently advanced ; and it is on precisely 
the same grounds that I venture to question it. It had 
been alleged by those in authority, and I believe with 
reason, that from time to time many objects of ancient art 
were being discovered, and that doubt as to the owner- 
ship, on the part of the discoverer, led frequently to public 
loss; such secrecy being observed on the part of those 
into whose hands these things were falling, that unless 
there happened to be in the neighbourhood some collector 
of antiquities, the precious metal quickly found its way to 
the melting-pot, as did the proceeds thereof into the pockets 
of the finder. In Ireland especially was this occurring ; 

had been found in that county, as belonging to him in right of 
his crown (CI. i. R. ii., m. 17). — Ruding, vol. i. p. 236. 

By this it appears that coined money other than of gold or 
silver has been made the subject of the Crown's claim. 

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hence a common wail over art treasures of ancient times 
lost for ever, and hence this trial of a remedy, through 
the Crown^s unquestionable claim to treasure trove. 

Under these circumstances, a few years ago, the Trea- 
sury issued an order, by which the police were authorised 
to obtain possession of anything and everything found, if 
formed of gold or silver, whether coin or other relics of 
antiquity. This order has been put into force, and accord- 
ingly several finds of coins have been secured for the 
Crown. Let me speak particularly of one — the recital shows 
the need of the question I raise, or it must be admitted I 
have no case. In the autumn of 1867 a discovery was made 
of mediaeval coins at Stamford, in Lincolnshire. It con- 
sisted of about 2,700 silver groats of the Henries and 
Edwards of the fifteenth century. The news of a dis- 
covery quickly spread. Possession of the hoard was taken 
by the police j an officer of the Treasury in a trice came 
down and carried ofi^ the prize, and in due course the 
bullion value of the coins was paid to the finder, a work- 
ing man. His neighbours doubtless thought him happy ; 
but I have been assured he nearly died of the delight, the 
shock to his nervous system was so severe. The coins 
were next transferred from the Treasury to the Medal 
Boom of the British Museum, and the gentlemen engaged 
there did as they were desired to do, by selecting for the 
national collection such varieties as were wanted. Now, 
excepting that over-dose of luck which befell the finder, 
up to this point no harm seems to have been done ; but 
let us observe the sequel, for upon it am I tempted to rest 
my complaint. The hoard, conveyed again to the Treasury, 
has been lying there from that day to this ; it has never 
been accurately described, and apparently never will be, 
for no competent Numismatist has been authorised to 

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draw up any statement of the find. Owing to circum- 
stances^ I greatly question now whether this could be 
done. Several offers to purchase the coins in the mass, 
at the valuation put on them by the President of 
this Society, having been refused, about two thousand 
coins still remain at the Treasury, and will probably 
continue to lie there, without ever fulfilling the use they 
were capable of being put to, under different rule.*^ This 
is greatly to be regretted, because this Stamford find is 
one which might have been of great use ; it bore dis- 
tinctly on that examination of the coins of Henry IV., 
v., and VI., which has lately engaged the attention of 
several members of this Society ; it contained the latest 
Henry VI. and the earliest Edward IV. groats, in large 
numbers ; and associated together with them were many 
hundred of those issued by the Calais mint. 

Yet in no appreciable degree is numismatic study the 
better for this important find ; and, as I repeat, it might 
have been so. To any who have employed themselves 
in such inquiries I need hardly say that the opportunity 
of examining a hoard of ancient coins in the mass is 
most interesting and most important. Opinions regard- 
ing half-settled questions can often be established by 
means of that examination, and by no other. And 
although the mere collector may be able, by the existing 
regulations, to obtain specimens of a particular find, 
any one of us who aspires to determine some of the 

^ It is fair to say that such of the public as can gain access 
to the Treasury, with a view to purchase coins, may obtain 
specimens of this find at a shilling a piece ! This price leaves a 
margin of profit not to be despised, as the metallic value of the 
pieces in question is not much more than sevenpence ; but how 
strange a sight it is to see Government officials of the highest 
respectability acting as retail dealers ! 

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undetermined points which still perplex English Numis- 
matists^ must make the attempt without the assistance a 
better system would ensure. 

The orders issued by the Treasury were well intended, 
doubtless, and their occasional effect may be to save from 
destruction objects which otherwise would have been lost 
to us; but we may reasonably ask for more than the 
preservation of such objects from the tjrucible of the 
silversmith; they ought to minister to those investiga- 
tions in which the Numismatic Society is engaged. At 
present they often do not ; and so far from their having 
been put to useful purpose of the highest kind, the coins 
of this Stamford hoard might just as well be lying at the 
present moment under the door-step where they were 
discovered. In my opinion a remedy for this could be 
obtained, which would satisfy alike the claim of the Crown 
and the reasonable interests of the public. 

These last I take to be vested in, or represented by — 
firstly, the national collection in the British Museum ; 
secondly, the person of the finder ; thirdly, the owner of 
the soil, whose right to some share of the plunder is now 
absolutely ignored ; and though last named, not least in 
my thoughts, that outsider, the coin student, who makes 
it his business to draw out facts, from a heap of ancient 
money, which, in a humble way, may be regarded as 
part of the history of the country. Why, may it not 
be asked, as soon as the British Museum has made its 
selection, should not a hoard of ancient coins be sold by 
public auction, under the authority of the Treasury, to the 
highest bidder ? Whatever value they might have beyond 
their intrinsic value would thus be secured. Let a portion 
of this go, of right, to the finder ; another portion to the 
owner of the soil, with opportunity, if he so pleases, for 

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taking some of the coins themselves^ by agreement with 
the purchaser ; and let a third portion be retained by the 
Treasury^ to defray such incidental expenditure as may be 
connected with the transaction. 

Some such plan as this would, I believe, secure the end 
held in view, as well as others which at present seem to 
be disregarded. The coins would find their way at once 
to the hands of those who want them, and can turn them 
to account, and interests which are clearly in conflict 
now, would then be conspiring for a common end. 


P.S. — Since this paper was written another find of 
Roman coins (denarii of the early emperors, in a fine state 
preservation) has been made in Leicestershire; and as 
regards them too, the worthlessness of the existing regu* 
lations was clearly seen. They were quickly dispersed, 
and no one to this day knows how many were found, or 
what has become of the bulk of them. 

VOL. XI. N.S. B B 

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I USE the expression "unpublished/' as I do not find 
these coins described or referred to by M. Cohen, either 
in the body of his very comprehensive and carefully com- 
piled work, or in the Supplement (Paris, 1868). 

Some of them may, possibly, be described or mentioned 
in other works, or may be found in sale-catalogues ; but 
if so, the fact has escaped my researches. 

In some instances, the variations from coins described 
by Cohen are very slight ; but any such may, perhaps, be 
considered worth noting by a Numismatic Society. 

To the list (which is incomplete, and in making which I 
have omitted some suspectedof having been altered) of coins 
in my own collection, I subjoin that of the extraordinary 
series of unpublished Roman Imperial coins to be found 
among the ample stores of our fellow-member, Mr. P. W. 
Lincoln, of New Oxford Street, to whose scrupulous accu- 
racy and indefatigable industry I am bound to bear testi- 
mony, as well as to acknowledge my obligations to his 
kindness in furnishing me with the results of his investi- 
gations, and with every assistance. 

T. Jones. 

Llanerchruooo Hall, 
N.Walea, /««., 1871. 

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1. Augustus. M 2. Obv.— IMP. CAESAR DIVI. F. AV- 

GVSTVS IMP. XX. Bare head, to right. 

in field ; crescent ahove. 

As Cohen 271, but with the extraordinary addition of the 
crescent, which is large, over the S.C, which is small. 

It may be remarked that IMP occurs twice on the obverse : so 

2. Tiberius. M. 1. Obv. — Laureate head of Tiberius to 

left. TI CAES 

Eev.—Re&d of Agrippina to right. AGRIPPINA 

This unique coin is not in Cohen, but is particularly described 
by Burgon in the Pembroke Catalogue, also by Haym; and 
referred to by Eckhel and Smyth. 

3. Caius CaBsar (grandson of Augustus). M- Obv. — CAESAR. 

Bare head, within a laurel-wreath, to right. 

Rev. — AVGVSTI. Candelabrum, within garland of 
flowers, bucrania, and patersa. 

4. Nero. M 2. Ofey.— NERO. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. 

GER. P.M. TR. P. IMP. Bare head, to right. 

jR^t;.— GENIO AVGVSTI. Genius, sacrificing, to left. 
(No. S.C. So Coh. SuppL, p. 81 : with different 

5. Julia Titi. M 2. Obv.— lYLIA IMP. T. AVG. F. 

AVGVSTA. Head to right. 

Rev.— S.C. Vesta (not veiled) seated to left. VESTA, 
in exergue. 

6. Trajan. M 1. Obv.— IMP. CAES. NERVA TRAIAN. 

AVG. GERM. P.M. Laureate head to right. 

Rev.—TH. POT. COS. mi. P.P. Emperor, on prancing 
horse, to right. In exergue S.C. 

7. Trajan. M 1. Obv.— IMP. CAES. NER. TRAIANO 

VI. P.P. Laureate head to right, ^gis very 
large and peculiar. 

or Felicity (Coh. 889) standing to left. 

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This coin was exhibited at a meeting of the Numismatic 
Society last year. Our friend, M. Graston Fenardent, kindly 
o£fered to take it to Paris, wishing to show it to M. Cohen ; 
and informed me on his return that that gentleman had never 
seen it before, and regarded it as of much interest. 

I have a second-brass of Trsgan which exhibits a similar 
large 8Bgis. 

8. Trajan. M 2. Obv.—JMP. CAES. NERVA TRAIAN. 

AVG. GERM. DACIOVS. P.M. Laureate head 
to right. 

Rev.—TB., P. VII. IMP. nn. COS IIU. DES. V.P.P. 
Victory stepping on globe to left. S.C. 

9. Antoninus Pius. M 1. O&v.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIVS. P.P. Laureate head, to right. 

Rev.—TH, POT. COS. 11. Abundance standing to left; 
prow to right; modius to left. S.C. (Cf. 
Coh. SuppL p. 158.) 

10. Antoninus Pius. M 1. Ofrt;.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIVS. P.P. Bare head to right. 

-B^t;.— TR. POT. COS. II. Peace, standing, to left. S.C. 

11. Antoninus Pius. M. 1. Ofet;.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIVS. P.P. TR. P. XI. Laureate head to 

Rev.—DIVA FAVSTINA. Head of Faustina to right. 

Cohen, who values the coin at 100 francs, has TR. P. COS. 
III. t. ii. p. 415 ; same obv. 657. 

12. Antoninus Pius. M. 1. 06t;.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIVS. P. P. Laureate head to right. 

i?^v.— IMPERATOR. II. Female figure, holding ears of 
com and basket of fruit, standing to right. S.C. 
(Cf. Coh. 617, 681.) 

18. Faustina L Ml. 0^.— DIVA FAVSTINA. Head to 

i?et'.— AETERNITAS. Eternity (?), standing to lefl, 
holding butterfly (?). S.C. 

14. Faustina I. Ml. Obv. — Same obv. 

jRer.— PIETAS AVG. Female figure standing to left, 
sacrificing, and holding box, S.C. 

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15. Marcus Aurelius. Ml. Obv.^[M7] ANTONINVS AVG. 

ARMENIACVS. Laureate head to right. 

Eev.—nCT. AVG. TR. P. XVni. IMP. H. COS. II. 
Victory, with trophy, standing to right, Armenian 
captive at foot. S.C. Coh. 787. (COS. HI.) 

16. M. Aurelius. M ll^. O61;.— MedaUion. M. AVREL. 

Laureate head, to right. 

Eev.—TB,. P. XX. IMP. IH. COS. m.? Emperor, stand- 
ing, to left. Victory approaching him. 

17. M. Aurelius. M. 1. Obv.—M. AVREL. ANTONINVS 

AVG. TR. P. XXXni. Laureate bust, with 
cuirass, to right. 

jR^v.-FELICITAS AVG, IMP. Vm. COS. ffl. P. P. 
Felicity standing to left. S.C. 

18. M. Aurelius. M 1. Obv.-^M. AVREL. ANTONINVS 

AVG. ARMENIACVS. P. M. Laureate head to 
left, bust bare. 

jR^.— TR. POT. XIX. IMP. m. COS. III. Providence 
standing to left, large globe at foot. S.C. 

19. M. AureHus. M 1. Ohv.—mP. M. ANTONINVS AVG. 

TR. P. XXV. Laureate head to right, bust 

Rev.—VOTA. SOL. DECENN^ Emperor, veiled, sacri- 
ficing, to left. 

20. M. Aurelius. M 1. Obv.—M. AVREL. ANTONINVS 

AVG. TR. P. XXXIIII. Laureate head, to right, 
bust bare, 

B^v.—YIRTYS AVG. IMP. X. COS. III. P. P. Valour 
seated to right. S.C. 

21. Faustina II. M 2. 06i;.— FAVSTINAE AVG. PH. 

AVG. FIL. Resid to Uft. 

iJ^t;.— VENVS. Venus standing to left. S.C. 

22. Commodus. M, 1, Obv,—M. COMMODVS ANTON. 

AVG. PIVS. BRIT. Laureate head to right. 
i^^t;.— P.M. TR. RX. IMP. VII. COS. . . In exergue, 
ITALIA. Italy seated on globe to left. S.C. 

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23. Geta. M 1. Obv.—IMP. CAES. P. SEPT. GETA 

PIVS AVG. Laureate head to right. 

Eei;.— CONCORDIAE AVGG ? . . . . CaracaUa and 
Geta standing, crowned by two Victories. In 
exergne, S.C. (Cf. Coh. 128.) 

24. Geta. M 1. Obv.— {Size 9}.) P. SEPTIMIVS GETA 

CAESAR. Head to right. 

jR,i;._PONTIF. COS. II. Minerva, seated to right, 
feeding serpent twined round olive-tree ; owl on 
buckler. In exergue, S.C.^ 

25. Macrinus. M 1. Obv.—IMP. CAES. M. OPEL. SEV. 

MACRINVS AVG. Laureate head to right, 
i^t;.— SALVS PVBL. P. M. TR. P. Salus seated to 
left, feeding serpent. In exergue, S.C. (See 
Coh. 115, note.) 

26. Gordian. m. M 1. Obv.—IMP. GORDIANVS PIUS. 

FEL. AVG. Laureate head to right. 

i?et;.— SECVRITAS. AVG. Security seated to left. 
No. S.C. 

27. Philip n. Ml. Obv.—IMP. M. IVL. PHILIPPVS 

AVG. Laureate head to right. 

i^v.— SAECVLARES AVGG. Stag standing to left. 
In exergue, S.C. 

28. Philip II. M 1. Oiv.— Same obv. 

i?ei;.— LIBERALITAS AVG. III. Two emperors seated 
on curule chairs, to left, holding out their right 
hands. In exergue, S.C. (Cf. Coh. 56, ** tenant 
chacun un sceptre.") 

29. Aurelian. M 6i. O&v.— Medallion. IMP. AVRELIA- 

NVS. AVG. Radiate head to right. 

ii^r .—lOVI CONSERVATORR (sic, double-struck). Ju- 
piter standing to left, emperor and another 
figure to right. In exergue, two stars, and 


1 Of. Coh., 152. This coin (medallion ?), which is in rather 
poor condition, is stated to have been found in Cannon Street, 

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Coins in the Collection of Mr. F. W. Lincoln. 

1. Julius Caesar. iE 2. 06y.--DIV0S IVLIVS. Laureate 

head of Julius to right. 

12^.— CAESAR DIVI F. Bare head of Augustus to 
right. Star of six rays to right. 

2. Augustus. M 2. Obv. — IMP. CAESAR DIVI F. 

AVGVSTVS IMP. XX. Head to left. 


8. Nero. M 8. 06i;.— NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG. 
GER .... Laureate head to right. 

Rev, — -"Neptune standing to left. S.Ci 

4. Galba. M 2. 06v.— SER. GALEA IMP. CAESAR 
AVG. Laureate head to left. 

Eev.—PAX AVGVSTI. Peace standing to left. S.C. 

6. Titus. M. Obv.—T. CAESAR IMP. VESP. Laureate 
head to right. 

jR^v.— PONTIF. TR. P. COS. HI. Titus seated to right, 
holding sceptre and branch. 

6. Titus. M 2. _Obv.—T. CAESAR VESPAS. TR. P. 

COS. VI. Laureate head to left. 

i?^.— VICTORIA NAVALTS. Victory stepping on prow 
to right. S.C. 

7. Domitian. M 2. 06t;.— CAESAR AVG. F. DOMITIA- 

NVS COS. DES. n. Laureate head to right. 
Rev.— TAX AVGVSTI. Peace standing to left. S.C. 

8. Domitia. M 4. Obv.— IMP. DOMIT. AVG. GERM. CO. 

Head of Domitia to right. 

i^v..— Tripod ? S.C. 

9. Nerva. M 2. Obv.— IMP. NERVA CAES. AVG. P. 

M. TR. P. II. COS. IIII. P. P. Radiate head 
to right. 

Rev.— IMP. II. COS. IIII. P. P. Abundance standing to 
left. S.C. 

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10. Hadrian. M 2. Ofri;.— HADRUNVS AVG. COS. . . 

Lanreate head to right. 

JBev.— FELICITAS AVGVSTI. Emperor and Felicity 
joining hands. In exergue, S.C, 


AVG. P. P. Head to left, " avec la queue." 

i?^«;.— PIETAS. Piety seated to left. In exergue, S.C. 

12. Sabina. M 2. 06t;.— SABINA AVGVSTA HADBIANI 

AVG. P. P. Head to right, " avec la queue," 

J?«;.— Vesta seated to left. S.C. (Cf. Coh. 71, ** avec la 

18. iEHus. M 2. Obv.—'L. AELIVS CAESAR. Bust, in 
paludamentum, to right. 

Btv.—TR. POT. COS. n. Salus seated to left. S.C. 

14. Antoninus Pius. M. 06i;.— IMP. CAES. T. AEL. HAD. 
head to right. 

E^.—TB,. POT. XV. COS. im. Female figure standing 
to right, and holding basket of fruit and uncertain 
object. In exergue, PIETAS. 

16. Antoninus PiuE. M. O&v.— ANTONINVS AVG. PIVS. 
P. P. TR. P. XVni. Laureate head to right. 

IJ^t;.— FELIOITATI AVG. COS. IHI. Felicity stand- 
ing to left. 

16. Antoninus Pius. M 2. 06t;.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIVS, P. P. TR. P. . . . Laureate head to 

i?^._TEMPL. DIVI. . . . Octostyle temple; two figures 
seated within. S.C. In exergue, COS. IIII. 

17. Antoninus Pius. M 2. 06t;.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIUS. P. P. Radiate head to right. 

i?^r.— TEMPL. DIVI AVG. REST. Same. (Cf. Coh. 

18. Antoninus Pius. M 2. 0^.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIVS. P, P. TR. P. XVI. Radiate head to 

i?ev.— COS. IIII. Salus standing to left, S.C. (Cf. 
Coh. 791, 2.) 

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19/ Antoninus Pius. M 2. Ofcv.—ANTONINVS AVG. 
PIVS P. P. TR. P. COS. nn. Laureate head 
to right. 

1^.— PIETAS AVG. Piety standing to left. S.C. 
(Cf. Coh. 710.) 

20. Antoninus Pius. M 2. OAv.— ANTONINVS AVG. 

PIVS. P. P. Laureate head to right. 

Rev,—TR. POT. COS. H. Bonus Eventus (with cornu- 
copiae, and not nude) sacrificing, to left. S.C. 
(Cf. Coh. 860.) 

21. Antoninus Pius. M 2. Ohv. — Same obv. 

Rev.—TB,. POT. COS. in. Nude figure sacrificing, to 
left. S.C. 

22. Antoninus Pius. M 2. Obv, — Same obv. 

Bev.—TE. POT. COS. mi. Fortune standing to left, 
rudder resting on globe. S.C. (Cf. Coh. 888.) 

28. Faustina I. M. Ob^K— DIVA FAVSTINA. Head to 

i2«i;.— AVGVSTA. Ceres standing to right, holding 
sceptre (?) and two ears of com. (Cf. Coh. 
27, 8.) 

24. Faustina I. M. Ofti;.— FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. Head 

to right. 

B£v. — Throne, long sceptre, and diadem ; peacock below. 
(Cf. Coh. 62, 90, 93.) 

25. Faustina I. M 2. Ohv.— BlYk AVGVSTA FAVSTINA. 

VeiUd head to right. (Cf. Coh. 262, 8.) 

-B^.— PIET. AVG. In exergue, S.C. 

26. Faustina I. M 2. 06v.— DIVA FAVSTINA. VeUed 

head to right. 

Rev, — AVGVSTA. Female figure, holding patera and 
wand, standing to left. S.C. 

27. Marcus Aurelius. M. Obv.—M. ANTONINVS AVGi 

ABM. PABTH. MAX. Laureate head to right. 

Rev.—TE. P. XX. IMP. IIII. COS. III. Peace standing 
to left;. (Cf. Coh. 144.) 

VOL. XI. N.S. C C 

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28. M. AureliuB. M 1. Obv.—AYG. PU, P. COS. II. Bttre 

head, lightly draped bust, to right. 

!?«;.— HTLARITAS. Hilarity standing to left. B.C. 

29. M. Aurelius. M 1. Obv.—M. AVBEL. ANTONINVS 

AYG. TB. P. XXX. Laureate bust, tnth cuirass, 
to right. 

72«;.— FELICITAS AVG. IMP. X. COS. m. P. P. 
Felicity standing to left. S.C. 

80. M. Aurelius. Ohv.—M 1. IMP. CAES. M. AVREL. 

ANTONINVS AVG. P. M. Bare head, bust 
draped, to right. 

J?«;.— SALVTI AVGVSTOR. TR. P. XVn. Salus stand- 
ing to left. S.C. In exergue, COS. HI. 

81. M. AureKus. M 1. O&v.— M. AVREL. ANTONINVS 

ARMENIACVS P. M. Laureate head to right. 

Victory standing to right. Armenian captive at 
foot. S.C. 

82. Same as I. 20. 

88. M. AureHus. M 1. Obv.—M. AVREL. ANTONINVS 
AVG. P. M. Laureate head to right. 

Rev.—TB,. P. XVni. IMP. II. COS. HI. Minerva stand- 
ing to right. S.C. (Cf. Coh. 748.) 

84. M. AureUus. M 2. Obv.—M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. 

P. XXm. Radiate head to right, bust bare. 

Rev.—8ALYTl AVG. COS. m. Salus standing to left. 
S.C. (Cf. Coh. 619.) 

85. M. Aurelius. M 2. Obv.—M. AVREL. CAESAR AVG. 

PII FIL. Bare head, bust \vith paludamentum, 
to right. 

Bsv.—TB,. POT. VIII. COS, II. Mars marching to right. 

86. M. Aurelius. M 2. Obv.—M.. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. 

P. XXXI. Laureate head to right. 

Rev.— IMP. Vm. COS. Ul. P. P. Fulmen. S.C. (Cf. 
Coh. 568.) 

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87. M. AureUus. M 2. Obv.—M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. 

P. XXIX. Radiate head to right. 

Rev.— IMP. VU. COS. III. Roma Victrix standing to 
left. B.C. 

88. M. AureUus. M 2. Obv.—M. AVREL. ANTONINVS 

ARMENIACVS. Laureate head to right. 

Bev.—TR. P. XVm. IMP. 11. COS. III. Mars standing 
to right. S.C. 

89. M. AureHus. M 2. Obv.—M. ANTONINVS AVG. P. 

M. Laureate head to right, hust draped. 

Rev.—TB,. P. XVm. IMP. II. COS. HI. Mars Victor 
marching to left. S.C. 

40. Faustina n. M. Ofct^.—FAUSTINA AVG. PH. AVG. 

FIL. Head to right. 

Rev. — CONCORDIA. Concord seated to left, cornucopia 
on globe, 

41. Faustina n. ^2. 06i;.— FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. Head 

to right. 

Rev. — CONCORDIA. Concord, with single cornucopia, 
seated to left. (Cf. Coh. 141.) 

42. LuciUa. M. 06i;.— LVCILLAE AVG. ANTONINI AVG. 

F^ Head to right. 

12«;.— CONCORDIA. Concord standing to left. 

48. Commodus. M. Obv.—m COMM. ANT. P. FEL. AVG. 
BRIT. Laureate head to right. 

Rev.—V, M. TR. P. XI. IMP. Vn. COS. V. P. P. Fortune 
seated to left. In exergue, FORT. RED, (CL 
Coh. 66.) 

44. Commodus. M. Oftv.— COMM. . . . AVG. BRIT. P. P. 
Laureate head to right. 

J?«;.— ROMAE FELICI. COS. VI. Rome seated to 

46. Commodus. M. Ohv.—M. COMM. ANT. P. FEL. AVG. 
BRIT. Laureate head to right. 

Rev.-^UOM. AETER. P. M. TR. P. XHII. Rome seated 
to left. (Cf. Coh. 219.) 

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46. Septimius Severus. M. Obv.^IMP. CAE, L. SEP. SEV- 

PERT. AVG. COS. II? Laureate head to 
i^.— VICT. AVG. Victory, holding garland (no palm), 
marching to right. (Cf. Coh. 408.) 

47. Julia Domna. M, Obv.—IYLIA PIA FELIX AVG. 

^ead to right. 
iJw;.— FELICITAS. Felicity standing to left. (Cf. Coh. 

48. Julia Mffisa. M 2. 06*;. — IVLIA MAESA. AVG. 

Diademed head to right. 

fl^.— SAECVLI FELICITAS. Felicity standing to left. 
S.C. (Cf. Coh. 88.) 

49. Julia Sosemias. M 2. Obv. — IVLIA SOAEMIAS 

AVGVSTA. Head to left. 

l^t?.— MATER. DEVM. Cybele seated to left. In 
exergue, S.C. (Cf. Coh. 12.) 

This is a very peculiar coin. 

60. Alexander. M. I. Obv.— IMP, SEV. ALEXANDER 
AVG. Laureate head to right. 

Eev,—P. M. TR. P, VHI. COS. IIH. Emperor in quad- 
riga, slow, to right. (Cf. Coh. 868.) 

51. Alexander. M 2. Obv.— IMP. CAES. M. AVR. SEV. 
ALEXANDER AVG. Laureate head to right. 

/fev.-IOVL VLTORL Jupiter seated to left. In 
exergue, S.C. 

62. Orbiana. M, 2. Obv.— BALL. BARBIA ORBIANA 
AVG. Diademed head to right. 

i^et;.— CONCORDIA AVGG. Concord seated to left. In 
exergue, S.C. (Cf. Coh. No. 11 ; and see parti- 
cularly Suppl. p. 241). 

68. Trebonianus Gallus. M 2. Obv.— IMP. CAE. C. VIB. 
TREB. GALLVS AVG. Laureate head to 

i?fr.— IVNONI. MARTIALI. Juno seated in temple. 

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The documentary evidence, adduced by Mr. Neck, 
which confirms my attribution of the coins marked with 
the broken annulet to Henry V., is gratifying. But I 
fear that, with reference to the groats of the annulet type, 
which exhibit a head varying but little from that of 
Henry V., yet somewhat different from it, and which 
read ARGL* like the groats of Henry VI., I have not 
made myself sufficiently understood about the York groat 
which bears the head of Henry V., and which, according 
to documents, was struck in the reign of Henry VI. The 
matter of the other groats, to some extent, turns upon 
that York groat, the others being confessedly subsequent 
^o it. And there is an appeal to me, to which I can 
scarcely be inattentive. 

It is, in the general, improbable that the great annulet 
coinage, for which the money er's indenture is not dated 
until 18 Feb., 1422, and which Mr. Pownall thinks would 
not practically commence until July, 1422, should, after 
pouring forth the common annulet pieces with Henry V/s 
head and T^RGLIGC, have been changed before his death in 
August. I should suppose that this well-known coinage. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


common in all its stages^ extended^ during each of them, 
over a much longer period than any number of months 
ending with Henry V/s death, and that dies of his type 
would, for even a longer time than usual, be used during 
such a great recoinage, into the successor's reign. 

In 1866, I stated my conclusion ^^ that the regal money 
of the Henries, the gold and the larger denominations of 
silver, were struck at York in the time of Henry VI. 
only." If that conclusion was correct, the York groat 
could only have been coined by Henry VI. ; and, as it 
bears his father's head, it must have been struck with his 
father's dies or with fac-similes of them ; and all groats 
subsequent to it in style must also have been issued in 
Henry VL's reign. I admit that I ought perhaps to have 
been more explicit in stating reasons for my views, when 

1 so roughly treated the regal money of the Henries 
at York as having consisted only of gold and the larger 
denominations of silver. 

Ruding gives no document of Henry V.'s time to sup- 
port his text^ to the effect that, in 1421, *^ on the petition 
of the commons of the northern counties, the Parliament 
ordained that a mint should be worked at York, for the 
relief of the said counties." He says that the petition '* is 
referred to in a subsequent petition of the same persons, 

2 Hen. VI.," and he quotes Rolls of Parliament, iv. 200. 
Certainly we do find, there, a petition from the king^s 
lieges of the counties of York, Northumberland, West- 
moreland, Cumberland, Lancaster, Chester, Lincoln, Not- 
tingham, Derby, Bishopric of Durham, and all parts of 
the north. But what does it really say? It recites that, 
in 9 Henry V. an act was passed, under which no subject 
was obliged to receive English gold in payment, except at 
the weight appointed by the king. There is nothing more 

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in it about Henry V. Next it mentions an ordinance of 
"your^* (Henry VI.'s) last Parliament. On turning to 
Pulson's imprint of the statutes of 1 Hen. VI,, we find 
that : '' First, it is ordained and established, for the profit 
of the king, and the ease of his people, that the lords of 
the King's Council, for the time being, may assign, by 
authority of the said Parliament, masters and workmen 
to make money of gold and silver, to hold the exchanges 
of money as well in the city of Yorke, as in the town of 
Bristow, and also in as many places as to the said lords 
shall seem necessary.'* Can any one doubt that this ordi- 
nance originated the endorsement of 16 February, 1423, 
extending the renewal of Goldbeter*s indenture, for Lon- 
don and Calais, to York and Bristol ? He came to York 
(continues the petition), and he coined in gold and silver 
to the ease of the country. He went away, and the 
persons petitioning to the Parliament, which met in 
October, 1423, wished to have him back. Their petition 
was granted, but I have no evidence that he returned to 
York, or that he ever went to Bristol, or to any other 
place by the lords deemed to be necessary. We have no 
York groats of Henry VI., weighing 60 grains, save the 
early one with his father's head, and we have none struck 
at Bristol or at any other place save London and Calais. 

The dates, then, seem to place the facts in the following 
order : By virtue of the Act passed in the Parliament of 
1 Henry VL, which met in November, 1422, the mint at 
York was re-established by endorsement of February, 
1422-3, on the old indenture of February, 1421-2. The 
York groat, in question must, therefore, be subsequent 
to that endorsement, and, on the documentary evidence^ 
was struck at a date sufficiently after February, 1422-3, 
half a year from Henry V.'s death, to have enabled Gold- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


beter to set up his mint at York, and sufficiently before 
the session of Parliament^ which met in October^ 1428^ to 
have allowed his absence to become a grievance. Hence 
it proves that Henry V/s type was used for at least six or 
seven months after his death. 

It is difficult to conceive that, if the regal mints of 
Calais and of York had been worked after Edward III.^s 
reign, Ordinances and Acts of Parliament would have been 
required for either of them. But Parliamentary authori- 
ties did precede the indentures respecting both of them. 
The authority as to Calais, in 9 Hen. V., had been 
founded on a prayer from the folks of Calais for their mint, 
*' si come faist en auncien temps" and on a prayer from the 
commons of England for a coinage at Calais " en manere 
come ad este fait et cunez en temps des nobles progerdtours 
n're dit S^r le Roi.^' Can we suppose that the superadded 
mint of York was in better plight ? 

And what is the evidence of the coins ? Does any one 
possess a gold coin, or a groat^ or a half-groat of Calais, 
or of York between the reign of Edward III. and the 
annulet coinage of Henry V. ? There are York pennies 
struck during that period, but is there one which does 
not bear an open quatrefoil in the centre of the cross on 
the reverse? And does not the documentary evidence, 
in itself, suggest that, as there was no regal mint, 
this mark must betoken the issue from the archiepiscopal 

From the Conquest, downwards, to the time of Edward 
I., there is nothing to distinguish the archiepiscopal 
money from the king's money generally. In 8 Edw. I. 
the archbishop proved seisin of two dies by him and his 
predecessors, time out of mind, and claimed a saving 
clause for a third die, which they used to have, but which 

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the king then had in the city. Deliveries of the two dies 
continued to 1 Ric. IL The third die, and any others 
which may have been issued by the Crown^ seem to have 
been worked to some extent^ for^ during the reigns of the 
three Edwards^ we have York pennies^ some certainly of 
the same coinages, both with the open quatrefoil in the 
centre of the cross and without it. We obtain in that 
circumstance another strong argument, in aid of general 
probabilities, that the open quatrefoil in that position 
marks the archbishop^s pennies. The object alluded to 
begins in the time of Edward I. In the earliest coins 
before me which present it, the lettering is precisely the 
same as that on other pieces of the same period which do 
not give it. Those which do give it possess also the 
peculiarity of having a close quatrefoil on Edward I.'s 
breast^ a feature which recurs, in a smaller form^ on late 
coins of Edward III. and on coins of Richard II. It 
may not have any connection with the open quatrefoil. 
In 1866 I suggested that the open quatrefoil originated 
in the handle of St. Peter's key, so intimately associated 
with the see of York. I cannot, after the lapse of five 
years, suggest any more probable origin for this general 
mark, which seems to have been introduced on the York 
coins a little before the occurrence of any special marks 
to distinguish the Durham episcopal coins. Yet I do not 
assert that, when it occurs out of its usual place, which 
is in the centre of the reverse cross, it has the same 
signification. There are York pennies of Edward III. 
which present the open quatrefoil on the right of the 
mint-mark on the obverse before the kiug^s name. These, 
however, have the same object in its usual place on the 
reverse, and some of them have it also on the king*s 
breast.. But there are other pennies without it t)n the 

VOL. XT. N.S. D D 

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reverse, which, nevertheless, have it on the obverse, but 
before the mint-mark instead of nfter it, terminating the 
legend instead of commencing it. There is a somewhat 
similar termination on some of the Durham prelatical 
coins, but on those it is formed of four annulets set in 
cross, and is not an open quatrefoil. The objects in the 
centre of the reverse of some of the Durham pennies, 
though at first sight sometimes rather resembling the 
open quatrefoil, are all different from it. There seemed, 
therefore, to be no reason to doubt that on the York 
pennies, which appeared, from the absence of the open 
quatrefoil on the reverse, to be regal, the mark had still 
a local bearing, and was derived from the ecclesiastical 
usage of it, though not placed, after the fashion of the 
archbishops, on the reverse. To my surprise, however, 
I find it preceding the king's name on a noble of the 
1860 — 1869 period, in the centre of the reverse of which 
is the letter a, for Calais, as I presume, the lettering 
agreeing very well with that on the Calais groats of 
Edward III. Collectors of gold coins will be able to 
inform us whether the Calais nobles are frequently so 
distinguished, or whether an obverse die intended for the 
gold coinage at York had strayed to Calais in error. I 
know little, I might almost say nothing, of gold coins, 
and merely purchased the noble T have mentioned by 
reason of the open quatrefoil. The object may well have 
been sometimes a regal mark. In decorative rows it 
occurs profusely on the canopy of Edward III.'s florin, 
and on the ends of his ships on the nobles.^ It also forma 

1 I have left the text as I originally wrote it, as my further 
information, kindly afforded by Mr. Evans, in no way affects 
the argument, anticipating, as I did, that on the nobles, and 
indeed on any coin when not used after the York fashion, the 
open quatrefoil might be merely a regal mark. Mr. Evans 

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an integral part of the cross on the reverse of the florin 
and its divisions. But this sort of usage is very different 
from the continuous usage of it singly on the York 
pennies^ and I adhere to the opinion that, however derived, 
it distinguishes the archiepiscopal coins. The peculiarity 
of there being pennies of the same coinages which present 
it, and others which do not, has already been remarked, 
and I may now add that I never saw a York groat with 
it ; nor have I ever seen a York half-groat with it. And 
it will be admitted, I think, that we can hardly say that 
half-groats before the reign of Edward IV. were prelatical 
and not regal ; and, as to groats, I suppose that Wolsey's 
is the only one known for England which can be alleged 
to be prelatical. 

No pieces whatever of the Calais mint between the 
reigns of Edward III. and Henry V. are known, and^ 
during the same period, no groats or half-groats, and no 
gold pieces of the York mint, are known. Surely I may 
say that no regal money at all of that mint for that time 
is known. We have pennies struck at it, and every one 
of them bears what I take to be the archiepiscopal mark. 

suggests that on the gold it is probably nothing more than an 
ornament put in with the punch for the quatrefoils forming the 
bulwark at the prow and stem of the ship to which I have 
alluded in the sentence to which I have added this note. This 
is not unlikely. His Calais noble with flag has no qua^xefoil 
before the legend. But then he has a noble of Edward III. 
with flag, the letter €[ in the centre of the reverse, and the 
quatrefoU above the sail at the beginning of the legend ; and, 
further, he has a noble of Biohard II. with the quatrefoil in the 
same place. After all, it may be that this mark betokens gold 
intended to be struck at the Mint of York, for while I think it 
plain that there had been a serious discontinuance of that mint, 
as of that at Calais, before the great annulet coinage, it would 
be impossible to say that the discontinuance was absolutely 
contemporaneous with the death of Edward III. 

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Another class of evidence for this belief exists in the 
quality of work mostly found on the pennies in question* 
That the dies used in previous times were sent down from 
the Tower to the Archbishop of York is pretty clear. But 
in Richard II.'s reign a change takes place. Barbarous 
workmanship is introduced, with mis-spelt legends. 
During the reign of Henry IV., and the earlier part of 
that of Henry Y., there is a resumption of good work, 
with peculiarities. Even in Henry VI.'s reign there is 
sometimes moderately fair work. But the general run 
of the style in the quatrefoil pennies of Henry Y. and 
Henry YI. is unsatisfactory. During the sovereignty of 
the latter king the York mint sinks to a degree that I 
hardly think can be parallelled in the whole series of 
English coins, not excepting the earlier coins of Rhuddlan 
and Berwick, or some of the later Durham ones during 
the reign of Edward I Y. The metal, too, of some of the 
barbarous York pennies appears, from the unpleasant 
green incrustation upon them, to be very base. 

In considering the absence of regal coins from certain 
mints, we must remember that, from whatever cause, the 
Crown, after the early part of Henry YI.'s reign, seems 
to have struck very few pennies anywhere. Probably the 
moneyers, well occupied in the issue of the larger denomi- 
nations, disliked the trouble and small profit in comparison 
with the labour of production which attended the smaller 
pieces. The pennies, from the reign just mentioned to 
the period of Henry YIIl.^s base coinages, are mostly 
marked with prelatical devices, though regal ones do 
exist. The open quatrefoil kept its ground at York 
after the time when the archbishops introduced initials 
of their names, and only gave way when, in the reign 
of Henry YII., both the keys of St. Peter in their 

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entirety were placed under the new reverse of the royal 

Goldbeter, I repeat, as far as we know from coins^ never 
coined at Bristol at all, and probably never came back to 
York. We have no coins for that city which can be con- 
sidered as regal, after his groat about which we have 
heard so much (except, perhaps, the late halfpenny of 
Henry VI., engraved), until we arrive at the light coinages 
of Edward IV. and Henry VI. Richard III. coined groats 
at York, and Henry VII. half-groats in his early days ; 
and then we have another cessation of regal coins there. 
But, in their absence, we have the archbishops venturing 
to strike half-groats, which had already been coined by 
the archbishops of Canterbury in the time of Edward IV. 
At last one of Wolsey's faults " seems to have been the 
presuming to strike larger coins than his predecessors had 
done, and the daring to mark them as his own coinage by 
the stamp of the cardinal's hat/^ ^ 

W. Hylton Dyer Longstaffe. 

Gateshead, 13 Oct., 1871. 

3 Very probably this really is the correct substance of the 
charge that ^*the said Lord Cardinal, of his further pompous 
and presumptuous mind, hath enterprised to join and imprint 
the Cardinars hat under your arms in your coin of groats made 
at your city of York, which like deed hath not been seen to 
be done by any subject in your realm before this time.*' I 
take it that the groats were considered as the king's coin, intro- 
duced after the origin of monetary franchises and not included 
in them. And I hardly know how any prelate began to strike 
even half-groats. No documentary auUiority for their issue 
from private mints is cited, and Bishop Booth, of Durham, 
when he wished to strike halfpennies as well as pennies, 
obtained formal letters patent. 

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(Continued from p. 304, vol. viii.) 

The continuation of my fragmentary notices of Armenian 
coins has been interrupted by other studies, more directly 
associated with the duties of my early life in India^ and 
the preparation of a more complete edition of "The 
Chronicles of the Path&n Kings of Delhi/'^ for the intro- 
ductory publication of which I was indebted to the 
editors of the Numismatic Chronicle, in the pages of whose 
journal my tentative essays first appeared.^ 

In resuming the thread of the ancient history of 
Armenia, as illustrated by the casual specimens of its 
coinage which find a place in modern European cabinets, 
I have to advert prominently to the recent discovery of 
the "Moabite Stone/' and the bearings of its typical 
alphabet upon the later developments of cognate cha- 
racters on coins and contemporaneous writings; and 
somewhat unwillingly to reply, in brief terras, to certain 
criticisms which have appeared, in the interval, upon the 

1 London, Triibner, 1871. 

« Num. Chron. (1846-7), vol. ix. o.s., p. 79, et seq. (collected 
and published by Wertheimer. London, 1847). Also '< Sup- 
plementary Contributions *' (reprinted from the Delhi text of 
1851. Num. Chron. (1852) vol. xv. p. 121, et seq. 

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PalsBOgraphic definitions put forth in my -previous 

The proclamation of Mesha^ engraved on the monolith 
of Dhibon, which has created so great a sensation in the 
Biblical world^^ presents but little of novelty to students 
of early Greek Numismatics or Palaeographers^ who trace 
the offshoots of the Phoenician alphabet from the Pillars 
of Hercules to the banks of the Jumna.^ Nevertheless, 
its contributions are varied and valuable^ presenting us 
with a complete alphabet of an ascertained date— some 
century and a half earlier than the general run of 
parallel documents/ a singularly close association of the 

3 La Stele deDhibon, M. Clermont- Ganneau, Revue Areheo- 
logiqne, March, 1870, p. 184. Durenboorg, Journal Asiatique, 
Jan. and Feb., 1870. Schlotmann, March 15. Times, May 5. 
Zeitschrift, i. and ii. Left. 1870. 

Notices more readily available to English readers may be 
found in Prof. Eawlinson's article in the Contemporary Review, 
vol. XV. (August and November), 1870, p. 96, et seq. ; and in 
Dr. Wright's learned and exhaustive paper in the concluding 
number of the North British Review, From the latter I extract 
the jfollowing close summary : — 

** An alphabet common to all the Shemitio populations of 
Syria — an alphabet from which were derived the Greek letters 
on the one side, and all the later alphabets of the East on the 

** This alphabet is, doubtless, almost, if not absolutely iden- 
tical with that employed by the poets, prophets, and historians 
of the kingdom of Judah and Israel, when they committed their 
works to writing ; and it may be well for schelars to bear this 
in mind when attempting conjectural emendations upon the 
Biblical texts." — North British Review, October, 1870. 

4 Num. Chron. iii. m.s. p. 280. 

^ Dr. Wright fixes the date of the inscription as '^ approxi- 
mately in the 2nd year of Ahaziah's reign, or the begimiing of 
that of his brother Jehoram" (b.c. 896, 894). The seals and 
tablets from Sargon's treasure chamber are supposed to belong 
to the time of Asshur bani pal (about 667 b.c). The Assyrian 
Lion weights are understood to be earlier, and Six H. Raw- 

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configuration of some of its letters with the most au- 
thentic forms of Archaic Greek, and a new site on the 
frontiers of cuneiform strongholds. 

Beyond the ordinary identities with the early Greek pre- 
viously recognised, the forms of the letters r ~i, A <\, 
and Z X, are specially marked ; on the other hand we have 
new outlines of the digamma Y> ^^^ ^^® *8? ^, a modifi- 
cation of the A /^, and a varied definition of the T x , many 

of which peculiarities connect the alphabet with the more 
clearly defined Aramaean and Persian types of Semitic 

More than twenty years ago I ventured in the pages of 
this journal (Numismatic Chronicle, xii. 77) to dissent from 
De Sacy^s recognition of the value of the Sassanian letter 
C^, as M. N. ; an interpretation which he had accepted 
on the faith of Anquetil du Perron, who had derived his 
knowledge of Pehlvi from the imperfect teachings of the 
Parsls of Bombay.^ Although I was in a position to 
determine that De Sacy was in error, I was not, at the 

linson places some of his Ninevite tablets in the eighth century 
B.C. J. E. A. S. 1870, p. XXX. 

^ Gesenins passim. M. de Luynes, in Prinsep's Essays, ii. 
p. 166. Dr. Levy's " Contributions to Aramsean Numismatics," 
1867. M. de Vogue "Melanges,*' p. 146. The facsimiles 
given in the text are taken from the paper impressions of the 
original stone in the Palestine exploration collection. 

7 Anquetil himself, in speaking of the learning of his own 
instructors at an anterior period, or in the middle of the 
eighteenth century, uses the words, " L'ignorance etait le vice 
dominant des Parses de I'lnde." Zend Avesta, p. cccxxvi., 
Burnouf Ya9na, p. x.) Dr. Haug gives us an amusing pendant 
to this statement in saying, ** The European reader will not be 
a little astonished to learn that Anquetil's work was regarded 
afterwards as a kind of authority by the Desturs themselves." 
("Sacred Language of the Parsis." Bombay, 1862, p. 21.) 
See also Westergaard, J. E. A. S. viii. 850 : and Max Miiller, 
** Chips from a German Workshop," i. pp. 122, 167, 170, &c. 

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time, equally advanced in the power of aayinj^ what the 
value of the character really was, though I subsequently 
discovered that it was nothing more than the long i of 
the Sassanian alphabet, — in support of which identifica- 
tion I re-examined the whole question, somewhat at large, 
in a late number of this journal (Numismatic Chronicle, 
vii. 222), and even amplified my proofs in another place, ® 
as I was aware that there was a disposition to adhere to 
the old reading among many who had accepted the 
original definition, even to its incorporation into modern 
grammars and glossaries.® The question has lately been 
revived by the direct negation of my authority for this 
correction by Dr. Martin Haug,^^ with a reiteration of 
the claims of the Parsi definition of M N (man) . 

^ Journal Boyal Asiatic Society, iii. n.s. p. 260. 

® I conclude it is to some such feeling of hostility at my 
venturing to differ, not only from certain Continental professors, 
but more -expressly from their masters in Bombay, that I 
owe an amusingly rabid attack in the " Revue Critique " 
(27th March, 1869), by M. Justi. The tone of this article 
would alone prevent my conceding to it any serious notice, but it 
is clear that no object could be attained by my entering upon a 
discussion with the author, or those who accept his interpreta- 
tions upon texts, the very alphabet of which is still in dispute. 
So that, although M. Justi's eccentric lucubration has received 
the commendation of M. Benan (Journal Asiatique), I am con- 
tent to surrender the writer to the more congenial confiiot with 
his countryman, Dr. Haug, who has already sounded the note 
of defiance, about the " grave errors " of my critic, whom ha 
contemptuously designates as ''a mere follower of Spiegel.*' 
(Pahlavi-Zand Glossary, pp. 26, 32.) 

10 Dr. Haug is scarcely candid in affirming that *^ the pho- 
netic value of the character f^, has been tibought, to be I, 
chiefiy on account of its resemblance in form to the Zand 
letter -^ (an old Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary, 1870, p. 44). There 
is far more varied testimony towards the identification than 
this abrupt utterance would imply, as I have, in effect, repeated 
above. My first acceptance of the letter as i dates from 1852. 

VOL. XI. N.S. £ £ 

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I have held^ from the first, that the idea of combining 
consonants, for the purpose of eliding the inherent short a 
of Aryan speech, was altogetlier undeveloped in the 
Semitic alphabet of the Sassanians, though the system 
had already been elaborated in the more critical Bactrian 
writing, in parallel association with the local Za^ or Pa/i cha* 
racter of the Indian provinces. This is readily exemplified 
in the practical transcription of Greek names, where we 
find the Bactrian ^^ Eu^ratides ^' and the Indian Pali, 
*' AgathoAa^es,^^ combining the consonant succeeding to 
the k, in either case, to denote the absence of a. Here 
the object of compounding and connecting letters is 

(Journal Royal Asiatic Society, xiii. 875), and I find Dr. Haug 
confessing in 1862 {** Essays on the Sacred Language of the 
Parsees," Bombay, p. 45), that Barj is the Chaldee bar, *• son * 
{hen in Hebrew and Arabic) ; the j at the end is another pro- 
nunciation of the relative t above mentioned [in Bagi\'' It is 
carious that the Professor should at this period have so accu- 
rately defined the mission of the letter and its direct association 
with the short t, and yet have failed to detect its real import. 
It was reserved, however, . for his later baptism in the fire- 
worship of the Gajarati Desturs to convert him from his hard- 
earned European knowledge to their atmosphere of placid 
ignorance, and the restoration of the symbol to Anquetil du 
Perron^s ifaulty version of man, contributed of old by the less 
degraded representatives of the Parsi faith in 1759. 

Mr. E. W. West, C.E., whose good service to the cause of 
Indian palaeography in his decipherments of the inscrip- 
tions on the walls of the Western Cave Temples, I can 
freely bear testimony to — ^has lately undertaken the study of 
Pehlvi, in concert with Dr. Hang, of Munich, and has argued 
the question of the value of the character under discussion 
with much patience and ingenuity in opposition to my inter- 
pretation. I am unable to discover that he has at all shaken 
my position, and I regret to find that he ignores, or subordi- 
nates undnly the very important evidence in favour of the i, 
to be drawn from the previous identities of the Phoenician and 
other derivative forms of d^. (Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1870, p. 864.) 

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obvious enough;" but the most singular fact which the 
advocates of the Sassanian M N are altogether unable to 
explain is^ if, as is confessed^ the two simple letters^ M and 
N are written separately in the same text, with an 
optional value of man or min, why an arbitrary compound 
should have been invented to convey the self-same sounds^ 
a compound, moreover, which, according to their own 
showing, does not necessarily elide the short vowel. If 
this particular sign, fj-*, had been a composite character 
for M N, matured during the progressive manipulation of 
the normal alphabet, it ought to show some traces of the 

parent letters, whereas the O^ , in its various gradations, 

flows easily from the Archaic model on the Moabite stone 
to the crystallised forms of the Pehlvi and Zend type 
letters, which were based on MS. writing and engraved 
by independent parties, altogether apart from any refer- 
ence to this unpremeditated controversy. In addition to 
this diflSculty about the M N, Mr. West has introduced 
a new element of discord in arbitrarily attempting to 
convert the very palpable n of the Chaldaeo-Pehlvi into 
a p; and finally Dr. Haug desires to elevate a badly 
defined p =^ in the Sassanian text of the inscription 
into a new and independent letter, representing the 
sound of kat. It may be said that this is not a very long 
list of variants, after all; but the determination of the 
value of the most important of these characters as M, N^ 
or I is positively a vital question, as its decision in a 
measure carries with it the determination of the structure 
of the language itself. 

11 A large assortment of these compounds is given in my 
plate of the Bactrian alphabet (Num. Chron. iii. n.s. Plate VI.) 
and the particular instances above cited may be consulted in 
Gen. Cunningham's PL V. vol. viii. of this journal. 

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Finally^ to reduce me to definite extinction, under the 
Pehlvi aspect^ MM. Haug and West have put forth a 
trial pieccj in the form of a new and improved revision of 
the bilingual Sapor inscriptions engraved on the rock sur- 
face of the cavern at H&jidbdd. My own tentative 
reading of this confessedly obscure text — a text, be it 
remembered, that had set European linguists at de^ 
fiance for half a century^^ — ^^g given with sufficient 
reserve,^ a feeling which does not seem to be shared by 
later interpreters. All I can say is that if this transla- 
tion, revised by Dr. Hang in 1870, after a preliminary 
exhibition by Mr. West in 1869,** really and truly repre- 
sents the purport of the original inscription, the *^ divine ** 
King Sapor must have arrived at a very advanced stage 
of dotage before he could have consented to put his hand 
to such a document.^ 

12 In 1858, I said in my edition of " Prinsep's Essays " 
(ii. p. 108), ''Of all those who are learned in Zend and its 
cognate languages — of the various professors who edit Pehlvi 
texts, or who put together grammars of that tongue — ^no single 
individual has to this day been able to add one line of trans- 
lation to the bilingual inscriptions of Hajiabad, beyond what 
De Sacy had already taught us in 1793. In brief, our power 
of interpretation fails us exactly where the Sassanians have 
omitted to supply us with the Greek translations they appended 
to some of the parallel texts." 

13 J. R. A. S., iii. N.s. p. 839. 
1* J. R. A. S., iv. N.s. p. 376. 

1^ Lest my readers should suppose that I am exaggerating in 
this matter, I append M. Haug's revised version in his own 
words : — ^After titles, &c. *' the king. As we shot this arrow, then 
we shot it in the presence of the satraps, the grandees, peers and 
noblemen ; we put the foot in this cave ; we threw the arrow 
outside that it should reach the target ; the arrow (was) flying 
beyond that (target); whither the arrow had been thrown, 
there was no place (to hit), where if a target had been con- 
structed, then it (the arrow) would have been manifest (?). 
Afterwards it was ordered by us : an invisible target is con- 
structed for the future (?) ; an invisible hand has written, ' do 

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One of the most curious poiuts in this controversy is 
that Dr. Haug^ whose local oracle denounces in unmea- 
sured terras ^^ the ignorance of his fellow F&rsis of Bom- 
bay, proposes, like myself, to rectify their orthographical 
errors by an appeal to the unpolluted sources of " Sas- 
sanian Inscriptions.*^ It is clear that, under these condi- 
tions, the typical alphabetical scheme ought to be 
subjected to the most rigorous, independent criticism, 
otherwise, if it be allowed in any way to lend itself to the 
needs of preconceived P&rsi interpretations, it not only 
fails in its appointed mission, but perpetuates the very 
faults it is invoked to correct. 

Having, 1 hope, shown some slight justification for 
my previous interpretations, I pass on to the examination 
of the new materials more amply illustrating the develop- 
ments of the Semitic alphabet. Its course has already 
been traced from the western basin of the Mediterranean 
to the Dodb of the Ganges — from the Persian Gulf, 
fitfully, to the Lower Indus,*® where it touches the legiti- 
mate Bactrian of the Indo-Scythian and Sah Kings — it is 

not put the foot in this cave, and do not shoot an arrow at this 
target after an invisible arrow has been thrown at this target ; ' 
such wrote the hand." — (Haug, Pahlavi General Glossary, p. 64.) 

16 << For the last 500 or 600 years, the knowledge of Pdzand, 
or pare Persian, has gradually declined amongst Persian 
scholars in general, and especially amongst Parsi priests ; so 
much so, that very few of the Desturs can now either write or 
understand it correctly, as can readily be seen from their 
imperfect notes in Pahlavi books, and incorrect modes or expres- 
sion in other writings. This ignorance has prevailed to such 
an extent that though, the priests learn this glossary, parrot- 
like, off by heart, yet they cannot critically make out the 
exact meanings of many words, but are satisfied with mere 
guesses," &c. — Destiir Hoshang Jamasp. (An old Pahlavi- 
Pazand Glossary, p. ix.) ^^ Ibid., p. vii. 

i« Num. Chron. (1870), x. p. 139. J. R. A. S., iv. p. 500. 
J. Bombay Branch R. A. S. 1869. Plate, p. 4, fig. 1. 

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seeu to have been indigetious in Armeuia and Median 
Atropatene/^ and, now, our coins enable us to carry 
it further on its way towards those essentially ancient 
seats of Aryan civilisation on the Oxus, the archaic 
existence of which has lately been confirmed by 
fresh and independent evidence, in amplification of Sir 
H. Rawlinson's discoveries in 1866,2^ prominently 

19 "Early Sassanian Inscriptions" (Trubner, 1868), 133. 
Num. Chron., xii. PL, figs. 6, 6, 7. Lindsay, PI. x. 27. Dr. 
Levy, " Zeitschrift," xxi. PI. ii. 2 — 5. 

20 **The belief in a very early empire in Central Asia, coeval 
with the institution of the Assyrian monarchy, was common 
among the Greeks long anterior to Alexander's expedition to the 
East, and could only have been derived from the traditions 
current at the court of the Ach&menian kings. This belief, 
again, is connected through the names of Oxyartes and 
Zoroaster with the Lranian division of the Aryan race, and 
receives confirmation from the earliest memorials of that 
people. It is with the Eastern Iranians, however, that we are 
principally concerned, as the founders of Central Asian civilisa- 
tion. This people, on the authority of the Vendidad, may be 
supposed to have achieved their first stage of development in 
Sughd. Their language was probably Zend, as distinguished 
from the AchsBmeuian Persian, and somewhat more removed 
than that dialect from the mother tongue of the Arians of the 
south. A more important evidence, however, of the very high 
state of power and civilisation to which they attained is to be found 
in the information regarding them preserved by the celebrated 
Abu Bihan (Al Biruni), himself a native of the country, and the 
only Arab writer who investigated the antiquities of the East in 
a true spirit of historical criticism. This writer supplies us 
with an extensive specimen of the old dialects of Sugdh and 
Kharism. .He gives us in those dialects the names of the twelve 
months, the names of the thirty days of the month, and the 
five EpagomensB, together with the names of the signs of the 
Zodiac and of the seven planets, and lastly of the mansions of 
the moon. A portion of .his nomenclature is original and 
offers a most curious subject for investigation ; but the majority 
of the names can be compared, as was to be expected, with 
the Zend correspondents, and, indeed, are much nearer to 
the primitive forms than are the better known Parsee equi- 
valents. According to Abu Bihan, again, the solar calendar of 

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• noticed in this journal in 1867 (Numismatic Chronicle, 
vii. p. 143). Dr. Sachau, to whom the Oriental Translation 
Fund has lately confided a critical edition of the MS. 
upon which Sir H. Rawlinson based his researches, has 
already made vigorous progress beyond tfie fettered 
range of a single work, and will doubtless, in due time, 
give the world a very comprehensive account of our proper 
Aryan cradle.** Meanwhile we welcome a contribution 
from the improved text of the Arab geographer, Istakhri,^ 
which affirms independently the early traditions of 
Aryanism of speech in those distant lands, and brings 

Kharism was the most perfect scheme for measuring time with 
which he was acquainted ; and it was maintained by the astro- 
nomers of that country that both the solar and lunar Zodiacs 
had originated with them, the divisions of the signs in their 
system being far more regular than those adopted by the 
Greeks or Arabs .... Abu Rihan asserts that the Kharis- 
mians dated originally from an epoch anterior by 980 years to 
the era of Seleucidae, a date which agrees pretty accurately 
with the period assigned by our best scholars to the invention 
of the Jyotisha or Indian calendar.'*^ — Quarterly Bevieiv, October, 
1866, p. 488, &c. 

21 Dr. Sachau was so good as to famish me with a long note 
on the subject of his own researches, from which the follow- 
ing is an extract. The article will appear in full in the 
Academy : — ** The most valuable part of Al akhbar el Bakiya 
seems to me that which refers to the Central Asiatic Mesopo- 
tamia, the country between the Oxus and Jaxartes, and its 
southern and northern centres of civilisation, Le.y Sughdiana 
and Khiwarizm. Biruni's information on this subject is alike 
new and important, for these countries were the homestead of 
Zoroastrianism and the focus of Central Asian civilisation, 
which shortly before it was trodden down by the Mughals and 
Tatars, struck a traveller, like Yakut, with admiration. By 
the help of Biruni we shall be able to trace the outlines of the 
dialects of Sngdhdiana and Ehwarizm and to bring back the 
history of these countries.'* 

22 "Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum," M. J. de Goeje 
(Lugd. Bat., 1870). See also Professor Noldeke's review in the 
Academy, Oct. 1, 1871, p. 461. 

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me face to face with an identification, which may chance, 
to prove of considerable importance in the general 
inquiry — that is, the association of the ancient name of 
the kingdom of Khdrizm itself,® with the misinterpreted 
modern term of '^ Hujvdrish,^^ ordinarily applied to one of 
the divisions of Pelhvi writing. If the crude Oriental 
words, which I subdue into a foot-note, confess to au 
identical derivation and primary purport, we may have to 
bring the written language, the cognate alphabet embodied 
on the banks of the Euphrates,^* into closer relations 
with the undetermined palaeography of the Eastern 

For a long time past an impression has prevailed that 
the sister dialect, embodied in the kindred Pehlvi cha^ 
racter, might likewise be connected with the geographical 
limits of the less disturbed settlements of the Aryan Fire- 
worshippers ; ^ a curious confirmation of this supposition 

23 ** In the Scythic version of the the Behistun cuneiform 
inscription of Darius, the names of the province of Khdrism is 
expressed by ' Varasmiya ' admitting a free and optional 
interchange of the consonants M and V or W, the parallel 
Persian cuneiform text reproduces the name more closely, as 
Uvarazmia or Uuarazmish.'* — (Mr. Norris, J. B. A. S., xv. 
pp. 28, 97, 191. 

As this identification involved a larger amount of responsi- 
bility than I have confessed to above, I took the opportunity of 
asking my friend Mr. Norris if there was anything inconsistent 
with his more ample knowledge in this suggestion ; but, so far 
from any defect in the association, Mr. Norris was at first 
under the impression that he himself had conceived such a 
solution. However, as we have both sought for any published 
declaration to that effect, we are quite content to concur in 
the probable coincidence now put forth. 

^ '' It is to be written in the writing of the Avesta, or in that 
of Sevat (Le.f Chaldeea), which is uzvdrsh" — (Haug, p. 42, 
quoting J. Miiller.) 

^ ''Dilem was the Media inferior, Mazenderan and the 
countries between the Caspian and the Tigris, one of the 

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has lately been contributed by the publication of the 
Arabic text of Ibn Khord&dhah, a man born in the faith^ 
as his name implies^ who classes the sanctuaries of 
Zoroastrianism under the emphatic topographical desig- 
nation of the '' land of the Pehlvi's/^ I reproduce this 
passage from the excellent " French translation of M. 
Barbier de Meynard (Journal Asiatique^ 1865, p. 278)." 
" Pays lies Pehlevis — Hamadan, Dinavar, Nehavend, 
Mihrdjandak, Magabadan, Kasviu. Cette ville, qui est k 
27 farasanges de Rey, forme la fronti^re du Deilem ; 
elle comprend la ville de Mou9a et la ville de Mubarek. 
Zendjan, selon les uns, est a Ibfars., selon les autres k 
12fars. d' Ahbar ; Essinn, Tailasan et le Deilem/' 

But this is far too large a subject to be treated inci- 
dentally or in subordination to our present inquiry, 
which, for the moment, limits itself to the interpretation 
of monogram on coin No. 1, and the discovery of the 
locality to which this mint mark refers. Previous 
writers on Parthian numismatics have attributed the sym- 
bol in question to various and distinct localities,^ among 
the rest, Tambrace has been suggested — an assignment 
which I propose definitively to adopt. The site of this 
capital has not yet been determined, but I think we may 
safely place it on the southern seaboard of the Caspian , at 

original seats of the Pehlvi (Heeren, Act. See. Gott., xiii.). 
Dilem was also a retreat of that language The Cau- 
casus, the country of Derbend, Segestan, and Kerman, thus 
sheltered the ancient language and religion of Persia, and thus 
the mountains of Dilem retained till the tenth century the 
worship of fire, and perhaps, therefore, the Pehlvi, with which 
that worship had been connected." — James Morier, ** Persia," 
&c. 1812, pp. 288, 406. 

26 Visconti, iii. PL xlix. figs. 12—16, pp. 497, 488. " AH 
and AnO;" Dr. Scott, Num. Chron. xvii. p. 171, ^' Assyria ^ 
M. C. Lenormant, ^'Tresor de Numismatique," PI. Izviii. 

VOL. XI. N.S. F P 

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Barfarosh, between the modem Amol and Sferi.^ That the 
conventional faith in dynastic symbols held its sway in 

fig 18, p. 148, KAT; Mr. Lindsay, ''CoiDage of the Par- 
thians," PI. xi. " TAMBPAX." 

M. de Longperier seems to hesitate in accepting the identifi- 
cation of Tambrax (No. 7805 Boilings Catalogue), and inclines 
to the .reading of TAT for TASTACHE ? (No. 7806) for a 
nearly similar monogram. 

^ Polybius, in his narrative of Antiochus Callinicus's opera- 
tions in Hyrcania, has given us a very clear description of Tam- 
brax, which he represents as an unwalled city of great extent, 
containing a royal palace. Its position is defined as not far from 
Svpiyya, a town which I suppose to be represented by the stiU 
extant Sdn, which seems to have been a place of considerable 
strength and importance, and, as it were, the quasi-capital 
(elvai 3c TTJs *YpKavias wo-<iv€i patrlXtLov* Polyb., x. c. 31, s. 5). 
Strabo again speaks of Tdinj or Tape, in the Eastern Bay, as 
the royal residence for the moment ; but he notices Tambrax 
as a considerable city, under the partially altered denomination 
of Talabroce (TaXaPpSiaf). — Strabo, xi. c. vii. s. 2. 

Ptolemy, in his '' Geography " (ii. p. 118) supplies a full list 
of the cities of Hyrcania ; proceeding irregularly eastward, he 
cites *AfjLapov<ra (Amol), *YpKavia /irfrpoiroXts (Tambrax ?), 
Soici; (^ SoXi;), Smif "Afffxovpva (Ashra^. Mal<yoKa (rj Movo-Ofca), 
(Marasak), koI vifcro^ kvlt ahr^v mhxyia, KoXoufiimff TdXi;a (Kara 

In adapting Ptolemy's geography to our modern maps, we must, 
however, entirely discard any reliance upon the accuracy or the 
consistency, inter se, of his latitudes and longitudes ; but a close 
comparison of existing sites, aided by the intermediate data 
contributed by the Arab geographers, might enable us to recon- 
struct a very fair chart of the topographical features of the 
country at the period. 

The greatest importance seems to have been attached in 
Ptolemy's scheme to the definition of the site of the town of 
Sopofidn^, from whose position the other sea-board measure- 
ments were to be determined. Its locality is fixed and repeated 
as 94^ 15', 40^ 80' — exactly one of his degrees due north of Sari. 

I infer that the Ma^pa is the river associated with Marsak, 
or Marasak of the Muhammadan writers, and that the SoMcdi^Sa 
has its name in common with the '' Nokanda" of the present 
day (B. Fraser, 14; Burnes's ''Bokhara," ii, 118). I am, 
however, unable to concur in the identity of Aster4bad and Za- 

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the manipulation of the monogram under review there 
can be little doubt; the sound of T.A.M. is first declared 
in the isolated obverse legend of the coins of Arsaces III., 
its sonant powers progress subsequently into T.A.M.B., 
and the crypto- monogram we seek to decipher holds its 
own throughout the Parthian mintages, as a leading and 
standard portion of the main device^ till it disappears 
with the fading outline of the emblematic bow and the 

dracarta proposed by Dr. Mortdmann (Dom, St. Petersburg 
Academy, 81 March, 1870, p. 258), as, apart from other 
objections, by all accounts the mud and earthwork fortifications 
were only erected on this unimportant site after the Muham- 
medan conquest. 

Under the ethnological aspect, the information preserved by 
Ptolemy may prove of importance. I therefore extract the 
brief passage entire : — 

KaTav€fiorrai $€ t^s YpicaWas ra fAtp cwi ^aAacrcri; . Md$rfp<u 
Koi ..... *AaTaPrp/oi 

KoX viro fihf Tov^ Ma^pas 
vwo ^€ Tous *A<rTaprp/ov^ . 


CIA «« 

17 Ap<nTi£ 

' 17 ^ipaicffvi^ 

For the geography of this part of the world, see also Pliny, 
vi. c. 18 ; Justin, xli. c. iv. s. 5 ; Arrian, xxv. ; Curtius, vi. 4, 
viii. 8, 17 ; Ammianus Marcellinus, xxiii. c. vi. 50. 

The commercial capital of Hyrcania is described by a modem 
traveller in the following terms: — "The rich and extensive 
plain in which Barfarosh is placed affording very considerable 
supplies of those articles produced in Mazanderan, constitutes 
this spot a mart for those commodities ; besides which, it is 
centrically placed with regard to Kasvin, Tehran, Shahrood, 
and the interior of Persia (being near two principal passes 
through the Elburz) as well as to Besht, the capital of Ghllan, 
also a place of very extensive trade .... The whole town is 
built in and surrounded by a forest of high trees, and none of 
the streets being straight, there is no one spot from whence a 
spectator can see to any distance. The buildings are indeed so 
screened and separated by foliage, that, except when passing 
through the bazaars, a stranger would never suspect that he 
was in the midst of a populous city.'* — B. Fraser, '* Travels on 
the Shores of the Caspian," p. 83. 

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general degradation of the entire device. Whether 
these indications had anything in common with the 
ancient palace at Tambrax might be contested^ but no 
position in the Asiatic world could have furnished a safer 
home for a nation imbued with plundering propensities ; 
if a retreat through the '^Pylse-Caspii^' were not enough, 
there were closer strongholds within those gates,^ and 
whatever fortunes might befall the light horse^ who 
pushed their raids with so much boldness into far away 
hostile lands^ there was still in their minds a safe rallying 
pointy a tribal home which nature had made next to 

I propose to confine the remainder of this article to 
the representative examples of the concurrent varieties 
of Semitic writing in the Parthian series^ and a simple 
description of the exceptional coins on which these 
characters occur. Avoiding altogether any discussion 
upon the historical questions suggested by Nos. 1, 2, 
3,^ merely calling attention to the effect the names 

28 Speaking of Amol, B. Fraser remarks : ** This city and 
the circumjacent country are, however, replete with interest to 
an enthusiast in Persian antiquities ; every hill and every point 
is classic ground. . . . Here are the districts of Noorand Kujoor, 
once so celebrated for their strong fortresses ; and three short 
days' journey from hence, is situated the still more famous and 
impregnable fortress of Eustumdaur .... it was described as 
a high hill, on the top of which there is a plain of forty to 
fifty miles circuit, only approachable by one path, so narrow 
that a single person might defend it against a host." — (** Travels 
on the Shores of the Caspian," 1882, p. 103.) In the natural 
stronghold covering Amol, Minochehr suffered undisturbed a 
ten years siege by Afrasaib and his Turks. — '* Chronique de 
Tabari," i. 275. And, later in the day, Timur himself was 
astonished at the strength of the place. '* Petis de la Croix," 
£. iii. c xix. 

2» Vaillant, i. 182, et seq, Bayer, ^'Historia Osrhoena et 
Edessena," 87. Lindsay, p. 50, 

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and dates may have upon the order of the Imperial 
succession as at present adopted, and pointing out the 
peculiar combinations exhibited in the Edessa style of 
head-dress on No. 2 and its association with the essen- 
tially Bactrian reverse and their joint association with the 
name of Sanabares on the Imperial mintages.*> 

The subjoined series of coins exemplifies the nearly con- 
secutive use of the fellow alphabets. 

No. 1. (Plate VII., fig. 1.) 

Silver. Size, 4^. Weight, 68 grains. B. M. Unique. 

Obv. — Head of king to the left, thinly but not closely 
bearded, with a low Parthian tiara surmounted 
by two rows of studs. Monogram, J[/ fj = md. 

Rev. — The usual Parthian type of the king seated on his 
throne holding out a bow. Monogram TT 

{Tamhrace ? ). Legend in imperfect Greek, 

. Date in the field PIT (818 of the Seleucidan era = A.D. 2.) 

No. 2. (Plate VII., fig. 2.) 
Copper. Weight, 111 '6 grains. B. M. Unique. 
Obv. — Head of king to the left, lightly or meagrely bearded, 

30 This name is supposed to be identical with that of Sana- 
bassar, ** the ruler." — (Esdras, i. ii. 12, 16 ; iv. 18, 20. Ezra, 
i. 8, 11 ; V. 14, 16.) The derivation of the term is uncertain ; 
the dictionaries give one of its variants as "Ignis cultor," but 
Sand, ** light," ** splendour" is the most probable basis, con 
joined with bar^ " bearing," in the one case, and ba-dzar, " with 
fire," in the other. Sand was a term largely identified with 
the formation of names, and we find Sand and Sandi among 
the monograms, and the full title of Sand ul MiUat, " light of 
the faith," figuring on the coins of the Ghaznavides. J. R. A. S. 
ix, 867. The Armenians speak of " Sanassor," son of Senne- 
cherim. (Moses of Khorene, i. cap. 23, p. 103, French edition, 
and cap. iii. p. 146. St. Martin, Armenie, i. 411, mentions 
Sanadroag, "the Izates of Josephus.") 

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wearing the Parthian cap studded with jewels. 
Close fitting vest, with jewelled collar, and a 
boldly ornamented border to the onter garment. 
Legend. BA2MAEYS ftcyas. 

Rev. — Winged figure of Victory, to the right, holding out 
chaplet, as on the Bactrian coins of Mauas, 
Azas, &c. Legend SANABAPOYS. 

This coin was first published in my edition of '^ Prinsep^s 
Essays on Indian Antiquities.'^^* It had, however, long 
been known, having been brought to England many years 
ago by Captain HoUings, of the Bengal Army. It was 
properly classed among the Bactrian series in the British 
Museum, but it was left for General Cunningham to 
detect its association with the quasi-Parthian coin (No. 1) 
of the same monarch. 

No. 3. (Plate VII., No. 3.) 

The next appearance of the local alphabets is on a coin 
of Arsaces (a.s. 315 = a.d. 4), which has been published in 
the R^vue de la Numismatique Beige (4th series, vol. iv. 
p. 369), and described by M. le Baron B. de Koehne, who, 
by a most singular hallucination, has converted the initial 
letters of the name of Arsaces ("iw) on the reverse into 
the Greek characters nS^ or, in their capacity of numerals, 
into the figures for 280 ; and as he had already been 
obliged to recognise the proper Seleucidau date of 
TI^=315 on the obverse, he proceeded to propound an 
elaborate theory, which was to set at rest that still unde- 
termined problem, the true initial epoch of the Arsacidse, 
by the aid of the numbers expressed in the conjoint dates. 
The obverse of this coin presents the head of Arsaces 
Phrahataces, with the numeral letters TI? on the flowing 

« ii. 215. 

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fillet at the back. The reverse displays the head of Musa,® 
the Queen Mother, with the Greek letters ®EA2i on the 
margin, outside the fillets, and between the fillets and 
the Queen^s neck, looking at the coin from the same 
point of view as is necessary to make the Greek legible, 
there are seen in a parallel line, though reading from the 
opposite direction, the two Chaldseo-Pehlvi letters "is ar, 
the first of which partakes somewhat of the Sassanian 
form of the character m, while the "I is more like a 
Chaldseo-Pehlvi a ^or 3 ^, an outline, the Parthian "I was 
frequently made to follow, as may be seen iti examples of 
the bronze coins described below, under No. 9,®^ as well as 
in the curious deyelopments of the r on the money of 
Artavasdes, No. 13. If there were any doubt about the 
propriety of reading these letters as the initials of a 
name, it would be set at rest by the location of the mono- 
graramatic symbol for the name of Motisa, which is 
inserted in exactly the same position, in proximity to the 
Queen's head, on the coins of Phraates IV. A coin of 
this Prince, figured by M. de Longp6rier, which marks 
the first introduction of the bust of a female on the 
Parthian currency, seems to have been influenced in its 
details by some Oriental reserve in regard to so decided 
an innovation ; and though the word ®EA2 is inserted in 
the margin, the name of the favourite is subdued into the 

elegant monogram ^, which, however, clearly em- 

82 The Italian slave erroneously styled ''Thermma'' by 
JosephuSy xviii. c. ii. s. 8. The name is identical with the 
Sanskrit Mmhak, our Western ftvs, mus^ " a mouse" — a desig- 
nation still largely affected by Hindu females. 

® See also Num. Chron., xii. Plate, fig. 1, p. 84 ; xvii. 167; 
Longperier, PI. xvii.; Dr. Levy, Zeitschrift, 1867, PL ii. 
fig. 13. 

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braces all the letters of the word MOYSAS.^ In coins 

of a later period^ all disguise is laid aside ; and although 

the identical monogram is retained in its original position, 

Mousa's name and titles are given in fuU^ as 0EAC 

OYPANIAC MOYCHC BACIA [uraag] —epithets she cer- 

tainly did not deserve, if we are to credit Josephus. 

It may seem over- venturesome for one who has not 

seen the coin itself to attempt to correct the reading of so 

high an authority as M. de Koehne, who has had the 

piece under close and deliberate examination; but the 

truth is, the suggestion of the discovery of any new 

system of dating in the East had such charms for those 

who are inquiring into the primitive condition of Central 

Asia, that I tested every possible solar and lunar variety 

of methods of calculation to see if this new theory would 

hold water ; but as these comparisons all ended in simple 

chaos, there can be little objection to submitting the 

leading evidence to a more practical and mechanical 


No. 4. 

Vologeses I. (a.d. 52 to 60). ** Buste barbu et diad^me de 
Vologese, a dr., une verrue an front, la barbe moins longueque 
celle de Gotarzes, mais coupee de la meme maniere ; derr. VOL 
en caract. arameens. 

4>IAEAAHN. Le roi assis, a dr., tenant Tare ; 
dans le champ, TA." 

Being unable to refer to any original coins of this 
particular type, I had sedulously transcribed the above 
description from M. Rollings ^^ Sale Catalogue,'' under 

3* "MOYSAS and MOYSHS were used indifferently on the 
coins."— (Lindsay, PI. iii. figs. 62, 63, and p. 171.) 

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the impression that M. de Longperier, having withdrawn 
from eirculatioDy as far as he was able^ all copies of his 
M^moires . . . des '^Rois Parthes Arsacides^' (RoUin, 
Paris, 1857), was desirous that the work should be alto- 
gether ignored by those who might have access to impres- 
sions still unredeemed and at large ; but the Publisher's 
notes at pp. 521, 541 of the Catalogue ^ seems to relieve 
me of any such needless reserve ; and though I should 
hesitate to criticise, in any adverse sense, a confessedly 
incomplete production, it would be unfair to conceal my 
knowledge of its contents, or to fail to express my 
great regret that such an accumulation of choice mate- 
rials should even temporarily be withheld from the general 
public.^ At the same time, recognising the excellence of 
the plates, I hold myself altogether free to draw my own 
independent deductions from the facsimiles, as if I were 
inspecting the coins themselves, though I pass by the 
text, even where I have examined it, as if it were still 

No. 5. 
M. de Longperier^s plate. No. xiv., fig. 10, is a copy of 
another coin, with the letters bl on the obverse, which is 
not noticed in M. Rollings Catalogue, but which the 
author seems to attribute to Vologeses III., as he makes 
the king of that name, whom Mr. Lindsay supposed to be 

^ ** C'est encore a M. de Longperier que la science est re- 
devable de la decouverte de ces legendes arameennes, des Tannee 
1841, dans la Revue de Numismatique frangaise, pages 250 et 25 1 . 
Le savant academicien faisait pressentir sa precieuse decouverte 
dans son grand ouvrage qui, a si juste titre, a obtenu le grand 
priz de numismatique. II donne six rois differents, et tons ont 
le titre de Malca, faisant suite a leur nom propre." 

98 I have bad to refer to this subject in a previous number. 
Num. Ghron., x. p. 146. 

TOL. XI. N.S. G G 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Vologeses III. into Vologeses IV., and so on in succession, 
advancing the numbers throughout the series — a process 
which is necessitated by the discovery of a new Vologeses 
II. The coin in question is similar in its typical details 
to that engraved by Mr. Lindsay under No. 86, pi. iv., 
and is marked by the peculiar tiara, with curled orna- 
ments over the ridge, which is held to be special to this 
king in his silver currency. 

No. 6. (Plate VU., No. 4.) 

Mithradates. The usual size. Weight, 53 grains. B. M. 

Obv, — Head of king, with formally pointed beard, flowing 
hair behind, but flat on the top of the head above 
the diadem. 

Rev. — King seated on his throne, extending a bow. 
Legend. At the top Hihn mnno. Mitradat Malka. 
Imperfect Greek on four sides. 1. BAIIAEA. 
2. IIANOY. 3. EYIiriTov AKIAOY. 4. H^A- 

One coin B.M. A second coin of Gen. Cunningham's is 
engraved in Longp^rier's plates, and is noticed in Rollings 
Catalogue under No. 8053. A third coin is also engraved 
in M. de Longperier's work. The date of this reign is 
supposed to be after 418 up to 424. 

No. 7. Vologeses IV. Silver. 

Obv. — Head similar to that engraved under No. 87, pi. iv. 
Lindsay. On the field the letters bl, or properly 
speaking J.,, for the vau follows the Chald»o- 
Pehlvi model, while the lam, in this instance, is 

clearly and essentially after the Sassanian foim 
of that consonant. 

Rev. — ^The conventional type of the enthroned Parthian 
monarch, extending a bow, associated with the 
usual degraded Greek legends and the monogram 
for Tajnbrax. 

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B. M. Two coins. Dates on the larger coins extend from 
889 to 489 A.s. 

No. 8. Vologeses IV. Silver. 

Obv. — King's head, as in the woodcut.^ 

Rev. — The usual t3rpe with the debased Greek legends, but 
the opening BA2IAEn2 in the top line is replaced 
by the ChaldsBO-Pehlvi kd'jd 'Wib^ Vedgashi Malkay 
** Vologeses king.'* 

Monograms, TA. 

The Greek has been omitted in the cut. 

Nine coins in the B. M. Dates range from 460 to 488 a.s. 

No. 9. (Plate VII., Nos. 6 and 5a.) 
Vologeses IV. Bronze. Weight, 104 grains. 

Obv. — King's head with the usual tiara. Monogram, a 
Greek B. 

Rev, — Device, Q , around which is the legend 

«3btt r^btt ie?*nM >tt?5bT 

(liu ^^ uXi^i ^^y 

Vologeses, Arsaces, king of kings. 

I believe I may claim to have been the first to publish 
decipherments of these legends.^ They are chiefly 
remarkable in reference to the present inquiry, as 

^ I was indebted to that enthusiastic Numismatist, the late 
Bichard Sainthill, Esq., for the above, and for the second similar 
wood engraving, both of which originally appeared in his ** 011a 
Podrida," London, 1868, vol. ii. p. 22, and subsequently in the 
pages of this journal. 

38 Num. Chron. xii. (1849), p. 84 ; xvii. 164, &c. 

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demonstrating a determination on the part of the ruling 
authorities of the day to emancipate themselves from the 
scarcely intelligible Greeks which had sunk into a state of 
complete degradation in its exotic life on Eastern soil^ 
and to reclaim due priority for the local language and 
alphabet. The distinctive symbol on the reverse, which 
has been the subject of much discussion,^ I con- 
ceive to have been the mere conventional representation 
of the sun, based upon ancient models, the worship of 
which was largely alFected by the Arsacid».^ The 
earliest symbol of the sun, under the first Ghaldsean 
monarchy, consisted of a simple circle, which in ad- 
vancing ornamentation was divided into four quarters 0, 
and ultimately improved into something in the form of a 
flower.*^ The primary idea is preserved in ^37^ bai7 
" Domiuus rotundus,^'*^ and its eflPective use under some 
such form of the figure of the sun is testified to in the 
'^ Imago Solis," which we are told formed so prominent 
an object in the ceremonial processions of Darius Codo- 
mannus.^ The same simple round orb is used to repre- 
sent the sun on the sculptured monuments of Persepolis, 
where, in the bas-reliefs whicli ornament each Achsemenian 
king's tomb, "Mithra" is exhibited in a prominent 

«» Pelleiin, 3rd Supplement, p. 82 ; Mionnet, v. p. 686 ; 
M. de LuyneS) Coins of *' Soli," Essai, p. 64; ''Ariana 
Antiqua," PI. xv. fig 9. 

«> " Moses of Khorene," Fre^ch edition, i. 168 and 387. 

^1 *' Ancient Monarchies/' G. Rawlinson, i. 159; Layard*s 
"Nineveh" (1863), p. 211. 

« Selden, 228 ; Hyde, 114. 

^ *< Patrio more Persarum traditum est, orto sole demum 
procedere. Die jam illustri signnm e tabernaculo regis bucina 
dabatur. Super taberiiaculum, uude ab omnibus conspici 
posset, imago soils crystallo inclusa fulgebat." — (Quintus 
Curtius, iii. c. 8, s. 7.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


position in the heavens to the front of the fire altar.^ 
The old symbol seems to have undergone many modifi- 
cations^ according to local treatment, which it is scarcely 
necessary to trace in this place,**^ but I may advert to its 
appearance as the leading symbol on a standard of the 
Sassanian period, where, placed upon a lance*pole, and 
supplemented by a cross bar with flowing horse-tails, it is 
borne in front of the battle.^ 

No. 10. Vologeses V. 

Oil?.— Front face, with bushy side curls. Lindsay. 
Fig* 98, PL 4. 

R^ . — Similar legends and monogram for Tambrax ; but 
the letters, both in the Greek and the ChaldaBO- 
Pehlvi, are even more imperfectly formed and 
straggling than on previous coinages. 

Dates range from 502 to 520. 

No. 11. Vologeses VI. 

06p.— Profile of king (Lindsay, Nos. 94, 96, PI. iv.) with 
the letters bi in th field. The tiara of this king, 

4* See Ker Porter, PI. xvii. p. 619 ; Flandin, Plates 164 bis, 
166, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178. 

*« Texier, **Asie Mineure " (Pterium), Plates 75 — 9; 
Layard's ** Nineveh and its Remains,'* ii. 213, 456 ; Donaldson, 
** Architectura Numismatica,'* pp. 23, 72; El Gabal (Jupiter 
Sol) at Emesa, a.d. 222, pp. 76, 80, 88, 98, 105, 106, 127, 
150, 330; Levy, **Phon. Studien," p. 37; L. Miiller, PI. ix. 
(Tricca) ; Marsden, **Numismata Orientalia," PL xvii. figs. 
1 — 7 ; De Saulcy, Journal Asiatique, 3me serie (1839), 
lere Lettre ; Longperier, PL xvii. ; ** Das Labarum und Der 
Sonnen-Cultus." Edward Rapp. Bonn, 1865. Lajard, Culte 
de Mithm., PL xxxv., et seq. 

*6 Ker Porter, PL xx. ; Flandin, 184. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


as well as those of Artavasdes, are marked by an 
ornamental spiked or feathered bar ninning up 
the side of the helmet. 
JRev, — Ty^e and legends as in the silver coins of Volo- 
geses lY. Six coins B. M. 

Dates range from 521 to 528 a.s. 

No. 12. Artabanus V. (Plate VII., fig. 6.) 

Obv, — Head of king, with a plain side bar on the tiara, 
which is less elevated, or, rather, more en- 
croached upon by the succession of fillets than 

Rev. — The usual type and debased Greek legends, with 
the Chaldaeo-Pehlvi, kd^o ^nrnn Hartabi MaUca, 
in the top line. 

Seven coins in the B. M. Dates range from 521 to 588 a.s. 

No. 18. Artavasdes. (Plate VII., fig. 7.) 

Obv, — Head of the king distinguished by a parted beard 
and feathered bar on the tiara (Lindsay, No. 95, 
pi. iv.) behind the head in the field the Ohaldsao- 
Pehlvi letters ^K. 

Rev. — ^The usual type and debased legends, with traces of 
JoSo iTsmK (Mr. Lindsay's coin is more legible 
than the engraver has made it appear.) 

Two coins, B.M. Date 559 a.s. 

It is curious to observe the contrast in the spelling in 
the initial portions of these names of Artabanus and 
Artavasdes. The Hurtabi of the former seems to have 
been imitated from the oral sound of the Greek 'Aprafiaim, 
while the Artabazu is clearly the proper Persian form of 
the name , jb cu) •! *^ '' strong arm,^' as we have the 
proximate synonyms •^tS'^nn and •)t33'nD on the coins of 
the Achsemenian Satraps^ Tiribazes and Pharnabazes. 

Edward Thomas. 

*^ M. de Luynes, PI. i. figs. 1 — 8, 4, &c., j.^ magnus. 
Sanskrit ^7f, Zend ereta, apra ('Apraibi, Herodotus, vii. 61) 
and ,jb WIW brachium. 

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Find of Coins in Bedfordshire. 

I BEG to forward to you, for insertion in your journal, a 
few facts relative to a discovery of coins near Shillington, Bed- 
fordshire, in April of this year. For several years extensive 
works have been carried on in the neighbourhood of Shillington 
by persons engaged in the search for coprolites, which are 
prepared as a manure for land ; and it has been matter of 
surprise that notwithstanding several hundreds of acres of soil 
have been turned over, no coins should have previously been 
discovered. On Thursday, the 9th of April, the workmen had 
thrown down a mass of earth, which they were proceeding to 
remove, when one of them struck his pickaxe through a small 
jar, a little larger than a cocoa-nut, smashing it up, and scatter- 
ing its contents ; these were small silver pieces, and were soon 
appropriated by the men. Mr. Weston, the manager of the 
works, obtained what he could from the finders, and the bulk 
were given up to Mr. Musgrave, the Vicar of Shillington, who, 
holding under Trinity College, Cambridge, made some of them 
over to that establishment, which are now to be seen in its 
library. Through the kindness of Mr. Weston I had the oppor- 
tunity of inspecting a few of these coins — possibly one-third of 
them. There must have been upwards of 250 coins packed away 
in the little vessel, which I think was buried in the early part of 
the reign of Henry I., about a.d. 1110. My reasons for naming 
this date are : — 

1st. That, although most of these coins show but little signs 
of wear, the execution of the work is so poor that it is difficult 
properly to appropriate their mints and moneyers ; therefore 
they must have been struck at a time when the art of coining 
was but Uttle understood ; and should we not expect such a 
decline in the reign of William Rufus? Many of the Con- 
queror's coins are neatly formed and correctly struck ; but 
these are coarse, both in design and execution. This fact 
inclines me to the opinion that the bulk of them were 
struck during the reign of William IL We learn from history 
that William I, at his death left very large quantities of coined 
money, which his spendthrift and worthless son did his best 
to squander, and possibly towards the end of his reign found 
himself necessitated to coin more, from which last coinage 
I believe these were derived. 

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2ndly. The coins were much confined to four types, being 
Nos. 244, 246, and 250 in Hawkins* works; also a few No. 252 
to Henry I. The most numerous are those of the 250 type 
— this, on all hands, is assigned to Bufus, especially so by Mr. 
Lindsay of Cork (see Gentleman's Magazine^ September, 1835). 
This type has a star on each side of the king's front face — the 
same mark appearing on William II. *8 great seal. This coin- 
cidence, coupled with the rough work, tends to fix their 
paternity with some degree of certainty. I saw but one coin 
of the PAX type ; but upon some of type 244 I read the 
obverse legend with a figure i after the name — piLLELM : 
REX I., with lELFRIC: ON: LIEPIE. on the reverse; 
another had the same moneyer — ON : LVN ; another, DECLIR. 
ON. STEPNE. ; another had GODpiNE : for moneyer. AU 
the foregoing had I. after REX. With the exception of the 
Stepney moneyer, whose name I cannot properly decipher, the 
remainder are places and names occurring upon the coins of 
William I. This is against my theory, as I would assign the 
whole find to William II. and Henry I. ; but these exceptions 
not being more than 5 per cent, upon the whole, does not 
materially alter my belief. 

Srdly. There were scattered amongst the mass a few im- 
perfectly-struck coins of Henry I. — all, with one exception, of 
the type No. 252 in Hawkins. . Of this particular type we seem 
to have had hitherto but few examples. I think there were none 
in " Cuff's " femous collection, and few, if any, are reported to 
be in the national collection. These coins are badly executed, 
as a portion, only of the die seems to have ever impressed the 
silver. London and Southwark are the only places of mintage 
decipherable. The weight of the coins assigned to Rufus varied 
from 20i to 21 grains ; some were more spread than others, 
especially the 250 type, but were not really heavier than the 
smaUer, but more compact side-face coins. I saw but a small 
piece of the jar which held these coins ; and upon that I traced 
the Vandyke or herring-bone ornament. It would have been 
interesting to discover that a hoard of Norman coins had been 
stowed away in a Roman-made jar, which I believe v:as the 
case, as several empty jars have been subsequently found 
in the same field — of the Roman ^^ DurobHviB'' and " L/>- 
church'* make. 

WiLUAM AliLEN. 1871. 

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About half-a-mile to the south of the present town of 
Lamaca, in the island of Cyprus, there is a site from 
which, during the past seven years, a large number of 
ancient objects in terra-cotta have been extracted. The 
attention of the family of the French consul, Count de 
Maricourt, was drawn to this spot in the most accidental 
manner. While taking his walk one day, the brother of 
the Count turned up with the point of his stick a small 
terra-cotta head. This induced him to turn over more 
of the sandy soil in the vicinity with the same rude 
instrument, and to his surprise he was rewarded by 
several more similar objects in terra-cotta. The dis- 
covery interested the whole family circle, who, ladies and 
gentlemen, repaired daily with walking-sticks to the spot, 
and never failed to return laden with some prize of more 
or less interest. Thus the first little collection of Cypriote 
terra-cottas, known as from the Salines, was formed; but 
ere long the secret got out, and many joined in the 
search. Seven years have passed, during which the field 
has been continuously searched, and has, strange to say, 
continued to yield its searchers objects of value. 

About a year ago, five lads were digging in that neigh- 

VOL. XI. N.S. H H 

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bourhood, in hope of finding terra-cotta objects, when 
one of the number caught sight of a bronze vase, lying 
upon its side, and out of which shining pieces (which the 
happy youth had no difficulty in identifying as gold) were 
beginning to run. The feelings of the poor finders can 
well be imagined. In their fear of detection and easily- 
conceived excitement, the division of the treasure-trove 
was only roughly made by handfiils, the bigger hands 
naturally getting more, and the smaller less. From what 
I have been able to ascertain, the share of each lad ought 
to have been about 200 pieces. I have myself purchased 
about 850 pieces — probably 80 pieces have escaped me, 
and a few may still be in hiding. Amongst the pieces 
which I was enabled to secure I have identified 132 
varieties, of which — 

29 are gold staters of Philip 11. of Macedonia. 

18 „ ,, „ Alexander the Great or his successors^ 
with the designation BASIAE12S AAEHANAPoY.. 

74 are gold staters of Alexander the Great or his successors, 
with the legend AAESANAPoY. 

4 are gold staters of Philip in., with the designation 

7 are gold staters of Philip HI., with for legend $IAiniIoY. 

Mr. Stuart Poole, of the British Museum, has kindly 
taken the trouble to compare these varieties with those 
published by Mxiller, and those exhibited on PI. VIII. 
would appear to be varieties not found in the work of that 
distinguished Numismatist. 

Of these varieties I would draw especial attention to 
No. 10 of the third category. Its monogram I read as 
SA, and venture to give the coin to Salamis of Cyprus. 
We have long known the copper coinage of Alexander 

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belonging to Salamis, bearing on the reverse the legend 
AAEBANAPoY, with SA, and it will be admitted that 
the fact of his having issued copper coins is strong pre- 
sumption in favour of his having issued also gold ones. 
But another point of interest presents itself in regard to 
the stater referred to. It is to be observed that it has 
upon the field on the reverse an eight-rayed star. This 
emblem appears to me a further proof that the stater 
belongs to Salamis, as I think it can be shown that the 
star was for centuries a distinguishing type upon Cypriote 
coins ; and, further, that one coin upon which it appears 
enables us to associate that class of coin with Salamis. 
The star appears upon a small silver coin, which must 
belong, in my opinion, to the early part of the fifth 
century, B.C., and which is one of a series of coins having 
for obverse a lion sitting, and reverse, the forepart of the 
same animal. It is again found on copper coins having 
on the obverse a lion marching, with a ram's head above, 
and reverse, a horse and crux ansata. Also upon a copper 
coin, of which I procured two specimens for General 
Fox, having, for obverse, a lion with a bird upon his back, 
and over both a star. This coin bears plainly the legend 
EYA, and is, without doubt, a coin of Evagoras, King of 
Salamis, who reigned from about B.C. 410 to b.c. 376. 

On another class of coins, both silver and gold, 
of which I possess good specimens, we have on the 
obverse the head of Pallas, and the field of the reverse 
is covered by an eight-rayed star. The workmanship of 
these last-mentioned coins would induce us to assign 
them to a period close upon the time of Alexander the 
Great. Further, we find the star upon the copper coins 
of the first Ptolemy (apparently before he had assumed 
the title of king), of which I have found several good speci- 

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mens in Cyprus^ and which have for obverse a female head^ 
such as appears upon the coins of the Salaminian dynasty 
of Evagoras, and for reverse an eagle upon a thimderbolt^ 
with legend IIToAEMAIoY. On these coins the star is in 
the same position as upon the stater of Alexander, now 
under notice. These facts seem to associate the star 
with Cyprus in its coins of the fifth and fourth century, 
B.C., and the coin belonging to General Fox would appear 
to associate all these coins with Salamis ; for if (me coin 
of a series can, without doubt, be assigned to a certain 
place, we have good ground for giving to all the series the 
same attribution. 

In describing the position in which the vase of staters 
was found, I mentioned that it was lying upon its side, 
and that the coins, on removing the earth, began to run 
out of it. These facts lead us naturally to doubt whether 
the vase had been concealed in the position, and at the 
spot of its discovery. The concealer of such a treasure 
might have been expected to show care ; first, in placing 
the vase in an upright position, and, secondly, in solidly 
closing it. Another circumstance, relating to this ques- 
tion, struck me as singular. The lads in their excavation, 
which extended to a depth of some five feet, had per- 
ceived, by traces of foundation walls, that they were in 
the interior of a chamber ; but it was only upon going 
down a couple of feet lower than the site of the bronze 
vase that they came upon the pavement of the tenement 
in which they were digging. Clearly, therefore, the vase 
could not have been concealed or put into the position 
in which it was found until after the chamber was ruined, 
or, at least, until its pavement was covered with debris. 
There seems to me, however, one supposition capable of 
reconciling all these difficulties; and, curiously enough, 

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the solution presented itself to my mind, from the follow- 
ing circumstance which occurred within a few weeks of 
the discovery of the treasure. In a village of Cyprus, 
where I have been in the habit of spending my summers^ 
a miser had made the wall of sun-dried brick in his 
apartment his money-box; indeed, that is the chosen 
hiding-place of the Cyprian peasant for his valuables. 
The material of the wall renders it a convenient place 
of concealment, as a hole is easily made in it. When 
made, and the treasure deposited, the hole is with equal 
ease plastered over with the same materials, always at 
hand ; and when dry the spot cannot be detected by the 
most experienced eye. The children of the miser in 
question, who were frequently refused the comforts of 
life, on the pretext of poverty from a year of drought, 
found out the concealed money-box, and made free with 
its contents. The miser bewailed lamentably the loss 
of about £150 in various coins; but neither got back 
his money nor received any sympathy. Every one knew 
that the thieves were of his own household, and believed 
that the money was better in their hands than in his. Let 
us suppose that the vase of staters was deposited for 
concealment in the wall of the chamber composed of sun- 
dried bricks. Upon the ruin of the building this wall 
would fall in, and naturally deposit, upon its side, the 
bronze vase amongst the debris which encumbered the 

We may safely assume that the deposit of our treasure 
in its place of concealment was made after the death of 
Alexander the Great, and during the short period which 
elapsed before the generals, who made themselves the 
legatees of the great conqueror, had begun to coin money 
in their own name. It will be remembered that an 

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important struggle took place between Ptolemy and 
Antigonus for the possession of Cypras, and history in- 
forms us that Citium^ having espoused warmly the cause 
of Antigonus, underwent a siege of considerable duration. 
The party of Antigonus was, however, defeated; and 
possibly it may have been during these events that our 
treasure was consigned for nigh two thousand two himdred 
years to oblivion. A large number of the coins never 
having been in circulation, and the bronze vase being 
of the same size and nature as those found some years 
ago at Sidon, it is to be supposed that the treasure formed 
part of either a military or regal reserve. 

B. H. Lang. 

Cetob^ 19, 1871. 

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Il y a un an, jour pour jour, je quittais Paris afin de me 
rendre en Orient. Je voulais, aprSs avoir visits une fois 
encore la basse l^gypte et vu le canal de Suez^ retoumer 
en Palestine, pour y completer les Etudes que j'y ayais 
ddjd. faites k deux reprises. J'avais compt6 sans la fatale 
influence d'une ann^e exceptionnelle ! Cruellement atteint 
dans la sante de ma flUe; frapp^ moi-meme par une 
insolation violente qui me condamna inmi^diatement k une 
inaction absolue, je dus me r^signer k passer de longues et 
cruelles joum^es d, Jerusalem, dans une chambre d'hdtel ; 
et quel hdtel ! 

Pour utiliser autant qu'il se pourrait mon s6jour forc4 
dans la yille sainte, je m'empressai de faire appel k tons 
les brocanteurs et k tons mes amis arabes du voisinage, 
pour me procurer le plus possible de monnaies antiques. 
J'en eus en peu de temps r^uni un trds-grand nombre, 
dans lequel s'en trouvaient de v^ritablement pr^cieuses ; 
soit par la nouveaut^ de leurs types, soit par leur ^tat de 
conservation. Ma moisson faite, je con^us le projet, 
aujourd'hui execute, de r6diger une description g^n6rale 
des monnaies imperiales de la Palestine ; mais celles-ci 

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mises k part, restaient les monnaies judaiques proprement 
dites, dont je tenais k enrichir autant que possible la s^rie 
dej^ connue, gr&ce auxtravaux publics jusqu'a ce moment. 
Aujourd'hui je viens offiir aux Numismatistes un catalogue 
de mes acquisitions de Tan dernier, ou plutdt des pieces 
qui en font partie et dont Tetude parait presenter quelque 
int^r^t. Je laisserai done de cdt^^ sans mSme les men- 
tionner, toutes les pieces dej^ publi^es et dont j'ai ren- 
contre des exemplaires, pour ne m'occuper que de celles 
qui pr^sentent des vari^t6s bonnes k signaler, ou des types 
entiSrement inedits ; cela dit, et sans plus ample explica- 
tion, j'entre en mati^re. 


Jean Hyrcan. 

Sur une centaine de monnaies appartenant a ce prince 
et qui toutes ofeent le mSme type, c'est-d-dire, une 
l^gende inscrite dans une couronne, et au revers deux 
comes d'abondance en sautoir, entre lesqnelles se trouve 
ordinairement une grenade, j'ai constat^ les formes sui- 
vantes de la l^gende nominale : — 

1- n:))^n 2. ^f^s 8. ^n^ 

nn ^ m:in 

^ Sor cette piece tres-bien conservee, on n'aper9oit pas trace 
d*une lettre de plus que celles que je viens de transcrire. Ainsi 
le nom parait bien ecrit simplement )^r\, an lieu de 73nin^, 
znais cela n'a pas trop lieu de nous etonner; car les noms 
hebra'iques dans lesquels le nom sacre de *in*^ sert de pre- 
formante peuvent tres bien en etre depourvus sans que pour 
cela la signification du nom soit changee. Ce qui doit surtout 
nous surprendre, c'est I'absence de I'article n devant le titre 
)T\D quand cet article n'est pas omis devant le qualificatif ^^2, 

^ La legende de cette piece est bien entiere, et les abbrevia- 
tions qu'elle presente sent telles que je les ai transcrites. 

^ Cette transcription est correcte, ainsi que les suivantes. 

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^— -I 

^- npm 




7. mn'» 
10. pmn. 

8. mn'» 

11. pmn> 

9. 3n... 



Les l^gendes suiyantes donnent 
lecture proposee par Cavedom et 

18. in'' 


14. in'' 

pleinement raison & la 
adoptee par Madden 

16. mm 



Yiennent enfin les varietes de la monnaie ou la legende 
commence par \m A : — 

1^. A 
















18. A 



^ Les trois lignes de cette ' legende sent textaellement 

* ** Jean le Grand PrMre, chef de la confederation des Juifs," 

VOt. XI. N.S. 

I I 

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Judas- Aristobule. 



22. "Tirp 





26. "Tim.: 

Jonathan- Alexandre Jannee. 












82. roin'^ 






85. Dn^na 
iamV • 




88. on'» 





41. pn^na'^ 

* Cette legends est entiere. 

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Je ne mentionnerai que pour memoir©— 

P. Unassez grand nombre d'exemplaires plus oumoins 
bien conserves de la jolie monnaie biHngue de Jonathan- 
Alexandre, munie de la double legende AAEBANAPOY 
BASIAEOS et ^hiDin ina'irr, et aux types de F^toile et de 

2^. Trois exemplaires de la bilingue k la fleur et k 
Tancre, portant les mSmes 16gendes. 

3^. Et enfin deux exemplaires de cette demiere bilingue 
k la fleur^ surfrappes du type purement sacerdotal k la 
legende D'^nrrn nnm ^Tirr ymn imirr. 

Je passe actuellement k la description des monnaies 
tout-k-fait inedites et qui me paraissent des plus int^rcis- 
sant^: — 

42. Obv, — ASIAEOS* Ancre renfermee dans un 

large cercle. 

Bev. — ^Traces d^une legende hebraique de trois lignes, 
inscrite dans le champ. . Je crois y entrevoir les 
restes de la legende '^mDn — lbn2 

Plomb. 15 millimetres. Le flan a conserve les 
deux jets provenant de la fonte. 

C'est 6videmment 1^ pour moi une monnaie de n^ces- 
fiit^ ou de guerre, ^mise k une ^poque de mis^re du prince 
juif qui Ta fait fabriquer. Est-ce Alexandre Jann^e? 
Est-ce Alexandre II. ? Je ne saurais le dire et je laisse 
k de plus habiles le soin de le decider ; ce que je puis 
aflSirmer, c'est que Tauthenticite de la piece est indubitable. 
II en est de m6me pour la suivante, qui n'est qu'un second 
exemplaire de la pidce que je viens de d6crire : — 

48. Obv, — ANAPOY Ancre renfermee dans un 

large cercle. 

Rev. — ^ I A dans un grenetis ; tout le reste 

manque. Ces trois lettres, k une interversion 
pres^ nous offrent le qualificatif b"T2 du grand- 

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pretre, dont le nom et le titre de Cohen anraient 
ete inscrits circulairement en dehors da gr^netis. 

Plomb revetu d'one belle patine comee. 15 milli- 
metres. Le flan porte les deux jets de la fonte. 

Yoici maintenant une charmante petite pi^e de cuiyre, 
d'xme conservation irr^prochable : — 

44. Obv. — Une palme conchee horizontalement ; au-dessus, en 
deux lignes paralleles, 13nin> — n^HDn ; 
au-dessoas, de meme, nnn vT3 — Tn^n, 

Rev. — Une large fleiir, dont la tige porte a droite une fleur 
enbouton et a gauche une feuille mal detennin6e. 
M, 8 millimetres. 
45. — MSmes types ; mais avec la legende ainsi coupee : 

!3mn> — b-T^n^nDn _ "^m^TD _ .."Tin. 

M. 9 millimetres. 

Ces 16gendes sembleraient bien convenir k Jean Hyrcan ; 
mais mon ami, Monsieur le Comte de Yogiie, quelques 
jours apr^s mon depart de Jerusalem, ayant acquis dans 
cette yille une rarissime monnaie, en tout semblable, sauf 
que le nom ]3mrr y est remplac^ par le nom judaique 
rrnn23, qui appartenait k Antigone, il me paratt fort 
probable que le Jean dont il s'agit, dans les pieces que je 
viens de d^crire, ne saurait ^tre le Pontife Jean Hyrcan. 

Si nous remarquons qu'un usage des plus frequents 
chez les Juifs faisait reprendre par le petit-fils le nom de 
son gran^-pere, ou tout au moins de Tun de ses ascendants 
directs, nous serons bien tentes de croire que le Roi 
Hyrcan, qui fut victime de la cruelle duplicity d'H6rode, 
se nommait Jean, comme le premier Hyrcan, et que c'est 
k lui qu'il faut attribuer la jolie monnaie en question. 
En effet, Hyrcan 6tait le fils aln^ d'Alexandre Jann^e, 
trpisi^me fils de Jean Hyrcan : rien done de plus naturel 
que la succession des noms. En Tan 47, C^sar confirma 

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le Bouyerain pontificat k Hyrcan, et confia radministration 
de la Jud^e k Antipater, p^re d'H^rode ; de 47 & 40 les 
choses rest^rent en cet ^tat ; mais en 40, Antigone, aid^ 
par les Parthes, s'empara de la couronne et fit couper les 
oreilles k H3rrcan, pour le rendre, k cause de cette muti- 
lation, incapable d'exercer le souverain pontificat. 

D^ lors la monnaie de E}rrcan, frappee un pen ayant 
cette catastrophe, fut imm^diatement copi^e par son 
heureux rival Antigone. Je classerai done k Tann^e 41 
les deux pieces d^crites plus haut sous les num^ros 44 et 
45, et k Tannic 40 celle de Mattathias Antigone, apparte- 
nant k Monsieur de Vogue. 

Si, de plus, nous remarquons que de la mort du premier 
Jean Hyrcan, arrivee en 106, k 40, ann^e de Tavdnement 
d' Antigone, il s'est ^coule 66 ans, nous serons forces de 
rejeter toute tentation d'attribuer au premier Jean Hyrcan 
les monnaies que je suis assez heureux pour faire connaitre 
le premier. 

J'ai ^galement acquis, k Jerusalem, une pi^ce ^mi- 
nemment curieuse et qui se rattache ^troitement aux 
pr^c^dentes. En voici la description : — 

46. Obv. — La fleor des monnaies precedentes. 
Bev, — ^La meme fleur reproduite. 

M. 11 millimetres. De chaque cote on semble 
distinguer des traces d*ane legende h6braiqae, 
formee de deux lettres accostant la tige de la 
fleur; sur Tun des cotes on aper9oit distincte- 
ment de plus, st gauche dans le champ, la lettre 
grecque 2. H est vrai que ce pourrait etre 
egalement un ^, mais j'en doute. Si c*etait un 
sigma, serait-ce par hazard Tinitiale du nom de 
SYNGaPION, qui pendant dix annees, de 57 a 
47, gouverna Jerusalem ? Je ne me chargerai 
pas de le demontrer. 

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C'est ici le lieu de d^crire une rare monnaie mal- 
heureusement incompldtey mais qui me semble tres- 
importante : — 

47. Obv. — .,. A2:IA602 Ancre enferme dans un 

c'ercle epais. 

Rev. — ....ttnp.... (tres-nets). Dans le champ une 
grosse etoile. Ce fragment de legende ne 
pent evidemment se completer qu'en lisant 

nb»n pmn>. 

M. 11 millimetres. 

Jusqu'A plus ample inform^, j'attribue cette rare mon- 
naie k Jean Hyrcan II., et 4 la p^riode de royaut^ de 
ce prince comprise entre les ann^es 69 k 66, ou 63 k 57. 

J'ai recueilli un trds-grand nombre d'exemplaires de la 
petite monnaie que Madden attribue k Alexandre II., qui 
n'a jamais et^ roi, puisque, rentr^ en Jud^e en Tan 67 ou 
il s'^vada de sa prison, il fut d^capit^ en 49, et que Toli- 
garchie fondle par Gabinius a dur^ de 67 i 47 ; il serait 
done plus qu' Strange, qu'un prince qui n'a exerc^ aucun 
pouvoir & Jerusalem cut pu y faire frapper la prodigieuse 
quantity de.petites monnaies 4 la legende grecque, 
AAeSANAPOY BASIAeos, accompagn^e au revers d'une 
legende h^braique dont on ne rencontre jamais que des 
lambeaux de trois ou quatre lettres au plus, impossibles si 
determiner. Je suis trfis-port^ k croire que le type adopts 
par Alexandre Jann^e jouit d'une assez grande favour 
pour se perp^tuer sous les rfignes suivants, bien que le 
nom r^el du prince regnant fut chang6. C'est a peu prds 
ainsi que dans le Talmud les docteurs attribuent imper- 
turbablement au roi Jann^e tous les faits, quels qu'ils 
soient, qui se rapportent au regne d'un autre prince 

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Asmon^en. Encore un mot au sujet des l^gendes h^- 
brai'ques qui se rencontrent sur les petites monnaies en 
question: c'est que j'ai cm y reconnaltre, sur Tune le 
mot ns^D; sur une autre )h7TSn, et enfin sur une troisieme 

^inn] mais je me h&te d'ajouter que oes lectures me 

semblent bien douteuses. 


En outre de quelques bons exemplaires des granges 
pieces bilingues d' Antigone, j'ai eu le bonheur de re- 
cueillir quelques vari^t^s nouvelles des monnaies de ce 
prince infortun^ : — 

48. Ohv. — ^bTan(]nDn n)'*nnn en legends exterieure. Simple 

corne d'abondance. 

Eev.— . . lAEO . — ANTirO — NOY, en trois lignes, 
dans une CQuronne. 

M. 18 millimHres. 

49. Obv, — ^Ancre; peut-^tre y a-t-il eu une legende qui a com- 

pletement disparu. 

Rev. — Meme type. 

M. 15 millimetres. Flan fort 6pais. 

Ge n'est que le style et la fabrique qui me font rap- 
procber cette singulidre pi^ce de celles qui appartiennent 
incontestablement k Antigone. 

Mon ami, Monsieur le Comte de Vogfi^, a le premier 
fait connaitre une curieuse pidce de cuivre^ que je 
restitue en toute certitude k Antigone (Rev, Num. 1860. 
PI. xiii. No. 8). Voici ce qu'il disait de cette monnaie 
(p. 291), qu'il classait parmi les pieces arabes de Jeru- 
salem : — 

" 2^. Gbandelier k sept branches. Traces de l%ende 
^' Ulisible. Rev. Quatre arbres plant^s parall^lement 
" M. 3. Provenant de Syrie. Ma collection." 

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" Le chandelier k sept branches figur^ sur ma curieuse 
pidce a la forme que lui donnent les monuments de 
r^poque romaine et qui est devenue traditionnelle. II 
est Evident qu'on a voulu sur cette monnaie faire allu- 
sion aux souvenirs judiuques ; elle me parait done avoir 
^t6 frapp^e k Jerusalem, pendant la p^riode qui s^pare 
la conqufete musulmane de remission des premieres 
monnaies nominales du Calife Abd-el-Melek/' 

Pour la monnaie au chandelier k cinq branches dont je 
possSde ^galement un exemplaire trouv^ k J^rusalem^ sa 
16gende aAJ I i}y^ Os^'SsV " Mohammed est Ten- 
voy^ d'Allah/' ne laisse aucun doute sur son origine. 
Mais celle qui offre le chandelier k sept branches 
est de fabrication purement judaique. La pitee que je 
vais d^crire le prouve incontestablement, et M. de Yogu6 
n'a pas h^sit^ un instant k le reconnaltre : — 

50. Obv.— n^nn , . (lisez bian ]n^n n'^nrxi). La 

table de proposition des pams, dont les quatre 
pieds avaient ete pris pour qnatre arbres. Les 
deux traverses horizontales, qui relient les pieds 
deux a deux, montrent jusqa'a Tevidence que 
Tobjet represente ici n'est qu'une table. Ce ne 
pent etre des-lors que celle qui reposait dans le 
saint des saints, et sur laqueUe etaient places le 
chandelier a sept branches et les pains consacres. 

Rev.— SAN... (lisez BASIAEOS ANTirONOY, 

abregee ainsi : BAS ANTirj. Le type du chande- 
lier est reste en dehors du nan. 

M, 13 millimetres. 

II est bon de remarquer que sur Pexemplaire de M. de 
Vogii^ (voyez la Planche de la Eevue) on distingue trSs« 

bien les lettres B- S r, qui commencent et ter- 

minent la l^gende. Cost done avec toute raison que je 
propose de restituer ainsi cette l^gende — BAS . ANTir. 

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Voila, a coup sftr, une bonne acquisition pour la suite 
mon^taire h^braique. 

51. Obv, — Legende hebraique, dont les traces sont insais- 
sissables. Dans le champ une etoile. 

Bev.— AAN (BASIA . ANTI ? ?). Large cercle, 

dans leqael se trouvait probablement insere le 
type de Tancre. 

M. 10 millimetres. 

Ce n'est qu'avec une tres-grande reserve que je propose 
de classer cette petite monnaie au regne d' Antigone. 


Je ne parlerai pas des grandes pieces au casque et au 
trepied, parce que leurs types et leurs l^gendes sont au- 
jourd'hui suffisamment bien determinees^ et je me bomerai 
k decrire les pieces qui compl^tent des descriptions d^ja 
publiees, ou qui offrent des types enti^rement nouveaux. 

Madden, sous le numero 6, a fait connaitre une pidce 
offrant d'un cote un trepied grossi^rement dessine, accoste 
de deux palmes, et au revers la legende BAOIaGCUC 
HPCDaOY autour d'une couronne ouverte par le bas et 
contenant la lettre X. J'en ai recueilli six exemplaires, 
qui completent convenablement Fensemble des deux types. 
Oes pieces ont constamment de 16 k 17 millimetres de 
diametre ; j'en ai rencontr^ une variety qui n'en a que 
13, et sur lesquels les palmes ne se trouyent plus. C'est 
^videmment une esp^ce nouyelle, si toutefois ce n'est pas 
la monnaie tres-peu d^finie que Madden a decrite sous lo 
numero 7. En voici la description : — 

52. 06v.— Trepied. 

Hev, — BAClAeCDC HP . . . Y autour d'une couronne ou- 
verte par le bas et contenant la lettre X. 

M. 13 millimetres. (Deux exemplaires.) 

VOL. XI, N.S. K K 

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La suivante est inedite : — 

58. O&i?.— Trepied. 

Rev, — YBAClAe . . . Couronne ouverte par le has, 

en forme d'omega, He Q, mais ne conieuant plas 
la lettre X. 
M, 15 BUT 11 millimeiires. 

Madden, sous le numero 6, a figur^ une jolie piece du 
British Museum, que j'ai eu la chance de retrouver i 
Jerusalem en double exemplaire. En voici la descrip- 
tion : — 

54. Obv.—BFiOAOY BAClAeCUC, caducee aile; a gauche, 

dans le champ L T , Tan 8 ; a droite, le mono- 
gramme ^, 

Rev. — Une pomme de grenade, dont la tige est munie de 
chaque c6t6 de deux folioles contournees en sens 
inverse ; dans le champ, a droite et a gauche, 
deux grands fleurons en forme de Q . Sur Tun 
de mes deux exemplaires ces fleurons manquent. 

M. 17 millimetres. 

II est probable que le numero 14 de Madden, emprunte 
k Beichardt (Zeitschrift der deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, 
1857, pp. 155 et 156) n'est autre chose qu'un exemplaire 
d^fectueux de la monnaie que je viens de d^crire. 

Le mSme Madden a emprunte au m^me auteur (Num. 
Chron. n.s., vol, ii. p. 271) la description suivante d'une 
nouvelle monnaie d'H^rode : — 

** 16. Obv.— OS . HPOAOY. An acrostolium. 

*'jRetK — Type not quite clear. — M. 8." 

Je suis ravis de pouvoir rectifier cette description 
d'apr^s un tres-bel exemplaire de ma collection : — 

55. 06t;.— HPOAOY BA2IAJE(0)S. Acrostolium. A gauche, 

dans le champ LT, Tan 8; a droite, le mono- 
gramme Jfi, 

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Rev — Une palme, ou un epi, entre deux fleorons. 
M, 14 millimetreB. 

Le numero 17 de Madden, egalement emprunt^ k 
Reichardt, est ainsi d^crit : — 

*i 06u,— BASlAeoS HPOAOY, written round a garland ; 
** -within the garland, the monogram "P. 

*^ Rev. — A helmet ; on each side a palm and branch. M. 4." 

Cette monnaie parait bien n'etre qu'un exemplaire mal 
conserve et mal compris de lit piSce au tr^pied accost^ de 
deux palmes. Mais il serait indispensable ie la revoir 
pour se perraettre de rien affirmer. 

J'ai public jadis (PL iv. de mon livre sur les monnaies 
judaiques, num^ros 9 et 10) une petite monnaie que je 
classais a la suite des monnaies d' Alexandre Jann6e, mais 
avec toute reserve, puisque je disais (p. 104 du livre pre- 
cit^) : " faute de savoir k quel prince les classer, je vais 
decrire ici deux tres-jolies petites monnaies juives d'un 
beau style, et qui ne pourront etre attributes avec certi- 
tude que lorsqu'un exemplaire complet nous sera par- 

M. Madden (p. 75) a reproduit les deux figures denudes 
par moi, en les faisant suivre de la remarque suivante : — 
" The fabric, style, and diflference of weight make it 
probable that they do not belong to Alexander Jannaeus.*' 

66. Je crois mieux encore aujourd'hui que nous avions 
raison tons les deux. Voici pourquoi: J'ai recueilli k 
Jerusalem un nouvel exemplaire de cette monnaie, et 

celui-ci porte en deux lignes BASIA EYCH 

Si je ne me trompe pas sur la lecture H de la demiere 
lettre, qui est pourtant douteuse, la monnaie en question 
revient de droit k H6rode. 

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57. Obv. — ^Ancre dans nn gros grenetis. Pas de legende. 

Eev. — ^Deax comes d*abondanc6 en saatoir, et entre elles 
an caducee. 

M, 13 millimetres. 

58. Obv, — ^Ancre dans on cerde ; a rexterieur, traces d'nne 

legende hebra'iqae, ou je crois d^meler HDn pour 

Rev, — ^Aa milieu du champ, HP ; au-dessus, (B)A ; 
au-dessous, CA6Y. 
M, 14 sur 10 millimetres. 

II serait trds desirable que I'on retrouy&t un bon 
exemplaire bien lisible de cette curieuse monnaie^ qui est 
tout-ck-fait inedite. 

II en est de m^me de la suivante, qui me parait une 
vari^te du mSme type : — 

6Sbi8, Obv, — ^Ancre dans on cercle; a rexterieor, traces de 
legende ind6chiffirables, dont on n*aper9oit que 
quatre caracteres. 

Eev. — .... YBACI ... , et dans le champ les lettres p 
M. 18 sur 12 millimetres. 

Je terminerai ce qui regarde la numismatique d'Herode 
en disant que j'ai encore recueilli k Jerusalem cinq 
exemplaires de la tr^s-petite piece a Taigle et £t la come 
d'abondance. L'origine de cette monnaie est done de plus 
en plus certaine. 

Hejeu)de Archelaus. 

Madden (p. 93, numeros 5 et 6) a public, d'apres le 
Rev. Churchill Babington (Num. Chron., n.s., vol. ii. 
p. 66), deux int^ressantes monnaies d' Archelaus. J'ignore 
si les figures qu'il reproduit sent exactes ; il est a 
craindre, d'ailleurs, que les originaux soient mal con- 

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serves et peu lisibles. J'ai moi-mSme eu la chance de 
recueillir k Jerusalem un nouvel exemplaire de cette rare 
monnaie ; mais il est malheareusemeiit assez mal monnay^ 
et assez mal conserve. Quoiqu'il en soit, en voici la 
description : — 

59. Obv. — ^Double come d'abondance. Faibles traces de 
legende circulaire, dont on ne distingne plus 
qn*im omega, ainsi forme CO. 

Beu. — Galere matee, armee de cinq avirons et munie 
d'on ronfle ; aa-dessas, dans le champ, 6®NA 
— (P)XO . . — OL. 

M. 18 millimetres. 

II est bien regrettable que cette pidce ne soit pas plus 
lisible. On y reconnidt^ cependant, bien les Elements de 
la legende HPOJAOY e®NAPXOY. 

60. Obv. — . . — CDa. Com6 d'abondance. 
Rev. — Une galere. 

M. 12i millimetres'. 

C'est evidemment le numero 7 que Madden (p. 94) 
a trouv^ dans les cartons du British Museum. 

■ J'ai retrouve deux nouveaux exemplaires du numero 1 
de Madden, qui I'avait emprunte k mon livre (PI. vii., 
No. 1). lis ont Pa vantage de completer le type de cette 
jolie monnaie. 

61. Obv.— Ainsi la legende du droit est HP— ^ — 0— Y, 

repartie antour de Tancre. 

Bev. — ^Au revers on lit bien dans une couronne : . ^, en 
deux lignes. 
M. 13 millimetres. 

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63. J'ai recueilli huit exemplaires de la piece k la 
proue (Saulcy, PI. vii., No. 2. Madden, p. 92, No. 2), 
et j'ai pu acquerir ainsi la conviction que le pr^tendu 
trident en saillie, en avant de la proue, n'est qu'un 
CD (omega). Sous la proue est un H et un P (peut-Stre 
li^ k FH), et au-dessus un A, de sorte qu'on lit nettement 
HPCOa. M. 12 k 14 miUimtoe. 

Je ne parle pas de la piece au casque et k la grappe de 
raisin ; c'est une des monnaies les plus communes de la 
suite judajque, et qui n'oflre guere que des differences de 


Plus que jamais je persiste k n'attribuer a la premiere 
revolte, c'est-£t-dire a celle qui s^est termin^e par le si^ge 
et la mine de Jerusalem, que les petites monnaies au vase 
sans couvercle, pour Fannie 2 (u^rrO) n3^), et avec cou- 
vercle, pour Tannic 3 (ffi"i?>i35 roiD). 

Quant a toutes les autres, sans exception aucune, je les 
attribue k la derniere revolte sous Hadrien, revolte k la 
tete de laquelle se trouva Bar-kaoukab, et qui se termina 
par la prise de Beithar et par la destruction d^finitivQ de 
la nationality judaaque. 

J'ai pu recueillir une belle s^rie de monnaies apparte- 
nant k cette derniere p6riode, mais malheureusement trfes- 
peu de types nouveaux. Parmi les types d6j4 publics j'ai 
remarqu^ quelques simples variantes, que je crois bon 
cependant de signaler. 

Je citeraf d'abord un exemplaire a fleur de coin de la 
pi^ce q^e Madden attribue k la premiere revolte sous 
le No. 1 (p. 167), et k la seconde sous les Nos. 1 et 2 
(pp. 204 et 205), cette double attribution n'ayant pour 
unique raison d'etre que Tabsence ou la presence des 

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traces d'un type primitif recouvert par la surfrappe. XJn 
pareil systdme de classification se refute de lui-xneme. 
Quoiqu'il en soit, voici la description de mon magnifique 
exemplaire : — 

64. Obv, — 1^3 — t5B7 en deux lignes dans une couronne. 

Hev. — Dbtt?*n'» nmnb. (Enochoe, devant laquelle est 
one palme. 

M. 18 millimMres. Pas de trace de surfrappe. 
(Saulcy, PI. xii., No. 6.) 

65. 06v.— Meme type ; evidemment sorti du meme coin, 

Bev, — (sic) ^WTi-'HTinh. Lyre allongee atrois cordes. 
A gauche, les lettres HM6B. Bestes de la 

M» 18 millimetres. Madden, Seconde Bevolte, 
No. 8. 

Le rapprochement de ces deux pieces, dont Tune des 
faces a 6t^ frapp^e par le meme coin, et dont Tune, sui- 
vant Madden, serait de la premiere r^volte, tandis que 
I'autre serait forcement de la seconde, d^montre que cette 
throne ne supporte pas Texamen. 

66. Pidce trds-us^e et troupe, ayant ^t^ probablement 
port^e de longues ann^es sur une coiffure de femme. Je 
n'oserais pourtant en affirmer Tauthenticit^ si le type n'en 
etait pas in^dit : — 

Obv, — ^ — ttlD en deux lignes. 

Rev, — (Enochoe, devant laquelle est une palme. 

, . nKB7 nb ^wh (Usez bwntt?> nr^nh" yw), 
M* 17 millimetres. Piece venue de Nazareth. 

Cette monnaie est bien voisine de celle que Madden 
(Premiere R^volte, p. 168, No. 4) a public d'apr^s 

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Eeichardt (Num. Chron., n.s., vol. ii. p. 276, No. 21, 
PL vi. No. 7). EUe en diffSre, cependant, par la presence 
de la palme devant I'CEnoclio^ ; par la legende oh se lisent 
deux lettres de plus (n et h), et enfin par le W, qui dans le 
nom yrs(D est arrondi en om6ga, tandis qu'il est anguleux 
sur Fautre face : disons bien vlte, pour confirmer I'authen- 
ticite de ce specimen, que jusqu'ici Ton n'a pas, que je 
sache, public de monnaies pr^sentant, telle qu'elle est 
couple, la legende du revers ; en effet, elle est continue 
sur le num6ro 5 de la PL xiv. de mon livre sur la 
Numismatique judaique. 

67. Voici la description d'un nouvel exemplaire de la 
monnaie dejd publico depuis longtemps (Saulcy, PL xii., 
Nos. 3 et 5. Madden, p. 204, No. 1) :— 

Obv. — 13y.ttB7 (lisez ^I^OU:?) en deux lignes dans une 
coaronne ; de la legende primitive da denier 
remain utilise, il reste : ... KAIC . N6P . TPAI .... 

Rev. — ....TT^ nnnb . OSnochoe, devant laquelle est 
une palme ; de la legende primitive, il reste : 

M> 18 millimetres. Piece trouvee au Djebel- 
Foureidis (Herodium) et acquise a Jerusalem. 

68. J'ai retrouve un bel exemplaire de la monnaie 
num6ro 9 de Madden (p. 172), reproduite par lui d'apr^s 
les numeros 4 et 5 de ma planche xiii. Oelui-ci en 
diflBre un peu par I'arrangement de la legende : — 

Obv. — *^^ — "j^ a droite et a gauche du tronc d'un 

palmier a sept palmes. (Toujours j'ai vu le 
palmier des monnaies juda'iques presenter ce 
nombre de palmes, egaJ a celui des branches 
du fameux chandelier sacre.) 
Bev. — . . . .1/ — n*1"in7 . Grappe de raisin. 
M, 18 millimetres. 

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Madden attribue cette piSce a la premiere r^volte et k 
Simon-bar-Gioras ; elle n'appartient certainement ni k 
Pun, ni k Tautre. 

69. Voici la description d'un magnifique exemplaire 
du No. 1 de Madden (p. 179), attribufe par celui-ci k la 
premiere r^volte et k Simon-bar-Gioras : — 

Obv. — ]*1 — V72W. Lyre allongee a trois cordes. 

Rev, — D7B7*n'* minb. Palme dans une couronne. 
M. 28 millimetres. 

Je terminerai ee catalogue par la description de quatre 
M. B. de Bar-kaoukab au palmier et au pampre : — 

70. Obv, — IV — 12W (le noun n'a jamais existe) a droits et 

a gauche d'un palmier. 

Rev.— Dba?1 — n"^ nnnb. Pampre. 

M, 24 millimetres; a fleur de coin. 

71. Obv, — yo — ■; a droite et a gauche d*un palmier. 
Rev.— . . . U?> — -inb 'n 'W. Pampre. 

M, 25 millimetres. 

72. Obv. — tt — VW a droite et a gauche d*un palmier. 

Rev.— . . . U;> nnV y W, Pampre. 

M. 26 sur 28 millimetres. Fleur de coin. Deux 

78. Obv. — ^ — tttt7 a droite et a gauche d*un palmier. 

Rev. — (sic) htrr^W in Pampre. 

M. 28 millimetres. 

Je profite de I'occasion pour enumerer les quelques 
exemplaires des rares monnaies d'H^rode Antipas, que 
j'ai eu le bonheur de me procurer, et qui, sauf deux, pro* 
viennent tons de Nazareth. 

VOL. XI. N.S. L Js 

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74. 0617.— HPCO . . . -^ . . TPAPXOY. Palmes a folioles recti- 
lignes, dont trois coapees aa bas de la tige. 
A droite et a gauche dans le champ, L — AF. 

Bev, — ^TIBe — PIAO en deux lignes dans une couronne. 

M. 19 et 17 millimetres. Deux exemplaires. C'est 
la division du numero 2 de Madden (page 97). 

76. Obv. — . . GDaOY — TG Meme type et meme date. 

Bev. — TIB . dans une couronne. 

M, 14 millimetres. Piece acquise 4 Paris. 

76. Obv.-^ . PCOAOY — . . PAPXOY. Meme type. A droite 

et k gauche, dans le champ, L — AA. 

Bev. — TIB6 — PIAO, en deux lignes dans une couronne. 
M. 24 millimetres. 

77. 06v.— HPCD ... — TGTPAPXOr. Meme type et meme 


Rev. — Meme type. 

M. 18 millimetres. O'est la division de la prece- 
dente. (Madden, No. 8, p. 98.) 

78. Obv.— . . TPAPXOY (Ici le titre TGTPAPXOY 

est a gauche de la palme, tandis que sur toutes 
les pieces precedentes il est ecrit a droite.) 
Palme, dont toute la tige est gamie de folioles 
entieres, raides et serrees contre cette tige. 
A droite et a gauche, L - — AZ. 

Rev, — TIB6 — PIAO, en deux lignes dans une couronne 
M. 18 millimetres. 

79. Obv,— A gauche : HPODAOY — Pahne gamie de 

dix folioles recourbees, apposees deux a deux 
tout le long de la tige. A droite et a gauche : 
L . — AH . (date un pen douteuse). 

Rev. — TIBe — PIAO . en deux lignes dans une couronne. 
M. 18 millimetres. 

80. Obv, — Sans legende. Palme a longues folioles rectilignes, 

occupant tout le long de la piece. 

Jiev. — Impossible a reconnaitre. 
2E. 11 millimetres. 

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Cette piece est-elle d'Herode-le-Tetrarque P Je me gar- 

derai bien de Paffirmer. 

F. DE Saulcy. 
Pabis, le 9 octobre 1870. 

P.S. — J'ai encore recueilli un trds-grand nombre de 
monnaies d' Agrippa^ au parasol^ cent au moins ! Toutes, 
sans exception, sent datees de Tan VI. — L. s". Je per- 
siste done plus que jamais h me mefier des autres dates 
qui ont et^ signalees. 


3. Simon. 


4. Jean Hyrcan, 



1. Judas, 


2. Jonathan, 

5. Aristobnle, Antigone, 6. ( Alexandre Jann6e. 

106—106. 106—105. 7. { Alexandra, 78—69. 

I 106—78. 



8. Hyixian fils un6 
a 33 ans a la mort 
— de son pere en 78. 

Alexandre 47 — 40. 

Aristobnle. Maxiamne. 

gd pretre assassin^. 

47, Oligarchie detruite, 

10. Aristobule, 

libre et imprisonn^, 

10 65__63 

Antiochus Sidetes, 
132 et 131. 

11. Alexandre 
67 s'^vade 
49 decapite 

12. Antigone 
libre en 49. 

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To the Editor of the Numismatic Chronicle. 

Caiko, Nov. 30, 1871. 


The dirliem of which I enclose a drawing is, I 
think, a very remarkable one, in that it is struck in the 
year 79, and that it does not give the place of mintage. 

In all the published lists of coins of the Ommeyade 
dynasty that have fallen into ray hands I have not seen a 
record of any dirhem bearing an earlier date than this 
(though dinars of course are known bearing dates 75, 7^y 
77 y and 78), nor have I heard of any dirhem of the 
Ommeyade dynasty on which the place of mintage is not 

I therefore venture to express my opinion that this 
the earliest dirhem in my collection is unique (though 
another copy if it may perhaps exist in some unknown 
private collection), and that, therefore, a notice of it will 
prove interesting to Oriental Numismatists. 

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I imagine that at first dirhems^ as well as dinars^ were 
only coined at the seat of government of the reigning 
Khalifah, and that, consequently, it was not necessary to 
state that those coins were struck in that particular 
place; that dinars for many years were only struck 
in the town where the Khalifah had his mint for gold ; 
but that dirhems being very much more in demand for 
general circulation, it was even in the first year of their 
coinage found necessary to coin them in the provinces, 
and that thenceforth the die contained the name of the 
town in which each dirhem was struck. 

This dirhem is in very good preservation ; and I only 
send you a drawing of the obverse, because the reverse is 
in every respect similar to that of the dirhems of a later 
date struck at Damascus, where this may also have been 

I will, with your permission, continue to send you from 
time to time a description of any coin in my collection 
which bears any peculiarity not hitherto noticed in pub- 
lished lists. 

Very faithfully yours, 

E. T. Rogers. 

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The interesting din&r^ of which an engraving is here 
given, is, I believe, the only known specimen of the 
coinage of the dynasty founded by Husnawiyeh. It is in 
a very perfect state of preservation, and presents several 
historical records of interest. 

I was puzzled, however, for a long time by some of the 
names, until on showing it one day to my friend M. H. 
Sauvaire, Interpreter to the French Consulate-General in 
Egypt, that gentleman gave me the clue to the records 
preserved on this unique din&r. 

On the obverse we find the area surmounted by two 

letters V«J and Sssl, which may be mere mintmarks ; then 
follows the first symbol, " | la ilaha, &c. | Al Kadir billah, 
I Bedr ibn Husnawiyeh.'^ The margin states that this 
din^r was struck at Sabur Khawftsit in the year 897. 
Although the place of mintage is spelt without the letter 
^ in the first half of the word, I cannot doubt that it is the 
same place whose name is generally spelt OvnmI^^Lj^Um 

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Sabiir Khowasit, or Sabur Khjlst uXkwULi ajLm, for his- 
tory informs us that this place formed part of the domi- 
nions of Bedr ibn Husnawiyeh, which comprised^ besides 
this city, Ed-Dinaver, Barujerd, Nohavend, Assasdabad, a 
portion of the district of El-Ahwaz, and all the fortresses 
and provinces situated between these different localities. 

On the reverse we find in the area, "lillah | Mo- 
hammed rassul Allah | Mejd ed dowlah | wa Kahf el 
ummah | Abu Talib | and beneath is a word in smaller 
characters which I cannot recognise. It may be an 
invocation (?). The margin is composed of the usual 
quotation in regard to the mission of Mohammed, styled 
by Marsden, the second symbol, 

Bedr ibn Husnawiyeh, whose name appears on the 
obverse immediately under that of the then reigning 
Abbasside Khalifah, was the son of Husnawiyeh ibn 
Hussein, a Kurdish chief who commanded a section of 
the Barzikans. His maternal uncles, Wendad and 
Ghanem, sons of Ahmed, were emirs of another tribe 
of Kurds called the Yehaniyeh. They dominated for 
about fifty years at Ed Dinaver, Hamadan, Nohavend, 
Samighan, and some portions of Aderbij&n, as far as 
the fortress of Shahrazur. Each of these emirs com- 
manded some thousands of warriors. Ghanem died in 
350. His son Deysain succeeded him in the fortress of 
Kazftn, where he lived till he was overthrown by Abul 
Fat-h ibn ^Amid. WendM ibn Ahmed died in 849, and 
was succeeded by his son Abu-1 Ghanem *Abd el Wahab, 
who having been made prisoner by the Shadenkhais, was 
delivered to Husnawiyeh, who took possession of his 
fortresses and of his wealth. 

Husnawiyeh, by his judicious administration and by his 
firmness, succeeded in suppressing brigandage in the tribe 

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that he governed. He constructed the citadel of Sermaj 
and a splendid mosque at Ed Dinaver, besides sending 
considerable sums of money to the Harkms at Mekka 
and Medinah. 

At his death, in 869, his sons were divided. Some 
joined Pakhr ed dowlah the Buyide prince, and others 
joined Addad ed dowlah, another Buyide prince. Their 
names were Abu-1 'Ula, 'Abd er razzah, Abu-n-Nejm, 
Bedr, 'Aasim, Abu 'Adnan, Bakhti&r, and *Abd el Malek. 
Bakhti&r, in consequence of his mal-administration, 
became obnoxious to Addad ed dowlah, who deprived him 
of the fortress of Sermaj, and soon afterwards despoiled 
all his brothers, excepting only Bedr, whose intelligence 
and probity he appreciated, and he appointed him to the 
sole command of the Kurds. All the brothers of Bedr 
were killed in a series of revolts. 

In 877 Sharaf ed dowlah sent against Bedr a numerous 
army, under the command of Karatekiu ed Dahshary ; 
but he was repulsed with some loss. Bedr after this 
victory possessed himself of Jebel and its environs, and 
became more powerful than ever. 

In 388 Bedr, at the height of his power, received from 
the Khalifah the honourable title of " Naser ed din wa-d 

In 897 he joined abu Jaspar el Hajjaj, and made a 
successful expedition against Medinet es Salam. At- 
tacked in turn by the troops of that city, under the 
command of 'Omeid el Jyush, he persuaded the general 
to forego further hostilities on his paying the war expenses. 

In this year, 397, Mejd ed dowlah, son of Pakhr ed 
dowlah the Buyide prince, who is mentioned on this 
dinar under his full name of Mejd ed dowlah Abu 
Talib, and with the additional honourable title of " Kalif 

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el TJmmali '' (Refuge of the people), was 'only eighteen 
years old, and his mother usurped his power, exercising 
his authority throughout his dominion. Al Khatir abu 
' Ali, ibn 'Ali, ibn el Kasim being appointed the Vizir of 
Mejd ed dowlah, privately persuaded the emirs to with- 
draw their allegiance from the mother and to remain 
faithful to her son, the legitimate prince of Rey, &c. The 
mother, suspecting a conspiracy against her power, and 
fearing that her son might seek vengeance and redress for 
the powerless state in which she had held him, placed the 
citadel under the command of some of her own devoted 
partisans, and fled to Bedr to implore his protection and 
assistance in subjugating the city of Rey. Her other son, 
Shems ed dowlah, came with troops from Hamadan to 
meet her, and both he and Bedr marched with her 
towards Rey. They besieged the city, and for some time 
a sanguinary conflict ensued. Bedr, however, was at 
length victorious, and entered the city. He took Mejd 
ed dowlah prisoner, and delivered him to his mother, who 
caused him to be put in chains and imprisoned, and 
placed his brother Shems ed dowlah on the throne in his 
stead, thus re-establishing her own authority. Bedr 
returned to his own territory. 

The dinfi,r now under consideration must have been 
coined immediately before this episode, and probably 
immediately after the appointment of Al Khatir to the 
Viziriate of Mejd ed dowlah, when the latter was at the 
height of his nominal power and bearing a newly-created, 
title of honour ^' Kahf el XJmmah /' for otherwise we 
should not find the names of both Bedr and Mejd ed 
dowlah on the same coin. 

But Shems ed dowlah only occupied the throne for 
about the space of one year. His ambitious mother, 

VOL. XI. N.S. M M 

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perceiving a change in his tone and manner towards her, 
feared that he might attempt to resist the restraint in 
which she held him^ and imagining that his brother 
Mejd ed dowlah might now be more docile and sub- 
missive after his long degradation and imprisonment^ 
replaced the latter on the throne^ and Shems ed dowlah 
withdrew to Hamadan. 

Bedr was led to take arms in self-defence against his 
revolted son Helal, and was made prisoner. In 400^ war 
again broke out between father and son. A conflict took 
place at Ed Dinaver. Bedr^ abandoned by his troops, was 
made prisoner. Again released by his son, he again 
armed himself and implored the help of Beha ed dowlah, 
who sent |Fakhr el Miilk abu Ghalib in command of an 
army to attack Helal, and to reduce him to submit to his 
father^s authority. 

Helal, deaf to the prudent counsels of Abu Yussef 
Shady, thought himself strong enough to rout the army 
of Pakhr el Miilk, which had already arrived at the gates 
of Sabur Kh&st. But early in the engagement he was 
made prisoner. 

In 404, we hear of Tahir, son of Helal, taking pos- 
session of Shahrazur, and holding it until it was taken 
from him by Abu Shok, who delivered it to his brother 

In 405 Bedr ibn Husnawiyeh, Emir of Jebel ('Irak 
'Ajamy), was killed by his own soldiers in an expedition 
against another Kurdish emir, Hussein ibu Mass'ud. 

Tahir, son of Helal, had sought refuge from his grand- 
father in the district of Shahrazur. On receiving news 
of his grandfather's de^th, he hastened to lay claim to the 
estates. He made war on Shems ed dowlah, but was 
taken prisoner. 

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At the time of Bedr^s death, his son Helal was a 
prisoner of Sultan ed dowlah. Shems ed dowlah, son of 
Fakhr ed dowlah, the Buyide, availing himself of this 
double circumstance, had taken possession of a portion of 
the territory belonging to the Husnawiyeh family. 
Whereupon Sultan ed dowlah released Helal, and fur- 
nished him with the means of marching against Shems 
ed dowlah to recover the kingdom which the latter had 
usurped. The armies met, but Helal was defeated and 
taken prisoner. 

In 406 Shems ed dowlah, who by his conquest of the 
territory of Bedr, and by the immense amount of riches 
he had found in the fortresses, had risen to great power, 
no longer feared his prisoner Tahir, so he released him 
and made him take an oath of allegiance. 

Tahir went to live at En Nahravan, and was killed in 
438 by Abu Shok in revenge for the death of his brother 
Su'da. He was the last of the dynasty of the family of 
Husnawiyeh, which rose quickly to immense power and 
riches by the genius of one man, and was as quickly 
extinguished by the immorality and incompetency of his 

E. T. Rogers. 

Caiho, December 12, 1871. 

[M. Soret has noticed, on M. Sauvaire's authority, the 
fact that a coin of Mejd ed dowlah gives him the title of 
Kahf el Ummah. (Rev, Beige 4"^*^ Sfer. Tome IV. p. 88)]. 

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Three years ago^ some workmen in digging the founda- 
tions of a house in St. Clement's^ Oxford, broke with 
their pickaxes a small pot, of which unfortunately no 
fragments have been preserved, and in it discovered a 
quantity of silver coins of the first Edwards. The coins 
were, as is usual on such occasions, immediately scattered, 
and found their way, some into the cottages of the finders, 
some into the curiosity shops of the town, and some few 
into the cabinets of collectors. So little interest was, 
however, excited in the city, that, though I did not become 
aware of the find till two years afterwards, I was able, 
with a little trouble, to come into possession of apparently 
almost the whole hoard, and, by the kindness of their 
owners, to have access to the remainder. The workmen 
estimated the number of coins at a hundred and fifty at 
most ; but, as two hundred and twenty-five have passed 
through my hands, the number must have been larger, 
though I think what I have seen comprise nearly the 
whole find. Still it is possible that some, perhaps some 
of the best, had disappeared from Oxford before my some- 
what late attempt to collect and examine the hoard. 

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The chief rarities in the find are the two Berwick half- 
pence and the Waterford farthing. The last coin is in the 
possession of the Rev. C. P. Golightly. There are, however, 
as will be seen, some interesting coins among the pennies. 


With the king's name written GCDW. 

Type 1. 

(PL IX., Fig. 1.) (Hawkins, 


class i.). 
Coins large, letters large, Boman N, bust draped. 


2. Ditto, but with I/I instead of N 

3. As No. 1, but three pellets on the king's breast 

and one pellet before London . 

4. aiVITSS LINCOL (one reads aiNTTVS) 

5. aiVITTVS aTVNTOE . . 



8. Ditto, but with cross moline 


10. aiviTSs aecsTEiec 


12. aivrms ecBOEsai 

13. aiYITTTS DYBUNieC (usual obv.) . 





eCDW. Type 2. (Hawkins, cl. 2.) (PI. IX., Fig. 2.) 

Coins and letters smaller, N generally lacks the cross-Hue and 
becomes merely two upright lines 1 1 , bust draped. 



16. aiVITTVS aSNTOE 2 

aDW. Type 3. (Hawkins, cl. 3.) (PL IX., Fig. 3.) 
As type 2, but with a star on the king's breast. 

17. aiVITTVS LO||DO|| 

18. aiVITTVS DVEGCMGC (cross moline) 

19. aiVITTTS ffBOESai (quatrefoil) 








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€[DW. Type 4. (Not mentioiied by either Euding or Hawkins.) 
(PL IX., Fig. 10.) 

More elegant workmanship, Lombaxdic R, annulets between 
words on obverse, hair more bushy, bust draped. 

aDw w o sncL o Dns o i^yb. 

22. aiVITSS LORDOn 3 

Coins with the king's name written GGDWA. 

Type 1. 

GCDWT^ E' SNGL' DNS rjVB. (PL IX., Fig. 4.) Letters 
of finer and more ornamental workmanship than £DW, tyi>es 2 
or 3, bust draped. 

23. aiVITTVS LONDON(One reads 7VQL, two I^VB :) 27 

24. arvrmS aSNTOE (One reads ttSNTOS, 

another aSNttSN, another SNG for SNGL), 
another of finer work with apostrophes between 

the words 16 

26. aiVITTCS DVBeCMff (cross moline) ... 6 

26. aiVITTTS DVNGCLM (crozier) .... 3 

27. aiVITTTS DVBeCMff 4 



30. VILL7V BecEecwiai 4 


GCDWS. Type 2. (PL IX., Fig. 11.) 

As GCDW. Type 4. Annulets between words on the obverse, 
Lombardic R, bust draped. 

31. ohv.—aimnw o ttrgl o drs i^yb. 

^cv.— aivrras lordor .... 2 

Coins with the king's name written GCDWTVE. 

Legend, GOmnR E 7VNGL DNS ^VB. (PL IX., Fig. 6.) 
As aDWl\, iype 1. 


33. aiVITTVS ttANTOE . 


35. aiVITTTS DVNGCLM (cross moline) 
36.aiVIT7VS DVEGCMGC (cross moline) 




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Coins with the king's name G[DW1\ED. 

Legend, ffDWTCED E' 7VNGL DNS r^VB. (PL IX., Fig. 6.) 

As eCDWTV, type 1, but workmanship better; W for W, occa- 
sional in the previous types, now becomes general ; bust draped. 

37. aiVrrra LONDON 6 

38. aiviTTis dvegcmq: 1 


Coins with EGCX. 

€[DW EGCX TCNGL' DNS ^VB. (PL IX., Fig. 7.) 

Eeyersed N, workmanship unlike any other type, bust draped. 


SDWTVE' EeCX 7TI/I6L DI/IS llYB. (PL IX., Fig. 12). 
Letters highly ornamental, N either reversed or Lombardic, W 


41. aiviTTvs LonDon i 



Eesembles €[DW, type 1 of the pence, but is much defaced. 

42. VTLLTT BGCEeCWiai 1 

SDWTVEDVS EGCX 7W. (Star with six points.) 

As €[DW, types 2 and 3. 



As the preceding, but without star^ and with Lombardic U on 

44. aiVITl\S LORDOn 2 

GDWT^EDYS EGCX 7VN. (Star with six points.) 

Letters more ornamental, resembles pence reading GCDWTIED. 



Workmanship strongly resembles that of a Berwick penny read- 
ing GCDW7V (No. 30). 

46. VILL7T BGCEVICI. Bear's head in two quarters. 

(PL IX., Fig. 15.) 1 


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As €[DW, type 1, and the Berwick halfpenny, No. 42. 

47. aivrras loi/idoi/i i 

GCDWTTBDVS EGCX n. (Star of six points.) (PL IX., 
Fig. 16.) 

Neater workmanship. Besembles halfpenny No. 44. 

48. aiVITTVS LONDON (Star before London) . 12 

(Star of six points.) (PI. LX., 

Fig. 17.) 

As preceding. 


As preceding, but no star. 

60. arvrms London . 

(Star before London.) . 8 

As aDW, type 1. 

Uncertain farthings (struck at London) 


Scotch (Alexander HI. Lindsay, pi. iv. No. 71) 
Flemish (Snelling, fig. 17 ; Num. Chron. vol. xviii, 

p. 127) 

Uncertain Canterbury and Durham pence 
Classified on next page 

Total pence . 
,, halfpence 
„ farthings 










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Table showing Number of Pence from each Mint. 


Canterbury . . . 


St. Edmundflbury 



Newcastle ..... 




Dublin 2 


14 11 69 I 19 

1 {189 

It will be observed that, as a basis for arranging the 
types, I have taken the obverse legends in the increasing 
order, ffDW, SDWS, GCDWffE, eCDWSED. From the 
time of Archbishop Sharpe, pennies which spell the king^s 
name GCDW alone have been considered the earliest coins 
of the Edwards^ and ascribed to Edward I. Not only are 
their workmanship and letters more like those of Henry 
III., but the number of mints which appear on this class 
of coin is greater than that of any other type ; and, as we 
know that mints were widely distributed over the king- 
dom in Henry's reign, and confined exclusively to a few 
large cities in the time of Edward III., this fact also 
tends to prove that these GCDW coins are the earliest. 
Mr. Bartlett^ in his paper on the episcopal coins of 
Durham, went still further to demonstrate this by show- 
ing that, while coins reading SDW show no mint-mark, 

1 Archaeologia, vol. v. p. 835 et seqq, 
VOL. XI. N.s. N N 

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except the cross moline of Bishop Beck, who held the see 
between the years 1283 and 1310, those coins that read 
€CDW!S, eCDWSE contain the mint-marks of later bishops 
of Durham besides. 

At the same time the lighter weight, later workman- 
ship, and general analogy with groats, in coins reading 
aDWSEDVS, fix them as belonging to Edward III.; 
hence the generally accepted opinion that all pennies 
reading GCDW alone belong to Edward I., that all 
reading aDWTCEDVS belong to Edward III., and that all 
the intermediate forms, GLdWTi, €CDWSE, and aDWSED, 
belong to Edward II. Mr. Hawkins, who from his ex- 
amination of a large quantity of the Tutbury coins, is 
peculiarly qualified to give an opinion on this subject, 
adopts this arrangement, with the proviso that coins 
reading eCDWSED, but which add FES to the title, must 
be assigned to Edward III. 

It is indeed evident that the order I have adopted must 
be the natural order of the types. A glance at the 
undoubted coins of Edward III., two of which have been 
engraved (PI. IX. Figs. 13, 14) for comparison, will show 
that the letters are of finer and smaller make than those of 
Edward L^s earliest coinage, and whatever improvement in 
the art enabled the workman to make the letters smaller 
or less [wide-spread, also tended to make the inscription 
longer ; nor is it reasonable to suppose that the moneyers 
of Edward I. would have written only €CDW if they had 
ample space to write GCDWSEDVS ; or that the moneyers 
of Edward III. should have taken the trouble to give the 
now well-established name GCDW^EDYS in full, unless 
fulness of inscription had been always the summum bonum 
of moneyers. It is noteworthy that the monograms and 
contractions, which appear on the earlier coins of Greece 

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and Rome, cease with increasing improvement in the 
monetary art, and only reappear when the tide of barbarism 
had reduced both nations to more than their former state 
of rudeness. 

Such a priori reasoning is at least borne out by factSf 
for we find on these coins of the Edwards the length of 
the inscription increasing, as a general rule, in proportion 
to the smallness of the letters. 

But, though this may be true as a general rule, we are 
not justified in every case in arranging these types simply 
according to the length of the legend. Thus, in the 
present find, the coins which I have marked as GCDW, type 
4, and €CDW!S, type 3, certainly belong to a later period 
than the coins reading GCDWSE, or GCDWSED. These 
indeed are only apparent exceptions to the rule, for the 
annulets between the words have here taken the place of 
an increase in the length of the inscription. 

Again, it must be conceded that some of these types 
overlap one another, or are at least partially contem- 
poraneous. Durham coins of GCDWS, type 1, contain the 
mint-mark of Bishop Beck, who died in 1811, and also 
that of Bishop Kellow, who held the see 1313—1316. 

These eCDWff coins were therefore struck before 1811 
and after 1318. 

But Durham coins of the GCDWSE type appear not 
only with the mint-marks of Bishops Beck and Kellow, 
but with that of Bishop Beaumont as well, and must 
therefore have been struck before 1311 and after 1317. 

Hence it follows that coins of the ordinary GCDWS and 
GCDWSE type were partly contemporary with one another. 

But coins of EDWS, type 1, with Bishop Beaumont's 
mint-mark, are, I believe, unknown ; if so, the supposition 
that coins reading GOOWKB, are more recent than those 

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reading ffDW^ may still, to a certain extent, hold 

On the other hand, as far as I am aware, no episcopal 
mint-mark is known on the coins reading CCDW^BD, and 
this fact tends strongly to prpve that this form is of a later 
date than either eCDWS or GCDWff E of the ordinary types. 

It will be noticed that in the classification of this find, 
and in the above remarks, I have distinguished some 
peculiar coins, reading SDW, aDWff, eCDWSE E€CX, 
which, from the style of their letters, the annulets in the 
legend, the broad face, and bushy hair of the bust, I have 
been led to consider later than any of the other types re- 
presented in this find, and to refer rather to Edward III. 
than to either of his predecessors. Such a suggestion 
affects Hawkins's arrangement in more ways than one. 

Hawkins's classification has indeed already been called 
in question by Sainthill, who, writing to the Numismatic 
Chronicle* in 1851, mentions some coins of the eCDW 
type with annulets, and with or without the Lombardic 
n, and two coins of Durham with a Lombardic R on the 
reverse, as well as coins of the ordinary eCDW type, but 
with *' a peculiar and spread bust " from the London, 
York, and Durham mints, all which he suggests should be 
assigned to Edward III. from their light weight and 
general resemblance to coins of that king. 

Mr. Cufi^,* in his reply, while admitting the force of 
the arguments derived from the annulets and English n, 
prefers Hawkins's more convenient classification; but 
Mr. Bergne* confesses " that the occurrence of the annu- 
lets, and especially the weight of the coins, shake his 

2 Num. Chron. vol. xiv. p. 20. Also OUa Podrida, vol. ii. p. 209. 
8 OUa Podrida, vol. ii. p. 217. 
* OUa Podrida, vol. ii. p. 218. 

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reliance in Hawkinses test/^ though he observes that the 
bad condition of Sainthill's coins precluded any great 
stress being laid on their weight. He adds that he 
possesses a well-preserved penny reading €[DW!SE-!SN6L'" 
DNS-tjVB/ and with a peculiar head^ which, from its 
weighing little over 19 grains, he thinks must have been 
struck between the eighteenth and twenty-fifth years 
of Edward III/s reign. 

Although I was at the time unaware of Messrs. Saint- 
hill and Bergne^s suggestions^ I had arrived at very much 
the same conclusions from an examination of this hoards 
and as the weight of the coins may afford some clue to 
the date of the diflferent issues^ I have carefully weighed a 
number of selected pennies belonging to this find, of 
which the results are as follows : — 

Table of Weight. 

No. of 





weight in 

weight in 





aDW. Type 1 




EDW. Type 2 




EDW. Type 3 




•aDW. Type 4 




GCDWTT. Type 1. 




•aDWTl. Type 2. 












«aDW7iE Eax 




aDw Eax 



Let us now recapitulate what is known as to the weight 
of coins of this period from historical sources. 

In A.D. 1300 Edward I. reduced the standard from 
22i to 22i grains. 

^ Query, are the dots between the words meant for annulets ? 
® Annulet types. 

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During the reign of Edward II. the penny wajs kept at 
22i grains. 

In A.D. 1344 Edward III. reduced it to 20i grains. 

In A.D. 1346 to 20 grains. 

In A.D. 1351 to 18 grains. 

It can be easily seen^ from the result of weighing the 
coins in this find, that those struck before 1300 cannot by 
this criterion be distinguished from those issued shortly 
after that date. Mr. Hawkins^ after weighing a number 
of the Tutbury coins, arrived at the same conclusion. 
But in weighing the coins of the annulets, the Lombardic 
n, and the bushy hair, a very decided diflference is per- 
ceptible. Thus the coins in this find reading GODW of this 
class weigh only 17 grains on an average as compared 
with 21 grains in all other types with the same legend, 
and seven good specimens of the same class of coin, but 
not from this find, weigh 18i grains on an average. 

Again, the coins of the same type reading G[DW!S weigh 
only 16 grains on an average, as compared with 20i grains 
in the ordinary €[DW!S coins ; and the average weight of 
four excellent specimens, not from this find, is ISi grains, 
while twelve pence of these later types weighed by Mr. 
Sainthill averaged only 17i grs. 

To these must be added the coin from this find, of very 
late appearance, reading GCDWABBGCX, and weighing 18^ 

If we compare the weight of these coins with those 
reading SDWAEDYS, and belonging undoubtedly to 
Edward III., it will be evident that both must be assigned 
to the same period. 

I have weighed six representative specimens with the- 
legend GCDWAEDVS, of which three are Durham coins, 
with the crozier mint-mark, and therefore, according to 

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Mr. Bartlett,^ dating no earlier than 1345, when Bishop 
Hatfield succeeded to the see. Their average weight is 
17f grains. 

Nor does the result of weighing alone corroborate the 
evidence to be derived from the fades of these coins. 
There remain, besides, two very strong arguments to 
prove that these must at least be later than the other coins 
from this hoard. In the first place, among over fourteen 
hundred coins of the Tutbury find examined by Mr. Haw- 
kins not one of this type appears, though coins of every 
other type in the present hoard are there represented. 
Hawkins has fixed the date of the Tutbury hoard between 
the years 1321 — 1329, the latter date resting only on the 
negative evidence afforded by the absence of the coins of 
David XL of Scotland. He has also adduced specious 
reasons for believing that it was lost by the Earl of 
Lancaster when routed and captured by Edward II. in 
1322. This, however, is at most a probable conjecture, 
which some — including the present writer — may be in- 
clined to doubt. The second fact — which is even more 
conclusive — is that in over fourteen hundred coins of the 
Wyke find, described by Messrs. Sharpe and Haigh,^ 
which, from the presence of a coin of Louis of Bavaria 
with the title ROM. IMPB, must have been secreted 
after 1329, this type is also absent. 

The appearance of these coins answers in nearly every 
respect to that of the well-known types of Edward III. 
The annulets — one of the most striking characteristics of 
the later period — are generally present, and the face has 
that peculiar bushy hair always to be seen on Edward III.'s 

7 ArchaBologia, vol. v. p. 886 et seqq, 

8 Archseologia, vol. xxviii. p. 47. 

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pennies, and which makes the king^s effigy look broad in 
comparison to its height. 

As far as I am aware, the annulet coins of the CCBW, 
QjyWK, types only occur of the London mint ; but there 
are also coins of the same mint similar in their light 
weight, the king's head, and generally the Lombardic n, 
but without the annulets, though not represented in the 
present find, and of this type I possess a York penny ,9 
while Sainthill ^® also mentions Durham pence. Since the 
appearance of these coins certainly justifies us in con- 
sidering them contemporaneous with the annulet coins, 
it is at least suggestive that London, York, and Durham, 
the only mints of Edwarfl III.'s undoubted pence, should 
be also the only mints of which these coins are found. 

It will be well, however, not to lay too much stress on 
the presence of the Lombardic R, unaccompanied by 
other characteristics; for not only is this letter often 
absent on these €[DW, eCDWS coins of light weight and 
with the bushy hair, but also it is even sometimes absent 
from those unquestionable pence of Edward III. reading 
eCDWAEDVS ; while, on the other hand, as is well known, 
it is often present on coins of Henry III., and not only is 
it common on Berwick coins of the ordinary GODWR type, 
but I have also seen it on a penny of Bobert de Hadeleie, 
which, from the curious way in which Robert's name is 
contracted, and the analogy it thus bears to Henry III.'s 
coins, or coins with Henry's name on them, must be 
referred to a very early period of Edward I.'s coinage. 

The following is a list of the difierent varieties of these 
later types that have come to my knowledge : — 

9 PI. rx. No. 8. 

10 011a Podrida, vol. ii. p. 210. 

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eCDW E' Sn6L o DRS o tiYB. (PL IX., Fig. 10.) 

aiviTSs LonDon, aivnAS London." 

GCDW E* o SN6L o DNS o tjVB (sometimes I/I for N). 
PL IX., Fig. 9.) 


EDW E' SN6L' DNS tjVB (sometimes M for N). (PL 
IX., Fig. 8.) 

aBOETlCI (quatrefoil) and aiVIT7lS DVnaLM." 

aDWTT E' o TmCL o DRS o tjVB. (PL IX., Fig. 11.) 


€CDW7^ E' TO^GL DNS t^YB. 

If we compare the above pence with the gold coinage 
of Edward IIL, it will be seen that the shortened form of 
the name QDW or €CDWSE is not peculiar to the coins of 
Edward I. or II.; for on the florin struck in 1343-4^ and on 
the quarter florin^ the name appears in the same abbreviated 
form^ QDW ; on an unpublished half noble with annulets 
in the angles of the cross on the reverse^ in my father's 
cabinet^ it appears simply as GCD; and on the noble of 
Edward III.'s twentieth year as aDWSE. 

In fine, while their appearance and the negative evidence 
to be derived from the great finds at Tutbury and Wyke, 
induce me to assign all these coins to Edward III.^ 
their light weight further postpones their date till at 
least 1344, when the weight was first substantially 
lowered. It is indeed strange that a class of coins so 
marked, and of by no means unfrequent occurrence, 
should have been entirely overlooked by both Ruding and 

11 Sainthill is my authority for these. Oil. Pod., loc. cit. 

VOL. XI. N.S. O O 

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But this result leads us a step further. If these coins 
were struck in 1344^ and yet, as Hawkins and others 
conclude, all coins reading g:DW3!l, GODVfKR, eCDWSKD 
are to be assigned to Edward II., who died in 1327, what 
coins are to be assigned to the intervening gap of seven- 
teen years? It cannot be the coins reading eCDWSEDVS — 
they are of as light weight and late workmanship as these ; 
not the coins reading eCDWSED SRGL B — they are as 
late in form as the preceding, and of lighter weight ; nor 
are either of these or other later types represented at all 
in the present find. 

The obvious, indeed the only, conclusion to be drawn 
is that the coins reading: eCDWS, GODWKE, eCDWSED, 
and &J)W £€CX continued to be issued, some or all, till as 
late as 1344. Edward II. reigned barely twenty years, 
while the reign of Edward III. extended over half a 
century; and yet, as coins are at present discriminated, 
how far more common are the coins of Edward II. than 
those of Edward III. ! Surely this fact in itself ought to 
suggest some fallacy in the present classification. If 
Edward III.^s coins all read aDWJ^RDVS, where are the 
heavy coins with that legend ? If they do not exist, and 
there was, even between 1327 and 1344, a coinage in 
England, then, j^ar voie d'exclusion, we must look for other 

Let us here remark that the Wyke find, which was 
buried, at the earliest, in the third year of Edward III., 
and possibly at a considerably later date, contains no 
types later than the ordinary eCDWS, eCDWSB, eCD- 
WSED, and eCDW EGX pence. The inference is obvious. 

I have above hinted my doubts as to the correctness of 
the date assigned by Hawkins for the deposit of the Tut- 
bury hoard, namely, the year 1322. In the first place. 

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there were found several coins of John^ King of Poland 
and Bohemiaji who^ on Hawkins's own showingj could not 
have taken that title till 1321 at the earliest ; in the next 
place^ if we assume that these annulet coins of light 
weight belong to Edward III.^ and to be after the date 
1344} (and if we do not^ we must allow the moneyers whp 
struck them a gift of prophecy not to be found at the 
present day) ; then we have the remarkable fact to account 
for that though the types of the coinage repeatedly changed 
immediately before 1322 and immediatAy after 1344 ; yet 
between those dates — during a period of twenty-two 
years — the coinage remained without the slightest modifi-' 
cation of type ; for in the present find the only types not 
also to be found in the Tutbury hoards are these annulet 

Again^ what is* the value of Hawkins's negative evi- 
dence? Surely the absence of coins *of David II. proves 
nothing when we remember that in the Wyke find, which, 
as we have seen, must have been buried after 1329 at the 
earliest, and of which an equal number of coins have been 
examined to those of the Tutbury find, out of twenty- 
two foreign coins that were there found, only two neces- 
sarily date after 1314, and that though four coins of 
Alexander III. were found, which must therefore have 
been struck before 1292, yet no coins of Pavid II., or even 
Robert Brucc^^ were there discovered. 

But there is another remarkable class of coins about 
which I have not yet spoken, namely, those reading €CDW 
BeCX. They are found, to my knowledge, only of the Lon- , 
don Mint, and are distinguished by their general appearance 
and peculiar head and crown in pj^rticular from every other 

12 Though his coins occur in a selection I have seen from the 
Tutbury find. 

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class of coins. Yet as far as they resemble any types of 
coins^ they resemble those of Edward III. One of the 
characteristics which distinguish the undoubted coins of 
Edward III. from the earlier coinages^ is the fineness of 
the lines which form the cross on the reverse. The cross 
on Edward I.^s coinage is broadly spread^ and naturally 
so^ for it is formed from the coalescing of the bifid cross 
on Henry III.^s coins; the same is to a slightly less 
extent the case on the ordinary aDWS, €CDW3E, and 
€[DWSED types;* but these €CDW Eax coins are distin- 
guished by the fineness of their cross; although then^ their 
weight^ shows that they were struck before 1344,. still I 
am inclined to consider them generally later than the 
types mentioned above. 

Now these coins occur in the Tutbury find, and one 
coin in that find adds to its other later characteristics the 
Lombardic R. They occur also in the Wyke find, but in 
less numbers than in the Tutbury hoard}^ 

If these annulet coins are to be assigned to Edward III.> 
and still more if other coins — for instance, those reading 
aDW3!:ED and eCDW EGCX — are to be assigned to the same 
king, it is evident that Hawkins's distinction that all 
coins with the drapery about the neck belong to Edward 
I. or II. must fall through, as all these pence have 
drapery, except, perhaps, the annulet coin reading 
GCDWSE EGCX, which is possibly the latest coin in the 
present find. 

18 The average weight of four good specimens of this type 
is 21i grs. 

1^ At the same time it is only fair to observe that the fact 
that four Anglo-Gallic coins were found in the Wyke hoard and 
none at Tutbury rather tends to show that the Tutbury hoard 
xms slightly the earlier of the two. 

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the halfpence. 

Number of 
coins weighed. 


^cv.— VILLA BaEGCWiai, 10 grs., though in bad con- 

1. eCDWTVBDVS BEX 7VN (star). 
^w.— aiVITTTS LONDON, 10 grs. 

1. Same as preceding, but letters more ornamental, 9^ grs. 

Eeu.—arnTKQ LOnDOn, 9^ grs. 

1. aDWTOlDVS D* GE7T* B. 

Beu.—YILLTZ BGCEYiai (bears* heads), 8J grs. (PL IX. 
Fig. 16.) 

From this table it will be seen that the Berwick half- 
penny (PI. IX. Fig. 15), interesting as being (with the ex- 
ception of the pattern groats of Edward I.) the first English 
coin on which the title Dei Gratia^ appears, weighs only 8i 
grains, though in excellent preservation, as contrasted with 
10 grains in the other halfpenny from the same mint, which 
is, unfortunately, in execrable condition. This Berwick 
halfpenny, which has the bears' heads on its reverse, in 
allusion to the name of the town, differs slightly ifrom the 
types mentioned in Buding and Hawkins in reading 
D' (mi^ 'E, instead of D^ GE', or Dffl GES, and is, from 
its striking resemblance to a penny of the same mint, 
reading GCDWS, probably to be referred to the same 
issue. The heavier and ill-preserved Berwick halfpenny 
resembles more the GCDW type 1 in style, and was probably 

^^ This may be connected with the proximity of Berwick to 
Scotland, on the coins of which country the DEI GEA became 
common at an earlier period than in England. 

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struck shortly after 1296, when Berwick was taken by 
Edward I. 

With regard to the London halfpence, that with the 
Lombardic n ought possibly to be referred to the issue of 


Table of Weight. 
Number of Average 

coins weighed. in grs. Max. 

6. aDWTOlDVS EeCX -n (star). ttlVITT^S 

(star) LONDON. (PL IX., Fig. 16) . , 6^^^ 6i 

7. €CDW7mDV8 E€CX TOT (star). ttlVITTTS 

(star) LONDON. (PL IX., Fig. 17) . . 4Ji SJ 

The two coins reading eCDWSEDVS E€CX SN, and 
GCDWSEDVS E€CX, are badly preserved, and weigh each 
only 8} grains; the appearance of the latter coin ap- 
proaches that of pennies reading SDW. 

The other types (PL IX., figs. 16 and 17) are very 
like one another, and of later workmanship ; their weight, 
however, shows that they were probably struck before 

From what I have already said, it will be seen that I 
consider this find to have been buried or lost after 1844, 
how long after, is another question ; but, though in so 
small a find negative evidence is of little value, the absence 
of any pence reading €[DW!SEDYS makes it probable that 
the deposit took place shortly after that year. It is un- 
fortunate that the only foreign sterling discovered in this 
hoard is one of those struck at Arleux of uncertain attri- 
bution, and, therefore, affording no evidence as to date. 

Arthur John Evans. 

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By E. W. Cochran Patbick, Esq., B.A., LL.B., F.S.A., Scot. 

The coinage of Scotland — though from the poverty of the 
people and other causes limited in extent — ^is nevertheless 
remarkable for the great variety of types which occur. 
Every one who has collected Scottish coins to any extent 
will occasionally find varieties which are not given, even 
in the copious and valuable works of Mr. Lindsay, or in 
the later ^' Illustrations of the Coinage of Scotland/' by 
Mr. Wingate. 

Those which are now noticed all occur in the far from 
extensive cabinet of the author, and are believed to be 
hitherto unpublished. Some of them are merely varieties, 
differing in no essential particulars from those already 
published ; while others, such as the Roxburgh penny of 
the second coinage of Alexander III., the penny of John 
Baliol, the halfpenny of David II., and the half plack of 
James YI., are not unimportant additions to the series of 
the coins of Scotland. 

It is much to be desired that those who have col- 
lections of Scottish coins would communicate unnoticed 

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types, mints, and moneyers. There are many blanks 
existing in the series, and though some of these are now 
almost hopeless, others may yet be filled by coins which 
still exist unknown or unnoticed. 

The coins now noticed are arranged chronologically. 

1. Penny of William the Lion. Second coinage. Type 
as Lind., ii. 41. 

0^.— WILLffLMVS Rax . . a . . (retrograde). Lind- 
say, ii. 41. 

Bev.—pamB ADAM jya ROcaB. 

This coin seems to supply a link at present wanting in 
the published types of the Roxburgh mint of William the 
Lion's second coinage. Both Lindsay (PI. 2, Fig. 41) and 
Wingate (PI. 3, Fig. 5) have figured Roxburgh pennies of a 
similar type, in which indications of letters are given after 
the word REX, though not clearly enough to give a 
distinct reading. The specimen now given, though far 
from being as legible as might be wished, still seems to 
show a ^'CC distinctly enough to hazard a conjecture 
that the legend was meant to be Recx SCO. 

2. Penny of William the Lion. Second coinage. 

Obv. — ^Very rude head to left (similar to Lind., ii. 40). 
^ La RGCI WI • • • 

Rev. — Short double cross, with two stars of seven and two 
of six points, with ♦{* HGCNILGC • • VS, retrograde. 

This very rare variety of the penny of the second 
coinage differs from the only one of the same type given 
by Lindsay (PL 2, 39) in having the moneyer's name 
retrograde, and without the points which divide the 
/. Y : S from the rest of the name in the published speci- 

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3. Penny of William the Lion. Second coinage. 
Oil'.— Rude bead to left with fceptre. Lff Bffl W . . . 

Rev, — Short double cross, with one star of five and three 
of six points. • • eNRILe . . 

The usual type of the reverse of the second coinage of 
William the Lion bears stars of six points. Less fre- 
quently we find stars of five points, and more rarely still, 
combinations of these. Though not of the same degree 
of rarity as the coin just given (No. 2), the star of five 
points with three of six is far from common. It occurs 
three times in Mr, Lindsay's Des. Cat. (Nos. 59, 61, 69), 
and once in Mr. Wingate's work (PI. 3, No. 11), and in 
each case the moneyer seems to be HVE WALTER. 
Its occurrence here with a difllerent moneyer is interesting, 
and unnoticed hitherto. 

4. Penny of Alexander III. Second coinage. 

Obv, — Head to right with sceptre. (Similar to Lindsay, 
Des. Cat., 118.) ALaXANDGCR RGCX. 

Eev, — Long double cross, with stars of six points. 

This mint has been, as yet, unpublished amongst the 
pennies of the second coinage of this king. 

5. Penny of Alexander III. Second coinage. 

Obv. — Head to right with sceptre and curiously -shaped 
crown. Legend as No. 4. 

Rev. — ^Long double cross, with stars of six points. ADAM 

This coin is remarkable for the unusual shape of the 
crown, which appears more like a cap or hat than the 
insignia of royalty usually worn. This moneyer is hitherto 
unpublished in connection with this coinage* 

VOL. XI. N.S, P P 

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6. Penny of Alexander III. Third coinage. 
Obv. — Ordinary type, with legend as nsnal. 

Rev. — ^Long donhle cross, with stars of six points in 
angles. WALTER ON M 

The pennies of this mint are all very rare. They 
usually read MVN. (See Lindsay, Des. Cat, 174 ; Win- 
gate, PL 6, 5.) 

7. Penny of Alexander III. Third coinage. 

22^1;.— ION ON - • RD. 

The coinage of Aberdeen is also very rare. The 
moneyer here given is hitherto unpublished with this 

8. Penny of Alexander III. Fourth coini^e. 
Obv, — Similar to Lindsay, Des. Cat., 167. 

Bev. — Similar to Lindsay, Des. Cat., 167 ; but with point 
in third angle. 

Two varieties of this coinage, with points and mullets, 
have been already noticed (Lindsay, Des. Cat., 164; 
Wingate, Sup., PI. 2, Fig. 8 ; Lindsay, No. 24, Des. Cat., 
in First Supp.), one having two points in one angle, and 
one in the opposite, and the other with two points in one 
angle only. The one now given completes this series. 

9. Penny of John Baliol. 

Obv. — Ordinary type. (As Lindsay, 179, Des. Cat.) 

Rev. — ^Long single cross, with one star of seven points ; 
one mullet of seven points, and two mnllets of 
six points. RffX SCOT • • ORVM+ 

This important variety differs in the reverse from all 

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the coins of this prince as yet noticed. It is in excellent 

10. Halfpenny of David II, 

Obv. — ^The king's head crowned, with sceptre, to the left. 

Bev. — ^Long single cross, with mullets of five points in two 
of the angles. * AVID : SCOTTOR- 

This singular little coin is an entirely new variety. It 
appears from the style of workmanship to belong to the 
third coinage. The weight is barely 13 grains. 

11. Half plack of James VI. 

0^.— The lion of Scotland crowned in a shield. lACOBVS 
• • • SCOTOR. 

jR^.—A thistle crowned. OPPIDVM • • INBVRGI • 

Half placks of this reign are of the highest degree of 
rarity. When Mr. Lindsay first wrote his view of the 
Scottish coinage^ no specimen was known to exist (p. 186), 
though the discovery of one is noted in the advertisement 
(p. 287), and is figured in PI. 17, No. 45. In the first 
supplement (p. 28) it is stated that two or three are 
known to exist, though apparently of the same type as the 
one already figured in the plate of the ori^nal work. The 
variety now noticed differs from all the published speci- 
mens in reading lACOBVS and SCOTOR on the 
obverse, and the place of mintage in full on the reverse. 
It is in a fair state of preservation, and weighs 11 grains. 
It was first communicated by me in a paper to the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland in June of last year. 

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In the troUieme livraison of the Eevtie de la Nuiimrnatique 
Beige t for 1871, are the following articles : — 

1. *' Catalogue of Obsidional Coins and Piecei de Necessitey*' 
Supplement (2nd article), by M. le Lieut. -Colonel P, Maillet. 

2. ** Descriptive Notice of Tokens {mereaux) found at The- 
rouanne, and which may be attributed to that town/* by M. 
Deschamps de Pas. 

8. " The Ancient Mint of the Dukes of Brabant, at Antwerp/' 
by M. P. Genard. 

4. " The Badge worn by the Belgian Representatives in the 
year 1884," by M. R. Chalon. 

In the Melanges are notices of M. Ch. Wiener's medal com- 
memorating the unification of Germany ; of the projected new 
coinage for the German Empire ; of M. Salinas' new work on 
the ancient coins of Sicily, &c. 

In the qiuitrieme livraison of the Revue de la Numismatique 
Beige ^ for 1871, are the following articles : — 

1. ** Catalogue of Obsidional Coins and Pieces de Necessite,'' 
Supplement (8rd article), by M. le Lieut. -Colonel P. Maillet. 

2. ** Descriptive Notice of Tokens [mereaux) found at The- 
rouanne, and which may be attributed to that Town," by M. 
Deschamps de Pas. 

8. " Numismatic Curiosities — Rare or Unedited Coins " 
(17th article), by M. R. Chalon. 

In the Melanges is a notice of the medal by M. Wiener 
offered by the Peruvian Government to the Presidents of the 
four Republics which formed a defensive alliance against Spain 
.in 1866. This fine medal will be one of the numismatic 
rarities of our time, as M. Wiener has only obtained authority 
to strike one dozen examples of this piece in bronze for himself 
and his friends. The masonic sign worn by the members of 
the Commune of Paris during the second siege is next noticed. 
The Societe Fran9aise de Numismatique et d'Archeologie, and 
its last published volume, UAnnuaire de 1868, are also 

In the Necrologie is a notice of the life of M. Ulysse Capitaine, 
who died at Rome on the 8l8t March, 1871. He was a native 
of Liege, and devoted to the study of the numismatics of the 
Low Countries, and especially of the ancient province of liege. 

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The Berliner Blatter ^ vol. vi. Part I., contains the following 
articles : — 

1. ** On the Double Eagle : its Origin, &c.," by M. le Baron 
von Koehne. 

2. " On the Coins of Tyras," by M. A. Grimm. 

8. '* On the Numismatic History of the Town of Berlin/' 
Part III. (private tokens), by M. F. A. Vossberg. 

4. ** Albert Barre," by M. le Baron von Koehne. 

5. Accounts of recent Coin-Finds. 

6. ** Miscellanea/' containing a notice of the life of the 
Oriental numismatist, Johann von Bartolomasi, by M. le Baron 
von Koehne. 

7. The newest current coins. 

8. The most recent medals. 

9. The latest numismatic literature. 

The volume of the Numismatische Zeitschrift for 1870, pub- 
lished at Vienna by M. C. W. Hiiber and Dr. J. Karabacek, 
contains the following articles : — 

1. ** Supplement to Phoenician Numismatics," by M. H. C. 

2. ** On the Interpretation of ZIB and EMI on certain Coins 
of Segesta," by Dr. J. Friedlaender. 

8. ** The Temple of Adonis at Byblos on the Coins of the 
Emperor Macrinus," by M. H. C. Beichardt. 

4. ** On the Coins of Vaballathus and Zenobia," by Dr. A. 
von Sallet. 

6. **. An Unpublished Quinarius of the Satriena Gens," by 
M. J. Neudeck. 

6. '* On the Coins of Arabic Mintage with the Letters 
AGO, etc.," by Dr. Karabacek. 

7. ** Numismatic Notes from the Archives of the Five Lower 
Austrian Provinces," by Dr. A. Luschin. 

8. " The Find of Bracteates at Fuessen," by Dr.^. Reber. 

9. " On the Coins of the Republic of Ragusa," by M. le Pro- 
fesseur Deohant. 

10. " Sequin of Meinhard VIZ., Count of Goerz, 1374— 
1885," by M. H. Grote. 

11. ** An Attempt at a Systematic Description of the Coins 
of Venice according to their types," by M. C. von Wachter. 

12. "Austrian Coins since the Monetary Convention of 
Vienna," by M. Ernst. 

13. ** Unpublished Greek Coins acquired during 1870," by 
M. de Prokesch-Osten. 

14. ** On some remarkable Coins of Lower Italy and Sicily," 
by Dr. A. von Sallet. 

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15. <*Tbe Coins of Phanagoria, bearing the names of 
Agrippias and of Caesarea, and the head of Livia," by M. J. 

16. << A Geographico-Mythological Exposition of the Nomes 
of Egypt ; from the Monuments," by Dr. H. Brugsch. 

17. ''A Numismatic Excursion from Constantinople to 
Bithynia and Paphlagonia," by M. P. Clement Sibilian. 

18. " Some Rectifications in Combe's ' Descriptio Num- 
momm veterom Gnlielmi Honter, 1782," by Dr. J. Fried- 

19 (a). '* Notice of the localities in Persia where coins have 
been discovered." 

19 (b). *' On three rare coins of Armenian dynasts," by 
M. 01. Sibilian. 

20. <<0n a Coin of Piolemais in Plamphylia," by Dr. J. 

21. " On the Coins of Amorgos," by Dr. Paul Becker. 

22. ** On the Objects represented on the Coins of Aegiale," 
by Dr. J. Friedlaender. 

23. "Essay on Ancient Egyptian Numismatics (Ptolemy V., 
Epiphanes, and Cleopatra I., queen-mother and regent)," by 
M. C. W. Hiiber. 

24. " Unpublished Roman Coins," by M. F. R. Trau. 

25. " Unpublished Coin of the Roman Emperor Yaballathus," 
by Dr. Missong. 

26. " On a Roman Proof-piece," by Dr. Missong. 

27. " Byzantine Marks," by Dr. J. Friedlaender. 

26. "Critical Supplement to the Latino-Arabic Numis- 
matics," by Dr. J. Efurabacek. 

29. " The Coinage of Pettau-Friesach," by Dr. A. Luschin. 

80. " The Coins of the Counts of Geneva," by M. A. SatUer. 

81. " German Inscriptions on Mediaeval Coins," by M. 

82. " Gigliato of the Turcoman Prince Omar-beg of Ionia," 
by Dr. Karabacek. 

88. "Italian Medallion of the Bastard Antoine de Bour- 
go}Tie," by Dr. J. Friedlaender. 

84. " On Two Jetons of Henri Pontet, maire-echevin of Metz," 
by Count Folliot de Crenneville. 

85. " On the New Gold Coins of Austria," by M. C. Ernst. 
The volume concludes with notices of recent literature, &c. 

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" Die Mimzsammlung des Stiftes St, Florian in Ober-Oester- 
reich, in einer Auswahl ihrer wichtigsten Stiicke beschrieben 
und erklart von Friedrich Kenner, nebst einer die Geschichte 
der Sammlnng betreffenden Einleitnng von Joseph Gais- 
berger." Vienna, 1871. 4to. 

The festival in celebration of the completion of the eighth 
century since the foundation of the Monastery of St. Florian, 
near Ens, in Upper Austria, in 1071, was held in August last, 
and the present work is an oflfering worthy of the occasion, 
bearing testimony to the zeal with which scientific research has 
been prosecuted by the members of this ancient institution. 
The first twenty-eight pages are devoted to the history of the 
collection of ancient coins belonging to this monastery, the 
origin of which was the acquisition, in 1747, of the then cele- 
brated collection of Apostolo Zeno of Venice. Next follows a 
description of the select coins and rare pieces by M. Kenner, 
consisting of a series of separate papers containing much new 
and valuable matter. This explanatory text is arranged in the 
order of the plates which accompany the work. Many of the 
coins described are of great rarity, and there are some unique 
pieces ; the Greek imperial series being unusually interesting and 
important. We must congratulate the monastery on having 
obtained the services of so able an archaeologist as M. Eenner to 
make known to the numismatic world the wealth and scientific 
value of this choice cabinet. 

B. V. Head. 

** Le Monete delle Antiche Oitta di Sicilia descritte e illustrate 
da Antonio Salinas, Professore di Archeologia nell' Universita 
di Palermo." Fascicoli I.— m., small fol. Palermo, 1871." 

This work, of which the first three parts have been published, 
will supply a want long felt by numismatists — viz., that of a 
scientific description of the ancient coins of Sicily. Oastelli's 
** SicilisB veteres nummi," which has been until now the only 
book on ancient Sicilian numismatics, by no means comes up 
to the requirements of the present day. It was published in the 
year 1781, and however useful it may have been, the science of 
numismatics has since then made vast strides, and the present 
work will doubtless take its place by the side of Carelli's 
*' Numi ItalisB veteres," and thus for the first time the numis- 
matics of ancient Italy and Sicily will be illustrated in a manner 
worthy of the present stage of archaBological research. M. 
Salinas in this work follows a chronological arrangement of the 
coins of the various Sicilian towns according to the style of art 

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and the fonns, more or less archaic, of the letters upon them. 
The towns themselves are arranged alphabetically. There is, 
however, one important deviation from the common classifica- 
tion of Sicilian coins — ^viz., those pieces which bear the names 
of tyrants or kings, and which in most cabinets are placed at 
the end of the towns, are in this work incorporated in their 
proper places under the towns over which the several tyrants 
held rule. This arrangement will doubtless contribute much to 
the clear appreciation of the contemporary style of art, and is 
infinitely superior to the old classification by t3rpes. The three 
parts just published are accompanied by eight plates, and 
include the coins of Sicily in genere, Abacaenum, and Agri- 

B. V. Head. 

** Description Generale des Monnaies Antiques de TEspagne." 
By Aloiss Heiss. Paris, 1870. 

This magnificent work, which forms a companion volume to 
the ** Monedas Hispano-Cristianas," by the same author, is a 
complete catalogue of, and an exhaustive treatise upon, all the 
known Celtiberian, Phoenician, Greek, and Latin coins of the 
various divisions of ancient Spain. The first part treats of the 
different coinages above mentioned, and contains much valuable 
information concerning the interpretation of the Celtiberian and 
Turdetanian inscriptions. The second part is a description of 
the coins. M. Heiss has adopted a geographical classification 
by conventus and by peoples, conmiencing with the North, and 
terminating with Bsetica and Lusitania, Each town is sepa- 
rately considered ; first, there is a succinct historical notice of 
the town itself, and then follows the series of its coins from 
their earliest origin until they ceased to be issued, arranged 
according to their several classes — Celtiberian, Punic, &c. The 
third part consists of lists of all the towns mentioned in the 
ancient geographers and historians, in the itineraries, and in the 
second volume of the ** Corpus inscr. Lat., Berlin, 1869." 

The work concludes with copious tables of reference, and 
lists of magistrates' names ; and last, but not least, sixty- 
eight splendid plates, on which are engraved the coins of every 
town mentioned in the work. 

B. V. Head. 

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^Iiu8 Cesar, coin of, 188 
Agrippa (Jndsea), coins of, 255 
Alexander the Great, staters of, 229 
Alexander Jannens, coins of, 238 
Alexander III. Scotland, coins of, 285 
Alexander Severas, coin of, 192 
Allen, Wiluam, Esq. : — 

Find of coins in Bedfordshire, 227 
Annnlet money of Henry VI., 133 
Antigonns, coins of, 243 
Antiochians, coins not struck in Antioeh, 

Antiochus VIII. and Caeopatra, coins of. 

87. r . , 

Antoninus Pius, coins of, 184, 188 
Armenian coins, early, 202 
Arsaces» coin of, 218 
ArtabanuB V., coins of, 226 
Artavasdes, coins of, 226 
Asmonians, coin of, 236 
Athens, tetradrachm of, 17 
Augustus, coins of, 183, 187 
Aurellan, medallion of, 186 
AureliuB,M., coins of, 185, 189 
Aurnnca, coin of, 166 
Azbaal, coin of, 5 


Baal, Melek, coin of, 5 
Bathyra, Jewish dynasts of, 157 
Bedr, son of Busnawiyeh, dinar of, 258 
Berliner Blatter, notice of, 289 
Berwick halfpenny, 281 
British Museum, Greek coins recently 
acquired by, 166 

Caius Ceesar, coins of, 183 
Calais Mint, the, 98, 198 
Cappadocia, coin of, 19 
Citium, coins of, 5 

VOL. XI. N.S. Q Q 

Clabkb, a, O., Esq. :— 

Letter on coins found at Priene, 25 
Claudius Gothicus, coins of, 173 
Coin moulds, earthen, 28 
Commodus, coin of, 185, 191 
Cromwell, enquiry concerning his coins 

and medals, 1 56 
Cyprus, coins discovered in, 1, 229 


Danish coins, weight of, 44, 58 

the legend, 70, 79 
David II., coins of, 287 
AIO and APA on coins, 164 
Domitia, coin of, 187 
Domitian, coin of, 187 
Daston, coin moulds found at, 28 

Edwards I., II., III., coins of, 264 
Evagoras of Salamis, coin of, 231 
Evans, Abthve John, Esq. : — 

On a hoard of coins found at Oxford, 
with some remarks on the coinage of 
the first three Edwards, 264 
Evans, John, Esq., F.R.S. :— 
Translation of Herr Schive*s paper on 
the weight of English and Northern 
coins, 42 
English coins, weight of, 46 


Faustina I., coin of, 184, 189 
Faustina II., coin of, 185, 191 
Finds of coins : — 

Bedfordshire, 227 

In Cyprna, 229 

Highbury, 96 

Lutterworth, 169 

Oxford, 264 

Near Ross, 155 

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Finds of coins continued : — 
ShiUin^n, Beds, 227 
Tabular vieir of, 1 75 

Gaisberger, "Die Miinzsammlung des 

Stiftes St. Florian," noticed, 291 
Galba, coin of, 187 
Gallienns, coins of, 171 
Gardnkb, PiECY, Esq. :— 
On some coins, with the inscription 

TPIH, 162 
eta, coin of, 186 
Gordian III., coin of, 186 

Hadrian, coins of, 1 88 
Head, B. V., Esq. :— 
On some rare Greek coins recently 
acquired by the British Museum, 
Heiss, " Description des monnaies antiques 

de I'Espagne," noticed, 292 
Henry I., coins of, 228 
Henry IV., V., and VI., the silver coinage 

of, 93, 193 
Henry IV., heavy coinage of, 107 

f> light coinage, 110 

Henry V., coinage of, 117 
Henry VI., coinage of, 181 
Herod, coins of, 246 
Herod, Antipas, coins of, 253 
Herod, Archelaus, coins of, 248 
Highbury, coins found at, 96 

Jakim of Bathyra, coin of, 161 

James VI., half-plack of, 287 

Jemsalsm, coins found at, 235 

Jewish coins, 235 

John Baliol, penny of, 286 

John Hyrcanns, coins of, 236 

Jonathan, Alexander Janneus, coins of, 23 8 

Jones, T., Esq.:— 

Unpublished Roman Imperial coins, 
Julia Domna, Msesa, and Soeemias, coins 

of, 192 
Julia Titi, coins of, 183 
Julius Caesar, coin of, 187 



the legend, 70, 88 
Kenner, F., "Die Miinzsammlung des 

Stiftes St. Florian," noticed, 891 

Lang, R. H., Esq. :— 

On coins discovered during recent ex- 
cavations in the Island of Cyprus, 1 
Treasure-trove in Cyprus of Gold staters, 
Letters, Phceaician forms of, 204 
Lincoln, Mr. F. W., coins in the collec- 
tion of, 187 
Liverpool Numismatic Society, 156 
LONGSTAFVE, W. H. D., IEsq., F.S.A. :— 
Did the kings between Edward III. 
and Henry IV. coin money at York 
on their own account ? 193 
Lncilla, coin of, 191 
Lutterworth, coins found at, 169 
Lycia, coin of, 168 

Macrinus, coin of, 186 
Marius, coin of, 173 
Mithradates III. of Pontos, tetradrachms 

of, 167 
Mithradates of Armenia, 222 
Moabite Stone, the, 202 
Moulds for coins, 28 
Mousa, coin of, 219 

Neck, J. Fred., Esq. : — 
The silver coinage of Henry IV.. V., 
and VI., 93 
Nero, coins of, 183, 187 
Nerva, coins of, 1 87 
Newton, C. T., Esq., M.A, :— 
On an inedited tetradrachm of Oro- 
phemes II., King of Cappadocia, 19 
Norwegian coins, weight of, 45, 61 


Ommeyade dynasty, dirhem of, 256 
Orbiana, coin of, 1 92 
Orophemes II., 19 
Oxford, hoard of coins found at, 266 

Palestine, coins of, 167 
Patrick, R.W.C., Esq., F.S.A., Scot. :— 
Notice of some uapublished varieties of 

Scottish coins, 283 
Phflip of Bathyra, 160 
Philip II. (Rome), 186 
PhQip III. of Macedon, staters of, 230 
Phoenician coins, 11 

„ letters, 204 
Postumus, coins of, 172 

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PowNALL, Rev. A., F.S.A. : — 

Accoaat of a find of Roman eoins at 
Latterworth, with some remarks as 
to Treasare-trove, 169 
Priene, coins found at, 1 9 

EN, the legend, 70, 84 
Ptolemy I., coins of, 231 


Qointillos, coins of, 174 


Ram on coins, 13 

Revolts of the Jews, coins of, 250 

Revne de la Numismatique Beige, notices 

of. 153, 288 
Rogers, E. T., Esq. :— 

Early dirhem of the Ommeyade 
dynasty, 256 

A dinar of Bedr, son of Husnawiyeh, 
Ross, coins fonnd near, 155 

Sabina, coins of, 188 

Salanus, staters struck at, 230 

Salinas, A., "^Le Monete di SIcilia," 

noti<^, 191 
Salonina, coins of, 171 
SaloninuB, coins of, 171 
Sanabares, coins of, 217 
Saulcy, M. P. de:— 

Sor les monnaies des Antiocfaeens 

frappees hors d'Antioche, 69 
Monnaies des Zamarides, 157 
Catalogue ndsonuede monnaies judaiques 
recneillies k Jerusalem, en Novembre, 
1869, 234 
SCHIYV, G. J., Herr : — 

On the weight of English and Northern 
coins in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries, 42 
Scottish coins, 282 
Sevems, coins of, 192 

Sharp, S., Esq., F.S.A. :— 

Earthen coin moulds found at Duston, 
near Northampton, 28 
Simon Barcocab, coins of, 250 
Soci^te Prangaise de la Numismatique. 

Annuaire noticed, 154 
Spanish coins (A. Heiss), 292 
Sphinx on coins, 11 
Swedish coins, weight of, 45, 60 

Tambrace, its site, 213 
Tetrioi, the coins of, 173 
Thomas, Edward, Esq., F.R.S. :— 

Early Armenian coins, 202 

His Chronicles of the P&tban Kings of 
Delhi, noticed, 67 
Tiberius, coins of, 183 
Titus, coins of, 187 
Trajan, coins of, 183 
Trapezos, coins of, 1 67 
Treasure-trove, remarks on, 176 
Trebonianus Gallus, coins of, 192 
TPIH, coins inscribed, 162 
Tyre, kings of, 6 


Valerian, 171 
Victorinus, 172 
Yologeses 1., coins of, 220 

„ IV., coins of, 222 

„ v., coins of, 226 

,, VJ., coins of, 225 
Volusian, coins of, 1 70 


Weights of English and Northern coins, 

William the Lion, coins of, 284 
William Rufus, coins of, 227 


York Mint, the, 100, 193 


Zamarides, coins of the, 157 



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OF Tna 


DECEMBER, 1871. 

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DECEMBER, 1871. 

An Atteriik prefixed to a name indicates that the Member has compounded 
^or his amtual eantribuHan. (o.u,)^ Original Member, 

Allan, Rev. William, M.A.., St. Asaph Villa, Leamington. . 
Allen, Wiluam, Esq., North Villa, Winchmore Hill, Southgate, 
Arnold, Thomas Jakes, Esq., E.S.A., 1, Greville Place, N.W. 

♦Babington, Eev, Peop. Churchill, B.D., M.R.S.L., Gockfield 

Rectory, Sudbury, Suffolk. 
Baylbt, E. Cmve, Esq., H.E.I.C.S., India. 

(o. M.) Bbrgnb, John B., Esq., E.S.A., Foreign Office, Downing Street. 
Birch, Samitel, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., British Museum. 
Blades, William, Esq., 11, Abchurch Lane, Librarian, 
*Briggs, Arthur, Esq., Cragg Royd, Rawden, Leeds. 
Brown, P. Bernet, Esq., St. Alban's. 

BuNBURT, Edward H., Esq., M.A., E.6.S., 35, St. James's Street. 
Burns, Edward, Esq., 25, Charlotte Street, Edinburgh. 
Bush, Colonel Tobin, 14, St. James's Square. 

Cambrino, Carlos, Esq., 6, Pall Mall East. 
Cane, Henrt, Esq., Precentor's Court, Minster Yard, York. 
Cave, Laurence Trent, Esq., 75, Chester Square. 
Chambers, Montagus, Esq., Q.C., Child's Place, Temple Bar. 
Clat, Charles, Esq., M.D., 101, Piccadilly, Manchester. 
Coombs, Arthur, Esq., M.A., High West Street, Dorchester. 
♦Cornthwaite, Rev, TulLib, M.A., Forest, Walthamstow. 
Cunningham, Major-General A., 18, Clarendon Road, Kensington. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Davidson, John, Esq., 14, St. George's Place, Hyde Park Comer. 
Davies, William Rusheb, Esq., Market Place, Wallingford. 
*De£des, Miss Mabt, Bramfield Rectory, Hertford. 
Douglas, Captain R. J. H., Junior United Service Club. 
Deydbn, Sib Hbnby, Babt.» Canon's Ashby, Daventry. 

Eades, Geokge, Esq., Evesham, Worcestershire. 

Enniskillen, Right Hon. the Earl op, Hon. D.C.L., F.R.S., P.G.S., 

M.R.I.A., Florence Court, Enniskillen, Ireland, Vice-President, 
Evans, John, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, 

and 66, Old Bailey, Secretary, 
Evans, Sebastian, Esq., LL.D., 14j5, Highgate, Birmingham. 

Fabrow, Morlet, Esq., M.R.S.L., 23, Clifton Gardens, Maida Hill, 

and Bridgewiek Hall, Chapel, near Halstead, Essex. 
Ferguson, Jakes, Esq., 5, Fingal Place, Edinburgh. 
Feuabdent, Gaston, Esq., 61, Great Russell Street. 
Fox, General, Addison Road, Kensington. 

Franks, Augustus Wollaston, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 103, Victoria St. 
Frbntzel, Rudolph, Esq., 28, New Broad Street. 
Freudenthal, W., Esq., M.D., 71, Kennington Park Road. 

Gardner, Percy, Esq., British Museum. 
GoLDiNG, Charles, Esq., 16, Blomfield Terrace. 
Greenwell^ Rev. William, M.A., F.S.A., Durham. 
Gruebeb, Hebbebt a., Esq., British Museum. 
♦Guest, Edwin, Esq., LL.D., D.C.L., Master of Cains College, Cam- 
Guthrie, Col. Charles Seton, 107, Great Russell Street. 

Hardt, William, Esq., F.S.A., Record Office, Fetter Lane. 

Hat, Majob, H.E.I.C.S., 7, Westminster Chambers, Yictoria Street. 

Head, Babclat Yinoent, Esq., British Museum, Secretary, 

Hbnpbet, Henbt William, Esq., 15, Eaton Place, Brighton. 

Heward, Peter, Esq., Baidon Lodge, Markfield, Leicester. 

Holt, Henrt Fred. William, Esq., H.B.M. Vice-Consul, Tamsay, 

Hunt, John, Esq., 22, Lancaster Gate. 
Hunt, J. Mortimer, Esq., 156, New Bond Street. 

Jennings, Robert, Esq., 23, East Park Terrace, Southampton. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Johnston, W. H., Esq., 407, Strand. 

Jones, Jambs Cove, Esq., F.8.A., Loxlej, Wellesboume, Warwick. 
Jones, W. Stayenhagen, Esq., 2, Yendam Bufldings, Gray's Inn. 
Jones, Thomas, Esq., Llanerchrugog Hall, Wales, and 3, Plowden's 

Buildings, Temple. 
JuDD, Chables, Esq., Stoneleigh Villas, Chestnut Road, Tott^liam. 

♦Lambeet, George, Esq., 10, Coventry Street. 
Lang, Robert Hamilton, Esq., H.B.M. Consul, Cyprus. 
Lawson, Alfred J., Esq., Imperial Ottoman Bank, Smyrna. 
Leather, C. J., Esq., North Grounds Villa, Portsea, Portsmouth. 
•Lewis, Samuel Savage, Esq., F^ow of Corpus Christi College, 

Lincoln, Frederick W., Esq., 462, New Oxford Street. 
LoEWE, Dr. L., M.R.A.S., 1 and 2, Oscar Villas, Broadstair8, Kent. 
LoNGSTAPPE, W. Hylton Dyer, Esq., F.S.A., 4, Catherine Terrace, 

Lucas, John Clay, Esq., F.S.A., Lewes, Sussex. 

Maclachlan, R. W., 20, Victoria Street, Montreal. 

Madden, Frederic William, Esq., 9, The Terrace, Kilburn. 

Marsden, Rev. J. H., B.D., Great Oakley Rectory, Harwich, Essex. 

Mayer, Jos., Esq., F.S.A., 68, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

MiDDLBTON, Sir George N. Broke, Bart., C.B., Shrubland Park, 
and Broke Hall, Suffolk. 

Middleton, John, Esq., Westholme, Cheltenham. 

Mills, A. Dickson, Esq., Brook House, Godalming. 

Moore, General, Junior U.S. Club. 

Morris, Rev. Marmaduke C. F., B.C.L., St. Michael's College, Ten- 
bury, Worcestershire. 

MoTT, Henry, Esq., 594, St. Catherine Street, Montreal. [Box 943] 

MuRcmsoN, Captain, R.M., Junior United Service Club. 

(o.M.) MusGRAYE, SiR George, Bart., F.S.A., Edenhall, Penrith. 

Neck, J. F., Esq., Hereford Chambers, 12, Hereford Gardens, Park Lane. 
(o.M.) Nichols, J. Gough, Esq., F.S.A., 25, Parliament Street. 
Nicholson, K. M., Esq., Oude Commission. 
NoRRis, Edwin, Esq., F.S.A., 6, St. Michael's Groye, BiomptoxL 
*NuNN, John Joseph, Esq., Downham Market. 

Oldeield, Edmund, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 61, Pall Mall. 

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•Pateick, Robebt W. Cochban, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., Beith, Ayrshire, 

Feabce, Samuel Saltee, Esq., Bingham's Melcombe, Dorohester. 

Peabson, William Chables, Esq., 7, Prince's Street, and 33a, Fore 
Street, E.G. 

♦Peebt, Mabten, Esq., M.D., &c., &c., Spalding, Worcestershire. 

(o. M.) PnsTEB, JoHir Geoboe, Esq., British Mnseam^ 

PoLLEXTEN, Rey. J. H., M.A., East Witton Vicarage, Bedale, York- 

Poole, Regikald Stuabi, Esq., British Museum. 

PowNALL, Rey. Asshston, M.A., F.S.A., South Kilworth, Rugby. 

Pbice, W. Lake, Esq., 5, Sion Hill, Ramsgate. 

PuLLAK, RiGHABD, EsQ., M.R.LB.A., 15, Clifford's Inn. 

Rashleigh, Jonathan, Esq., 3, Cumberland Terrace, Regent's Park. 
Rawunson, MajobGenebal Sib Henbt C, K.C.B., Hon. D.C.L., 

F.R.S., 21, Charles Street, Berkeley Square. 
Read, Geobge Sydney, Esq., Queen's College, Cork. 
Ripley, Joseph B., Esq., Savannah, U.S. Ij 
Robinson, T. W. U., Esq., Houghton-le-Spring, Durham. 
RosTBON, Simpson, Esq., 11, Xing's Bench Walk, Temple. 

Shabp, Samuel, Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S., Dallington Hall, Northampton. 

Sim, Geobge, Esq., F.S.A.E., 9, Lauriston Lane, Edinburgh. 

Smallfield, J. S., Esq., 10, Little Queen Street. 

Smith, John Maxpield, Esq., Lewes. 

Smith, Samuel, Esq., Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire. 

Smith, Samuel, Esq., Jun., 14, Croxteth Road, Prince's Park, 

Sotheby, Mbs. Leigh, care of Edw. Hodge, Esq., 13, Wellington 

Street, Strand. 
Spence, Robebt, Esq., 4, Roselk Phice, North Shields. 
SpiCEB, Feedebick, Esq., Godalming, Surrey. 
♦Stbbatfield, Rev. Geoegb Sidney, Botley, Southampton. 
Stbickland, Mbs. Walteb, 217, Strada San Paolo, Valetta, Malta. 
Sugden, John, Esq., Dockroyd, near Keighley. 
Swithenbank, Geobge Edwin, Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Taylob, Chables R., Esq., 2, Montague Street, Russell Square. 
*Thomas, Edwabd, Esq., H.E.I.C.S., 47, Victoria Road, Kensington. 

Vaux, W. Sandys Weight, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., M.R.A.S.^ 
Athenseum Club, President, 

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Yeitch, Qeohge Seton, Esq., 2, Oswald Road, Edinburgh. 
ViETUB, James Spkent, Esq., 294, City Road. 

Waddington, W. H., Esq., 14, Rue Fortin, Faubourg St. Honor^, Paris. 

Weatherlet, Rev. C, North Bradley, Wilts. 

Websteb, W., Esq., 6, Henrietta Street, CJovent Oarden. 

Whinpield, William Henry, Esq., Cantelowe's Road, Camden 
Square, Kentish Town. 

*White, James, Esq., M.P., 14, Chichester Terrace, Brighton. 

Wilkinson, John, Esq., F.S.A., 13, Wellington Street, Strand. 

Williams, Charles, Esq., Greenfleld, Kingswinford. 

(o. M.) Williams, John, Esq., F.S.A., Royal Astronomical Society, 
Somerset House. 

*WiLsoN, Frederic, Esq., Marlborough Street, Faringdon, Berks. 

WiNOATE, James, Esq., 4, Royal Exchange Buildings, Glasgow. 

♦WiNGROVB, Drummond Bond, Esq., 30, Wood Street, Cheapside. 

WiNSER, Thomas B., Esq., Royal Exchange Assurance, Royal Ex- 

Wood, Humphrey, Esq., Chatham. 

♦Wood, Samuel, Esq., F.S.A., The Abbey, Shrewsbury. 

Worms, Baron, 27, Park Crescent, Regent's Park. 

Wyon, Alfred Benjamin, Esq., 2, Langham Chambers, Portland 

Wyon, J. Shepherd, Esq., 2, Langham Chambers. 


Adrian, Dr. J. D., Giessen. 

Akerman, J. YoNGE, Esq., F.S.A., Abingdon, Berkshire. 

Barth^lemy, M. a. de, 39, Rue d'Amsterdam, Paris. 
Bergmann, Dr. Joseph Ritter Ton, Director of the E.K. Miinz-und- 
Antiken Cabinet, Vienna. 

Castellanqs, SESfoR Don Basiuo Sebastian, 80, Rue S. Bernardo, 

Chalon, M. Renier, 24, Rue de la Senne, Brussels. 
Cleecq, M. J. LE, Brussels. 
CocHBT, M. L'ABBi, 128, Rue d'Ecosse, Dieppe. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Cohen, M. Henri, 46, Rue de la Tour GPAuvergne, Paris. 
CoLsoN, Dr. Alexandre, Nojon (Oise), France. 

Delgado, Don Antonio. 

DoRN, Dr. Bernhard, Actuel Conseiller d'etat, St. Petersburg. 

Gonzales, Cay. Carlo, Palazzo Ricasoli, Via delle Terme, Florence. 
Grote, Dr. H., Hanover. 
Grotetend, Dr. C. L., Hanover. 
GuiOTH, M. L^ON, Li^. 

Hart, A. Wellington, Esq., 16, Ex Place, New York. 
Hildebrand, M. Emil Bror, Direct, du Mus^ d' Antiquity et du 

Cab. des M6dailles, Stockholm. 
HoLXBOS, Prop., Direct, du Gab. des M6dailles, Cfansiiaiiia. 

KoBHNE, M. le Baron de, Actuel Conseiller d'fitat et Conseiller du 
Musde de TErmitage Imp6riale, St. Petersburg. 

Lapiane, M. Edouard, St. Omer. 

Leemans, Dr. Conrad, Direct, du Mus^e d'Antiquit6s, Leyden. 
Leitzmann, Herr Pastor J., Weissensee, Thuringen, Saxony. 
Lis T BiVEs, SEffoR Don Y. Bertran de, Madrid. 
LoNGFJRiER, M. Adrien de, Mus6e du Louvre, Paris. 

Meter, Dr. Heinrich, im Berg, Zurich. 

MiNERViNi, Cav. Giulio, Bx»me. 

Muller, Dr. L., Insp. du Cab. des M^dailles, Copenhagen. 

OsTEN, The Baron Prokesch d*, Constantinople. 

Eiccio, M. Gennaro, Naples. 

Saulct, M. F. de, Membre de l*Institut., 54, Faubourg St. Honor^, 

Saussate, M. de la, 34, Rue de rUniversit6, Paris. 
Six, M. J. P., Amsterdam. 

Suite, Dr. Aquilla, M.R.I.A., 121, Baggot Street, DuUin. 
Smith, C. Roach, Esq., F.S.A., Temple Place, Strood, Kent. 

Vallersani, II Prop., Florence. 
Vbrachter, M. Frederick, Antwerp. 

Wittb, M. IE Baron de, 5, Rue Fortin, Faubourg St. Honor^, Paiis. 

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SESSION 1870—1871. 

October 20, 1870. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R,S., President, in the Chair, 

Carlos Camerino, Esq., of Xeres, was dnly elected a member 
of the Society. 

The following presents were announced and laid npon the 
table: — 

1. Bulletins de T Academic Boyale des Sciences, des Lettres, 
et des Beaux Arts de Belgique. 88™<» Annee, 2?^ Serie. 
t. xxviii., 1869. From the Society. 

2. Smithsonian Report, 1868. From the Smithsonian Insti- 

8. Memoires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord. 
Nouvelle Serie, 1869. 

4. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 1869 
Parts HI. and lY. ; 1870 Part I. and Tillflag til Aarboger for 
Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 1869. From the Society 
of Northern Antiquaries. 

5. Revue de la Numismatique Beige. 5"^^ Serie, tome ii.» 
4me livraison. From the Society. 

6. Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaaological Associa- 
tion of Ireland. Vol. i., 4th Series, No. 8. From the Society. 

7. Les Anglo-Saxons et leurs Petits Deniers dits Sceattas : 
Essai historique et numismatique. Par M. J. Dirks. From 
the Author. 

8. Recherches sur les Monnaies des Comtes de Namur. Par 
M. R. Chalon. From the Author. 

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9. Curiosites numismatiques ; Pieces rares ou inedites. 16™^ 
article. Par M. R. Chalon. From the Author. 

10. Don Juan Peres. Par M. B. Chalon. From the Author. 

11. Mason's Monthly Coin and Stamp Collector's Magazine. 
Vol. iv., Feb. 1870, No. 2. 

12. The Gliddon Mummy-case in the Museum of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. By C.Pickering, Esq., M.D. From the Author. 

13. Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de I'Ouest. V^ 
trimestre de 1870. From the Society. 

14. On Current German Thalers. By G. Smith, Esq., Jun. 
From the Author. 

15. A List of Corporation Medals; with an Appendix of 
other Medals struck privately or for sale, having reference to 
the same corporate body or its members. By W, Blades, Esq. 
From the Author. 

16. Compte rendu de la Commission Imperiale ArcheologiquQ 
pour Tannee 1868, avec Atlas. From the Commission. 

Mr. Evans exhibited a British gold coin of the class inscribed 
vocoRio, lately found near Portsmouth. 

Mr. C. T. Newton read a paper by himself " On a Remark- 
able Stater of River- Gold, or Electrum, in the collection of 
the Bank of England, now deposited in the British Museum." 
This interesting stater is probably the only one in existence of 
so early a date bearing an inscription. Mr. Newton's paper is 
printed in the Num. Chron., N.S., vol. x., p. 237. 

Dr. Aquilla Smith contributed a paper "On Money of 
Necessity, issued in Ireland in the Reign of King James II.," 
commonly called in England "Gun-money," and in Ireland 
"Brass-money." Printed in vol. x., p. 244. 

November 17, 1870. 

John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., Secretary, in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table :— 

1. Batty 's Catalogue of the Copper Coinage of Great Britain, 

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Ireland, British Isles, and Colonies, &c. Part VI. Halfpenny 

tokens, &c. From the Author. 

. 2. Selden, "De Nummis." From George Eyre Brook, Esq. 

Mr. Frazer sent for exhibition impressions of a gold coin of 
Charles I., struck from the die of a sixpence, and of a British 
crown of James I., without the letters i.r. on the reverse. 
Mr. Frazer also communicated a note and drawings of some 
Chinese coins of the Tae-Ping dynasty, 

Mr. Coombs exhibited a large brass coin of Plautilla, found 
at Rome, of a new and unpublished type, having on the obverse 
PLAVTiLLA AVGVSTA, and on the reverse diana lvcifera. 

Mr. Wyon exhibited a medal of Louis XIII. of France, 
having on the obv, lvdovic xiii. d.g. fbancor. et navarrae rex, 
and on the rev. anna avgvs. galliae et navarrae regina. 

Mr. Williams exhibited a new method of mounting electro- 
types of coins upon cardboard. 

Mr. Evans exhibited a silver coin of Carausius : obverse, 
IMP. CARAvsivs. p.p. AVG. ; revcrsc, [con]cordia avg., two hands 
joined; in the exergue, (r.s) r. Owing to the position of 
the die in striking, a part of the legend of the reverse is want- 
ing. Mr. Akerman, in his " Roman Coins relating to Britain" 
(p. 121), quotes a coin with this legend from Haym ; it is not, 
however, to be found in the " Tesoro Britannico," though a coin 
with CONCORDIA MiLiT is there given, this being the usual legend 
with the type of the joined hands. No similar coin is described 
by Stukely or Cohen, nor is the type given in the " Monumenta 
Historica Bntannica," so that it may be regarded as unpublished. 

General Lefroy, F.R.S., communicated a paper on a hoard of 
gold coins discovered in 1828 in the parish of Crondal, Hants. 
This is printed in vol. x., p. 164. 

December 15, 1870. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 
The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : — 

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1. Der Tempel des Capitoliniscben Jnpiter. By the Baron 
von Eoehne. From the Author. 

2. Medaillen Peter's des Grossen. By the Baron von Koehne. 
From the Author. 

8. A Bronze Medal commemorating the visit of the Sultan 
of Turkey, Abdul Azis, to the City of London. From the 
Corporation of the City. 

Mr. Golding exhibited a copper coin attributed to Calagurns 
(Florez, Tab. 58, No. 1), having on the obverse the letters 
L. Q. V. F. Q. I. 8. 0. F., with a head, nude, to the left; and on 
the reverse, m. o. f., with the type of Europa riding on the 
bull ; also a small medal by Simon, commemorating the mar- 
riage of Claypole with the daughter of Oliver Cromwell. 

Mr. Lincoln exhibited, on behalf of M. Henzenroeder, a 
rubbing of an Lish groat of Henry YI. ; a large brass coin of 
Sextilia, mother of Aulus Yitellius, probably fieJse; and an 
altered coin of Annia Faustina, with the reverse Pudicitia. 

Mr. Evans exhibited a forgery of a penny of Edward the 
Confessor. Obverse, eadweabd bex ; bust, left, with sceptre ; 
reverse, abone : on : eofeb. 

Mr. Barclay Head exhibited an electrotype of a new i^nd 
unpublished tetradrachm of Orophemes, King of Cappadocia, 
circ. B.C. 158, of whom no coins were previously known. 
(Num. Chron., N.S., vol. xi., p. 19). 

Januaey 19, 1871. 
W, S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : — 

1. Journal of the Boyal Historical and Archaeological Asso- 
ciation of Ireland. Vol. i., 4th Series, October, 1870, No. 4. 
From the Society. 

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2. Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, n. s., vol. x., session 1869 — 70. From the Society. 

8. Publications de la Section Historiqne de Tlnstitut. 
Annee 1869 — 70, vol. xxv. (m.) From the Society, 

4. Bevue de la Nomismatiqae Beige. 6^ Serie, torn, iii., 
1^^^ livraison. From the Society. 

Mr. Sim, of Edinburgh, exhibited a coin of Hakon the Fifbh, 
£ing of Norway, struck at Osloe, near the present Christiania 
(Schive, PI. xi., No. 6). 

Mr. E. Bums exhibited a gold quarter-noble of Henry the 
Sixth, which, from some accidental circumstance, was some 
grains heavier than the usual weight. 

Mr. S. Sharp communicated a paper ^'On some Earthen 
Coin-Moulds lately discovered at the Ironstone Quarries, 
Duston, near Northampton, on the site of a Boman Cemetery.'' 
This paper is printed in the Num. Chron., N.S., vol. xi., 
p. 28. 

Mr. B. y. Head read a letter from Mr. N. 0. Clarke, of 
Sokoe, in Asia Minor, giving an account of the discovery of 
five tetradrachms of Orophemes, King of Cuppadocia. This 
letter is appended to Mr. Newton's paper in the Num. Chron., 
N.S., vol. xi., p. 25. 

February 16, 1871. 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.B.S., President, in the Chair. 

James Ferguson, Esq., was elected a Member of the Society. 
The following presents were announced, and laid upon the 
table : — 

1. Discoveries made during Excavations at Canterbury in 
1868. By James Pilbrow, Esq., F.S.A. From the Author. 

2. Jetons muets des Beceveurs de Bruxelles. S°^^ Article, 
par M. B. Chalon. From the Author. 

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8. The Jonmal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great 
JBritain and Ireland, N.S., vol. v., Part L From the Society. 

4. The Jonmal of the London Institution, vol. i., Nos. 1 
and 2. From the Institution. 

Major Hay exhibited a specimen of Sycee silver boat-money 
and various other coins. 

Mr. Blades exhibited a fiive-franc piece of the French Be- 
public of 1870, also a cast of a medal of Sigismund Feierabend, 
a printer of Frankfurt, dated 1585. 

Mr. Frentzel exhibited specimens of the iron crosses given 
to the soldiers of the Prussian army in 1818 and 1870, the 
former of which bears the letters **F. W.," and in the centre 
of the cross three oak-leaves ; the latter has simply " W. 1870." 

The Rev. A. Pownall exhibited specimens of the new sove- 
reigns of 1871, the reverse of which is from Pistrucci's old die 
of 1821, the figure 2 having apparently been altered to a 7. 
Mr. Pownall also exhibited an impression of a forged coin of 
King John, purporting to have been struck at Durham: he 
thought that these forgeries were now being fabricated in con- 
siderable numbers, and sold to unwary collectors throughout 
the country. The coin in question was offered to Mr. Pownall 
by a Mr. Dormer, of Stretton-on-Dunsmore, near Rugby. 

Mr. A. H. Pechell exhibited two ancient British coins in 
gold, found on the foreshore of South Ferriby, near Barton-on- 
Humber. One of them is of the type Evans, XVI., 10, and 
weighs 67| grains ; it appears to be an ancient forgery plated 
with gold. The other is of an unpublished type, and is of 
interest as offering a sort of connecting link between the 
Norfolk and Yorkshire coins. The obverse is much like 
Evans, PL B. 2, and the reverse is of the same character as 
PI. XYII. 5, but has above it a long lozenge containing four 
pellets, below it, part of a tribrach with curved arms, and in 
front a wheel; the weight is 85 J grains. 

The Rev. Assheton Pownall read a paper ** On some Roman 
Coins of the Third Century, found at Lutterworth, in Leicester- 

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shire, in 18G9," in the course of which he stated his opinion, 
in the interest of numismatic and historical research, that the 
operation of the revived assertion of the Crown's right to 
treasure-trove did not work beneficially. 

Mr. Pownall's paper will be found in the Num. Chron., N.S., 
vol. xi., p. 169. 

March 1G, 1871. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Herbert A. Grueber, Esq., of the British Museum, was 
elected a Member of the Society. 

The following presents were announced, and laid upon the 
table : — 

1. History of India, by Sir H. Elliot^ vol. iii. From Lady 

2. Medals of Canada, Pt. I. Prince of Wales* Medals, by 
Alfred Sandham, Esq. From the Author. 

3. Eoman Remains found at Duston, Northamptonshire. By 
S. Sharp, Esq. From the Author. 

4. Journal of the London Institution, vol. i.. No. 8. From 
the Institution. 

Mr. Evans exhibited a gold coin-of the Emperor Postumus, 
found many years ago at Gillingham, Kent. On the reverse 
is VIC • GERM • p • M • TR ' p • V • COS * iH * p • p, with the 
device of Victory crowning the Emperor, both figures standing 
to the left. The type is rare, but has been published by M. de 
Witte, and in Cohen, Supplement, No. 82. He also exhibited 
another coin of the same Emperor, but of finer workmanship, 
and with the reverse of romae aeternae, Cohen, No. 152. 

Mr. C. R. Taylor exhibited a double penny of William I. or 
II., reading on the obverse pillelm rex, and on the reverse 

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lEOLPiNE ON PIN. The type is the same as Hawkins, PL xviii., 
No. 241. This cnrions and hitherto unknown piece is larger 
as well as thicker than the penny ; its weight is 89*5 grs. : it is 
in good condition, bat owing to the cross on the reverse being 
traceable on the obverse, the latter has a slightly blurred 
appearance. Moneyers of the name of ieglpine are given in 
Hawkinses account of the Beaworth Find to pennies of the 
"Pax" type of the Chester, Ipswich, Hereford, and Walling- 
ford mints, but to none of Winchester. 

Mr. Neck communicated a paper " On the Silver Coinage of 
Henry IV., V., VI. See Num. Chron., N.S., vol. xi., p. 93. 

Apbil 20, 1871. 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced and laid upon the 
table : — 

1. Journal of the London Institution, vol. i. Nos. IV. and 
V. From the Institution. 

2. Imitations des monnaies au type Esterlin frappees en 
Europe pendant le xiii°^ et le xiv™% siecle, par J. Chautard. 
From the Author. 

8. The Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Delhi. By 
Edward Thomas, Esq. From the Author. 

4. Der Grabfund von Wald-Algesheim, erlautert von Ernst 
Aus'm Werth. From the Society of the Alterthumsfireunden 
im Eheinlande. 

5. Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im 
Bheinlande. Heft xlix. From the Society. 

6. Bevue de la Numismatique Beige, 6™^ Serie, tome iii., 
2me livraison. From the Society. 

7. Catalogue de la Collection du feu Christian Jiirgensen 
Thomsen, 3™« partie, les Monnaies du Temps modeme. Tome i. 

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Mr. Evans exhibited a sceatta, bearing a Bnnic inscription, 
and formerly assigned to Ethilberht I., of Kent (Bading, PI. 
iii.), but probably of ^thelrsed I., King of Mercia, a.d. 675 — 
704 ; also twelve coins of William I. or IE. and Henry I., 
forming part of a hoard lately found in Bedfordshire. They 
are pennies of the types engraved in Hawkins's '< English 
Silver Coinage," Nos. 244, 246, 247, 250, and 252. 

Mr. Barclay V. Head read a paper, communicated by M. F. 
de Saulcy, " On the Coins bearing the Legends, ANTIOXEON 
reverse the figure of the Olympian Zeus." This paper is 
printed in the Num. Chron., N.S., vol. xi., p. 69. 

May 18, 1871. 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.B.S., President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced, and laid upon the 
table : — 

1. Journal of the Boyal Historical and ArchsBological Asso- 
ciation of Ireland, vol. i., 4th Series, No. 5. From the Society. 

2. Abhandlungen fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes. Band 
v.. No. 3. From the Society. 

8. Egypte Ancienne, 1*^ partie, Monnaies des Bois, par M. F. 
Feuardent. From the Author. 

4. Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de rOuest, xii^' 
Serie, 2"S 8°»e, et 4°»e trimestres de 1870. From the Society. 

5. No/i/cr/xara r^s Ni/erov ^Afiopyov kqI t<ov rpuav dvr^s iroAcov 
AiyiaXrj^f Mivcixxs, koI ApK€<rivrfi, 

6. Batty's Catalogue of the Copper Coinage of Great Britain, 
Ireland, and the British Isles and Colonies. Part YII. Half- 
penny tokens. From the Author. 

Mr. Golding exhibited a quarter noble of Edward III., 
struck after his twenty-seventh year, with a cross above the 
shield on the obverse ; also one of Edward IV., with a star and 
a rose on either side of the shield. 

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Mr. Evans read a paper, translated by himself from the 
Danish of Herr 0. J. Schive, giving an account of the weight 
of English and Northern coins in the tenth and eleventh cen- 
turies. This paper is published in the Num. Chron., N.S., 
vol. xi., p. 42. 

June 15, 1871. 


W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last Anniversary Meeting were read and 
confirmed. The Report of the Council was then read to the 
Meeting, as follows : — 

Gentlemen, — ^In accordance with the usual custom of this 
Society, the Council have the honour to lay before you their 
Annual Report as to the state of the Numismatic Society at 
this, another Anniversary Meeting. 

The Council have to announce the resignations of — 
Captain Charles Compton Abbott, i T. D. E. Gunston, Esq. 
James Edwin Cureton, Esq. I M. E. C. Phillips, Esq. 

On the other hand they have much pleasure in recording the 
election of the four following Members : — 

Herbert A. Grueber, Esq. 
R. H. Lang, Esq. 

Carlos Camerino, Esq. 
James Ferguson, Esq. 

According to our Secretary's Report, our numbers are there 

fore as follows : — 

Original. Elected. Honorary. Total. 

Members, June, 1870 . . 5 186 B8 ^ 179 

Since elected — 4 — 4 

5 140 88 188 

Deceased — — — 

Resigned — 4 — 4 

Erased — — — — 

5 136 38 179 

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The Council have much pleasure in doing this on the 
present occasion, although their Report must necessarily be 
of unusual brevity — ^as they have to record no changes 
whatever since pur meeting in June last year. They have the 
satisfaction of informing the Society that they have lost no 
one by death,^ and they are not able, therefore, to give 
additional length to their Report by any obituaries. They 
have, however, much satisfaction in informing the Society 
that another ten volumes of the Chronicle have been com- 
pleted — and that an index of subjects and authors has been 
prepared by the diligent care of your Secretary, Mr. Head. For 
this additional service the Council considers Mr. Head deserves 
the best thanks of the Society. 

The Council takes this opportunity of impressing upon the 
members of the Society in general the great necessity of 
sustaining the literary importance of the Chronicle. This, it will 
at once be seen, can only be done by the united efforts of all 
those members who are in any way qualified, by their 
acquaintance with special branches of the science, to con- 
tribute articles and to make known to the numismatic world 
the results which they have arrived at during their study of 
private and public collections. The best thanks of the Society 
are due to those gentlemen who have hitherto given up a con- 
siderable amount of their time to this object, especially to 
Major-Gen. Cunningham, who for some years past has favoured 
us with so large an amount of matter in his important series of 
articles on the coins of Alexander's successors in the East. 

1 Since this was written we have had the misfortune to lose 
by death the three following members: — Henry Frederic 
Holt, Esq., J. F. W. de Salis, Esq., and Edward Wigan, 
Esq. ; and, by resignation, the four following: — Sutton Eraser 
Corkran, Esq., H. W. Rolfe, Esq., Captain Stufebs, Captain 
F. C. P. Turner. 

Memoirs of our deceased members will be given in the next 
Annual Report. 

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These articles, owing to the General's departure for India, 
have necessarily come to an end ; and had it not been for the 
temporary cessation of the publication of the Revue Fran9aise, 
daring the war between France and Germany, and to the fact 
that the celebrated numismatist, M. de Saulcy, has been kind 
enough to furnish us with more than one essay of considerable 
length, which he would otherwise have published in France, 
the editors would not have known where to turn for matter to 
fill the four quarterly parts of this year's Chronicle. Now this 
is not as it should be. When we look across the Channel to the 
societies of France, Belgium, and Germany, which are labour- 
ing in the same field as ourselves, we see at a glance that for 
one contributor to our Review, each of these flourishing 
societies has at least a dozen, and that we are distanced both 
in the number of our articles and in the importance of the 

The Council looks forward with no small anxiety to the year 
upon which we are now about to enter. The editors are sadly 
in want of contributions to fill the accustomed number of pages 
in each part, and should these fail, the Society must not be 
surprised if there is a corresponding falling off in the bulk of 
the Chronicle. They cannot make bricks without straw. The 
Society is financially in a more flourishing condition than it 
has been at any previous time. This would naturally lead us 
to infer that there are more who take an interest in the 
furtherance of the science of numismatics. The facts, however, 
do not bear out the inference: articles are not forthcoming. 
The Council, therefore, earnestly entreats all those who have 
the welfare of the Chronicle and the very existence of the 
Society at heart, to do their utmost both to contribute papers 
themselves, and to induce their friends and fellow-members to 
do the same. 
The Report of our Treasurer is as follows : — 

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The CouncU, feeling that the operations of the law of 
Treasure-Trove tends to the dispersion or absolute destruction of 
hoards of coins, and thus to annihilate their scientific value, has 
presented a memorial to the Treasury to the following effect : — 

To THE LoBDs Commissioners of Heb Majesty's 

The Memorial of the President and Council of the Numismatic 
Society of London, 

1. That the Law of Treasure-Trove, which vests either in 
the Crown, or in some instances in the lord of the manor, the 
property in coins and antiquities formed of the precious metals, 
and found beneath the soil or otherwise concealed, tends to 
the destruction of numerous objects of antiquity and to the 
concealment of the circumstances of their discovery, which are 
frequently of great scientific value. 

2. That it also tends to the discouragement of the study of 
antiquities by private individuals; while many objects not 
legally treasure-trove are often supposed to be, and are even 
claimed as such. 

8. That practically it is undesirable to have one law for 
objects found a few inches below the surface of the soil, and 
another for those found upon it^ which latter, when no owner 
who has lost them is forthcoming, belong to the finder. 

4. That the practice of the Treasury in giving to the finder 
the intrinsic value of the objects found, virtually concedes the 
principle of their being his property, but, at the same time, 
does not prevent the constant concealment and destruction of 
coins and other antiquities; for the mere fact of a claim to them 
being advanced, accompanied though this may be by the 
promise of payment for them of an unknown sum at a period 
always indefinite and often remote, suffices in many cases to 
deter finders from openly producing the results of their dis- 
coveries, and diives them to dispose of such relics clandestinely. 

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5. That your Memorialists believe that were it once con- 
ceded that all objects^ the loss of which no owner could prove, 
were at once vested indisputably in the finder (except where 
express stipulations to the contrary had been made between 
employers and employed), the temptation to the concealment 
or destruction of antiquities would be removed. 

6. That they farther believe that with such a system, and 
with efBicient local agencies, the national collections of anti- 
quities would be much enriched, and great accessions gained 
for archaeological science. 

7. They therefore pray that the Lords Commissioners of 
her Majesty*s Treasury will take such steps with regard to the 
claims of the Crown, and, if practicable, with those of the other 
claimants to treasure-trove, as may remove all temptation to 
concealment, and tend to the preservation and scientific exami- 
nation of such antiquities as may hereafker be discovered. 

To this Memorial they have received the following reply : — 

" Treasury Chambers, 
"19thifay, 1871. 

<< The Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury 
have had before them the Memorial of the Numismatic Society 
of London, which you forwarded on the 8rd inst. ; and I am 
directed to state that my Lords are not prepared to introduce 
any change in the law of Treasure-Trove, nor in their own 
practice under it; but that they will endeavour through the 
agency of the police or otherwise to give greater publicity to 
the rules which they have laid down about paying the full 
bullion value of antiquities coming under the description of 
Treasure-Trove to the finders. 

** I am, Sir, 

** Your obedient servant, 

« W. S. Vaux, Esq., 
"13, Gate Street, 

" Lincoln's Inn Fields." 

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The Meeting then proceeded to ballot for the officers of the 
ensuing year, when the following gentlemen were elected : — 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., M.A., F.B.S., F.8.A., F.E.A.8. 

Vice - PretidenU. 
J. B. Bebgke, Esq., F.S.A. 
Bt. Hon. the Earl of Ekitiskillek, Hon. D.C.L., 
F.B.8., F.G.8. 

J. F. Neck, Esq. 

John Evans, Esq., F.B.S., F.8.A., F.G.S. 
Baj&clat Vincent Head, Esq. 

Foreign Secretary. 
Zoss ToNQE Aeerman, Esq., F.S.A. 

W. Blades, Esq. 

Members of the Council. 

Thomas James Abnold, Esq., F.8.A. 

8. BiKCH, Esq., LL.D., F.8.A. 

Jchn Davidson, Esq. 

Majob Hay^ H.E.I.C.S. 

Thomas Jones, Esq., M.B.S.L. 

Captain B. M. Mubohison. 

B. Stuabt Poole, Esq. 

Bev. Assheton Pownall, M.A., F.S.A. 

J. S. Smallfield, Esq. 

J. WnjJAMS, Esq., F.S.A. 

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W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., P.8.A., F.R.A.8. 


S. BiBOH, Esq., LL.D., P.S.A. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl of Enniskillbn. Hon. D.O.L., 
F.R.S., P.G.S. 


J. F. Neok, Esq. 

John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Babolat Vincent Head, Esq. 

Jfflwip ^trntarj. 

John Yonge Akbrman, Esq., F.S.A. 


Sutton Fbasbb Cobkran, Esq. 

Pmto 0f Hit dfljffmial. 

Thomas James Abnold, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. B. Bebgnb, Esq., F.S.A. 

Majob-Gbneral a. Cunningham. 

John Davidson, Esq. 

Major Hay, H.E.I.O.S. 

Thomas Jones, Esq., M.R.S.L. . 

Fbbdebio W. Madden, Esq. 

Captain R. M. Mubchison. 

Rev. J. H. Pollexfen, M.A. 

S. Shabp, Esq., P.S.A., F.G.S. 

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Suimsmatit Sfftwig d f oniron. 

Thk Council of the Numismatic Society are desirous of calling 
the attention of all persons who are interested in Numismatic 
pursuits, to the advantages afforded by this Society, which was 
instituted to give effect and purpose to this important line of 
Archaeological research. 

Collectors of coins are comparatively few in number, and 
are, for the most part, scattered about the country; their 
favourite pursuit or study, consequently, too often wants the 
definite character which belongs to efforts more combined ; a 
defect which it is the object of the Numismatic Society to 
supply by periodical meetings in London and by the publication 
of the Numismatic Chronicle. The Society meets monthly 
from October to June ; and its Members, in addition to the 
privilege of attending these meetings, are entitled at all times 
to the use of its valuable collection of books, besides receiving 
gratuitously the Numismatic Chronicle. This illustrated 
periodical is issued quarterly by the Society, and contains 
records of the discovery of coins, descriptions of new and scarce 
types, elucidations of obscure legends, and papers on Numismatic 
subjects generally; The New Series of the Chronicle was 
commenced March 31st, 1861, and has comprised 'articles on 
Greek, Roman, Alexandrian, Jewish, Oriental, British, Saxon, 
English, and other coins, with notices of such medals and tokens 
as are of rarity and interest. 

Each Number contains, on an average, sixty-four Pages and 
thrfee Plates, and is sold to non-members at the price of Five 

The Annual Subscription to the Society is One Guinea, with 
an Entrance Fee of One Guinea. Post-office Orders payable 
at Lombard Street, to J. F. Neck, Esq. 

Ladies and gentlemen desirous of becoming Members of the 
Society, are requested to communicate their names to one of tlie 

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